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HARVARD    UNIVERSITY. 


1. 1  B  K  A  R  Y 


OF    THE 


MUSEUM   OF  COMPARATIVE  ZOOLOGY. 


\,  \\^\  -    \aa^  ^  ,  1^0^ 


TRANSACTIONS  OF  THE 
CONNECTICUT  ACADEMY  OF  ARTS  AND  SCIENCES 


Incoui'OK'ai  ED  A.  D.   1799 


VOLUME  XIII 


J  907- 1 908 


Publications  of  Yale  University 


NEW    HAVEN,    CONNECTICUT 
1908 

THE    TUTTLE,    MOREHOUSE    &    TAYLOR    PRESS 


Copyright  1908. 
Connecticut  Academy  of  Akts  and  Sciences. 


OFFICERS  FOR  1907-08. 


President. 

Hon.  SIMEON  E.  BALDWIN. 

Vice-Presidents. 

Prof.  ALEXANDER  W.  EVANS.  Prof.  CLIVE  DAY, 

Prof.    HANS  OERTEL. 

Secretary. 

Dr.  GEORGE  F.  EATON. 

Treasurer. 

Mr.  THOMAS  LEE  McCLUNG. 

Ijibrarian. 

Prof.  JOHN  CHRISTOPHER  SCHWAB. 

Cotnniittee  on  Publication. 
Hon.  S.  E.  BALDWIN,  Chairman,  Prof.  A.  W.  EVANS, 

Prof.  E.  S.  DANA,  Prof.  CLIVE  DAY, 

Prof.  H.  OERTEL,  Prof.  J.  C.  SCHWAB, 

Prof.  A.  S.  COOK. 


OONTElSrTS. 


PAGE 


Additions  to  the  Library,  Jan.  1,  1907  to  April  1,  1908     vii 

Art.   I. — The  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance.     By  Irving 

Fisher 1 

Art.  II. — Relations  Between  Bermuda  and  the  Ameri- 
can Colonies  During  the  Revolutionary  War.  By 
Addison  E.   Verrill 47 

Art  III. — Maturation  of  the  Egg  of  the  White  Mouse. 

By  William  B.    Kirkham 65 

Art.   IV. — Poesies    de    "  Maistre    Eloy    du  Mont,    Dict 

Costentin."     By  David  H.   Carnahan 89 

Art.     V. — The    State     Works     of    Pennsylvania.       By 

AvARD  L.    Bishop 149 

Art.     VI. — Decapod    Crustacea    of    Bermuda  ;    I — Bra- 

CHYURA      AND     AnOMURA  :      ThEIR     DISTRIBUTION,     VARI- 
ATIONS,  AND  Habits.     By  Addison  E.    Verrill 299 

Art.    VII. — Studies    in    Cervantes.      Persiles    y    Sigis- 

munda  III.     By  Rudolph  Schevill 475 


ADDITIO]^S   TO   THE   LIBEAEY 


OF    THE 


Connecticut  Academy  of  Arts  and  Sciences, 

By  Gift  and  Exchange  from  Jan.  1,  1907,  to  Apr.  1,  1908. 


American  Academy  of  Arts  and  Sciences. 

Proceedings.     Vol.   XLII.    14-XLIII.   14.     1907-1908. 
American  Antiquarian  Society. 

Proceedings.     New  Ser.     Vol.  XVIII.   1-3.      1906-1907. 
American  Astronomer. 

I.   1-2.     1907. 
American  Entomological  Society. 

Transactions.     Vol.  XXXI.  1-4.     1905. 
American  Geographical  Society. 

Bulletin.     Vol.  XXXIX.  1-XL.  2.     1907-1908. 
American  Museum  of  Natural  History  (New  York). 

Bulletin.     Vol.  XXII.  22-30 ;    XXIII.  1-36  ;    XXIV.   1-2.      1907-1908. 
Amherst  College. 

Catalogue.     1906-1907 ;    1007-1908. 
Amsterdam. — Kon.  Akademie  van  Wetenschappen. 

Jaarboek.     1906. 

Proceedings.     Section  of  sciences.     Vol.  IX.  1-2.     1907. 

Verliandelingen.     Afdeel.     Natuurkunde.     Sectie   I,   Deel   IX.   4 ;     Sectie 
II,  Deel  XIII.  1-3.     1907. 

Verslagen  van  de  gewone  vergaderingen  van  de  wis-  en  natuurkundige 
afdeeling.     Deel  XV.  1-2.     1907. 
Annalen  der  Hydrographie  und  Maritimen  Meteor ologie:  Zeitschrift  filr  Seefahrt 
und  Meereskunde. 

Bd.  XXIX-XXXVI.  3.     1901-1908. 
Augsburg. — Naturwissenschaftlicher  Verein  filr  Schwahen  und  Neuiurg. 

Bericht.     XXXVII.     1906. 
Basel. — Naturforschende  Oesellschaft. 

Verhandlungen.     Bd.  XIX.  1-2.     1907. 
Batavia. — Kon.  Nattiurkundige  Vereeniging  in  NederlandscJi-Indie. 

Natuurkundige  tijdsschrift,  Deel  LXVI.     1907. 
R.  Magnetical  and  Meteorological  Observatory. 

Observations.     Vol.  XXVIII  and  Appendices  II-III.     1905. 

Regenswaarnemingen    in    Nederlandsch-Indie.      Jaarg.    XXVII-XXVIII. 
1905-1906. 
Bergen. — Museum. 

Aarbog.     1906,  I-III ;    1907,  I. 

Aarsberetning.     1906. 

Account  of  the  Crustacea  of  Norway.     By  G.   O.    Sars.     Vol.   V.   13-16. 
1906. 

Meeresfauna.von  Bergen,  Appellof.     H.  2-3. 


viii  Additions  to  the  Library. 

Berlin. — Kon.  Museum  fiir  'Saturkunde. 
Bericht.     1906. 

Mittelhingcn  aus  der  zoologischen   Sammlung.     Bd.   III.   3.     1907. 
Bernice  Pauahi  Bishop  Museum  of  Polynesian  Ethnology  and   Natural  History, 
Honolnln,   S.  I. 

Occasional  Papers.     Vol.  II.  5  ;    III.  1.     1906-1907. 
Bolivia. — Ministeno  de  Colonizaci6n  y  Agriculturn. 
Revista.     Ano  III.     Tomo  III.  23.     1907. 
Bologna. — R.  Accademia  dclle  Scienze  dell'Istituto  di  Bologna. 

Meraorie.     Classo    di    Scionze    Morali.     Sezione    di    Sclonzo    Ciuridicho 
Ser.  I.  Tomo  I.  Fasc.  I.     1906-1907. 

Sezione  di  Scienze  Storico-Pilologiche. 

Ser.   I.   Tomo  I.   Fasc.   I.     1906-1907. 
Rendiconto.     N.   S.     Vol.  IX-X.     1904-1906. 

Classe  di  Scienze  Morali.     Ser.  I.  Tomo  I.  Fasc.  I.      1908. 
Bombay. — Bombay  Branch  o/  the  Jioyal  Asiatic  Society. 

Journal.     No.  LXI-LXII.     1906-1907. 
Bonn. — Naturhistorischer   Verein    der   preussischen   Rheinlandi .    Wrstfalcns    und 
des  Regierungs-Bezirks  Osnahriick. 

Sitzimgsberichte  der  niederrheinischen  Gesellschaft  fiir  Xniur-  nnd  Ilcil- 

kunde.      1905.  2-1907.  1. 
Verhandlungen.     LXII.  2-LXIV.  1.     1905-1907. 
Bordeaux. — Commission  M6teorologique  de  la  Oironde. 

Observations    pluviometriques   et    thermometriques.     .Jnin.    I'.tO.j    a    niai. 
1906. 
Socictv  des  Sciences  Physiques  et  Natnrelles. 
Cinqiiantenaire.     Jan.  15-16,  1906. 
Procfes-verbaux.     Annee.     1905-1906. 
Boston. — Museum  of  Fine  Arts. 

Annual  report.     31st-32d.     1906-1907. 
Bulletin.     No.  24-31.     Feb.  1907-Feb.   1908. 
Society  of  Natural  History. 

Proceedings.     Vol.  XXXIII.  4-XXXIV.  1.     1907. 
Bremen. — Meteorologisches  Ohservatorium. 

Deutsches  meteorologisches  Jahrbuch.     Jahrg.  XVII.      1906. 
Naturwissenschaftlicher  Verein. 

Abhandlungen.     Bd.  XIX.  1.      1907. 
Breslau. — Schlesische  Gesellschaft  fiir  vatcrldndische  Cultur. 

.Tahres-Bericht.     LXXXIV  and  Ergilnzungsheft.     1900. 
Brooklyn. — Museum  of  the  Brooklyn  Institute  of  Arts  and  Sciences. 

Science  bulletin.     Vol.  I.   10-13.     1907-1908. 
BRtJNN. — Naturforschcnder  Verein. 

Bericht  der  meteorologischen  Commission.     XXIV.     1906. 
Verhandlungen.     Vol.  XLIV.     1905. 
Bruxelles. — Acadimie  Royale  des   Sciences,   des   Lcttrrs   et   des   Beaux-Arts   de 
Bclgique. 

Bulletins.     Classe  des  sciences.     1906.  5-1907.  8. 
Annuaire.     LXIII.     1907. 

M6moires  de  la  classe   des  sciences.     2e   Ser.   Tome   I.    Fasc.    III-VIII  ; 
Tomo  II.  Fasc.  I-II. 
MusCe  Royal  d'Histoire  Naturclle  de  Bvl</iiiii<\ 

MCmoires.     Tome  III.     1906. 
Observatoire  Royale  de  Belgique. 

Annales  Astronomiques.     T.  IX.  2-3,   1906-1907:    T.  XI.   1,   1907. 

Annales  :    Bulletin  climatologique  de  Tannoe   1899.   1-2. 

Annales.      Nouv.   ser.,    Annales   meteorolo.uiquos.      T.    V-XI,    XIII-XIV. 

1901-1904. 
Annales :    Observations   nifitfiorologiqups   faites  il   Ucclo   pendant   Fannc^e 
1900,  1901. 


Additions  to  the  Library.  ix 

Bruxelles. — Observatoire  Royule  de  Belyique. 

Annales  :    Physique  du  globe.     Nouv.  s6r.,  T.  III.  2-3.     1907. 

Annuaire  astronomiqiie  pour  1907,  1908. 

Annuaire  meteorologique  pour  1901-1906. 
Soci6t6  Entomologuiue  dc  Belgiqnc. 

Annales.     Tome  L.     1907. 
Soci6t6  Royale  de  Botanique. 

Bulletin.     Vol.   XLII.   .'', ;    XLIII.   1-3.     1904-1906. 
BUCAREST. — lustitut  mctcoroloc/ique  de  Roumanie. 

Annales.     Tome  XVIII.     1902. 
Socicte  dcs  Sciences. 

Bulletin.     Vol.  XV.  5-6;    XVI.  3-6.     1906-1907. 
Budapest. — Koniglich     Ungarische    Jieichsanstalt    filr    Meteorologie    und    Erd- 
magnetismus. 

Bericlit.     1905. 

Jahrbiicher.     Jahrg.  XXXIII.   4-XXXIV.   3;    XXXV.   1-4.     1903-1905. 

Bibliothek,   Verzeicbniss  erworbener  Biicher.     1905    (4). 
Bdenos  Aires. — Museo  Nacional. 

Anales.     Ser.   3.     Vol.  VI-VIII.     1907-1908. 
Sociedad  Cientifica  Argentina. 

Anales.     LXII.   2-LXIV.  3.     1906-1907. 
Buffalo. — Society  of  Natural  Sciences. 

Bulletin.     Vol.  VIII.  4-6. 
Caen. — Societe  Linneenne  de  Normandie. 

Bulletin.     5e   ser.     Vol.   IX.     1905. 
Calcutta. — Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal. 

Journal  and  proceedings.     Vol.   II.  4-10;    III.   1-4.     1906-1907. 

Memoirs,  Vol.  I.  10-19  ;    II.  1-4.     1907. 
California  Academy  of  Sciences 

Proceedings.     Vol.  I,  pp.  1-6,  4th  ser. 
Cambridge  (England). — Philosophical  Society. 

List  of  Fellows,   etc.     August,   1907. 

Proceedings.     Vol.  XIV.   1-4.     1907. 

Transactions.     Vol.  XX.  11,  13-16.     1907. 
Canada. — Geological  Survey. 

Preliminary    report    on    Rossland,    B.    C,    mining    district.     By    Brocls. 
1906. 

Report  on  Chibougamau  mining  region.     By  Low.     1905. 

Annual  report  of  the  section  of  mines.     1904-1905. 

Geological  map  of  the  Dominion  of  Canada.     Sheets  Nos.  59-65  ;  74-76 ; 
82-83. 

Summary  report  of  the  department  of  mines.     1905—1907. 
Catania.- — Accademia  Oioenia  di  Science  Naturali. 

Atti.   Ser.   IV.     Vol.  XIX.     1907. 

Bolletino  delle   Sedute.     Nuova  serie.     Fasc.   92.      1907. 
Societd  degli  Spettroscopisti  Italiani. 

Memoire.     Vol.  XXXIV.  7  ;    XXXV.  6. 
Cellule   (La).     Vol.  XXII.  1-2;    XXIII.   1-2;    XXIV.  1-2.'     1905-1907. 
Cherbourg.- — Societe  Nationale  des  Sciences  Naturelles. 

Memoires.     Tome  XXXV.     1907. 
Chicago. — Field  Museum  of  Natural  History. 

Publications.     115,   117-126.     1907-1908. 
Christiania. — Videnskabs  Selskabet. 

Forhandlinger.     1906. 
Chur. — Naturforschende  Gesellschaft  OrauMindens. 

Jahresbericht.     Neue  Folge.     Bd.   XLVIII-XLIX.     1905-1907. 
Cincinnati. — Museum  Association. 

Annual  exhibition.     Vol.   XIV.     1907. 

Annual  report.     Vol.  XXVI.     1906. 


X  Additions  to  the  Library. 

Cincinnati. — University. 

Teachers'  bulletin.     Vol.  III.  5,   S.     ser.  3.     1907. 

Record.     Ser.  1.     Vol.  HI.  2-0;    IV.  1-4.     1906-190S. 

University  Studies.     Ser.   2.     Vol.   II.  3-4;    III.   1.     1906-1907. 
Colorado  College. 

Publications.     General  series.     No.  24,  26,  29-33. 
Scicniific  Society. 

Proceedings.     Vol.   11.   1-3;    III.   1-3;    IV-VI ;    VII,    pp.  53-VIII,   pp. 
422  ;    IX,  pp.  5-20. 
Colorado,  University  of. 

Studies.     Vol.  IV-V.  1. 
Copenhagen. — L'Acad6mie  Royale  des  Sciences  et  des  Lettres  de  Danemark. 

Bulletin    (Oversigt).     1906,  no.  4-6;    1907,  1-4. 
Naturhistoriske  Forening. 

Videnskabelige  Meddelelser.     1906. 
Ckacow. — Akademija  Umiejetnoaci. 

Komisya    fizy.jograficzna.      JIateryay    zobrane    przoz.      Sekcye    meteoro- 
logiczna  w  roku  1905.      (Spraw.  Kom.  fizyogr.     T.  40.     Czesc  I.) 
K.  K.  Stcrnirarte. 

Meteorologische  Beobachtungen,  Oct..  1906,  bis  Feb..  1907. 

Resultate  der  meteorologischen  Beobachtungen.     1907. 
Danzig. — Naturforschcnde  Gesellschajt. 

Schriften.     Neue  Folge.     Bd.  XII.  1.     1908. 
Davenport,  Ia. — Academy  of  Sciences. 

Proceedings.     Vol.  X-XII,   p.  94.     1906-1907. 
Denison  University. 

Bulletin  of  the  Scientific  Laboratories.     Vol.   XIII.   4-6.     1907. 
Dijon. — Acad6mie  des  Sciences,  Arts  ct  Belles  Lettres. 

Memoires.     S6r.  IV.     Tome  X.     190.5-1906. 
DOEPAT. — ^atnrforseher-Gesellschaft  ici  der  Universitat  Dorpat. 

Schriften.     Bd.  XVII.     1907. 

Sitzungsberichte.     Bd.  XIV.  2  ;    XV.  1-4  ;    XVI.  1-2.     1905-1907. 

Verzeichnis    der    Editionen.      General-Namenregister    zu    den    Bilnden. 
III-XIV.     1869-1905. 
Universitat.     Institut  Zootomique. 

Bulletin  biologique.     No.  1.     1907. 
Dresden. — ^atuncis.'icnschaftlichc  Gesellschaft  Isis. 

Sitzungsberichte  und  Abhandlungen.     Juli,  1906,  bis  Juni,  1907. 
Yercin  filr  Erdkunde. 

Mitteilungen.     Heft  6.     190T. 
Dublin. — Royal  Dublin  Society. 

Economic  proceedings. 

Scientific  proceedings. 

Scientific  transactions. 
Edinburgh. — Oeoloyical  Society. 

Transactions.     Vol.  IX,  part  1.     1907. 
Royal  Observatory. 

Annals.     Vol.  II.     1906. 
Royal  Physical  Society. 

Proceedings.     Vol.  XVI.   7 ;    XVII.  2-3.     1907. 
Royal  Society. 

Proceedings.     Vol.  XXVI.  6;    XXVII.  1-5;    XXVIII.  1-2.     1906-1907. 
Eliaha  Mitchell  Scientific  Society. 

Journal.     Vol.   XXII.   3  ;    XXIII.    1-3.     1906-1907. 
Emden. — Naturforschtnde  Gesellschaft. 

Jahresbericht.     XC.     1904-1905. 
Erfcrt. — Kon.  Akademie  gemeinniltziger  Wissenschaften. 

Jahrbiichor.     Neue    Folge.     Heft   XXXII-XXXIII.     1906-1907. 
Florence,  Italy. ^ — liihliotrca  ]<axionnh'  Ccnirale. 

Bolletlno  delle  Pubblicazioni  Italiane,   73-87,  Jan.,   1907-Mch.,   1908. 


Vol.   I.  9-11.     1907. 

Mew  ser.     Vol.  V.  7  ; 

XI.  13-19. 

190: 

Ser.   II.     Vol.   V.   6  ; 

IX.    4-6. 

1907. 

Additions  to  the  Library.  xi 


Fkankfdrt  a.  M. — Deutsche  Malakozoologische  Gesellschaft. 

Nachrlchtsblatt.     Jahrg.  XXXIX-XL.   1.     1907-1908. 
Scnckenbergische  Naturforschende  Gcsellschaft. 

Abhandlungen.     Bd.   XXIX.   2;    XXX.   3.     1907-1908.      • 
Bericht.     1906,   1907. 
Franklin  Institute. 

Journal.     Vol.  CLIX-CLXV.  3.     1905-1908. 
Freiburg  i.  B. — T^'aiurforschende  Gesellschajt. 

Berichtc.     Bd.  XV.  1907. 
Geneva. — Society  de  Physique  et  d'Histoire  Naturelle. 

Memoires.     Tome  XXXV.  3.      1907. 
Genoa. — Museo  Givico  di  Storia  Naturale. 

Annali.     Ser.   3.     Vol.   II.     1905-1906. 
Germany. — Kais.     Leopoldinisch-CaroUniscJie     deutsche     Akademie     der     Natur- 
for  seller.      (Halle  a.  S.). 

Leopoldina.     Heft  XLII.     1906. 
GiESSEN. — Oberhessische  Gesellschaft  fUr  Natur-   iind  Heilkunde. 

Bericht.     Neue  Folge.     Medizinische  Abteilung.     Bd.   II.     1907. 
Naturwissenschaftliche  Abteilung.     Bd.   I.     1904-1906. 
Glasgow. — Natural  History  Society. 

Transactions.     New  ser.     Vol.   VII.   3.     1904-1905. 
Royal  Philosophical  Society. 

Proceedings.     Vol.  XXXVII.     1905-1906. 
GOrlitz. — Naturforschende  Gesellschaft. 

Abhandlungen.     Bd.  XXV.  2.     1907. 
GoTEBORG. — Kon.  Vetenskaps  och  Vittcrhets  Samhdllc. 
Handlingar.     4de  fol.i.     Hiift.  VII-IX.     1906. 
GOttingen. — Kon.  Gesellschaft  der  Wissenschaften. 

Nachrichten.     Geschaftliche   Mittheilungen.     1906,    2 ;     1907,    1-2. 

Philosophisch-historische  Klasse.     1906,  3-4  und  Beiheft ; 
1907,   1-3  und  Beiheft. 
Halifax. — Nova  Scotian  Institute  of  Natural  Science. 

Proceedings  and  transactions.     Vol.  XI.  2.     1903-1904. 
Department  of  Mines,  Nova  Scotia. 
Report.     1906. 
Halle  a.  S. — Naturforschende  Gesellschaft. 

Abhandlungen.     Bd.  XXXV.     1903-1906. 
Hamburg. — Deutsche  Seewarte. 

Aus  dem  Archiv.  Jahrg.  XXIX.  2  :    XXX.   1-2.     1906-1907. 
Deutsches  meteorologisches  Jahrbuch.     Jahrg.   XXVIII.     1905. 
Katalog  der  Bibliothek.     Nachtrag.     Bd.  VII.     1905-1906. 
Naturivissenschaftlicher  Verein. 

Abhandlungen.     Bd.  XIX.  1-2.     1907. 
Verhandlungen.     3te   Folge.     XIV.     1907. 
Harlem. — Musee  Teyler. 

Archives.     Ser.  II.     Vol.  X.  3-4  ;    XI.  1.     1907. 
Societe  Hollandaise  des  Sciences. 

Archives  n^erlandaises.     Ser.  II.     Tome  XII.  1-5  ;    XIII.  1-2.     1907. 
Harvard  College. — Astronomical  Ohservatory. 
Annual  report.     1906-1907. 
Annals.     Vol.  XLVII.  1  ;    XLIX.  1  ;    LII.  1  ;    LV.  1  ;    LVII.  1  ;    LIX.  1 ; 

LX.  3-8 ;    LXII.   1.     1907. 
Circulars.     No.  119-135. 
Museum  of  Comparative  Zoology. 

Annual  report.      1905-06  ;    1906-07. 
Memoirs.     XXXIV.  1  ;    XXXV.  1-2.     1907. 

Bulletin.     Vol.    XLIII.    5 ;     XLVIII.    4  ;     L.    6-9 ;     LI.    1,    4-10.     1907- 
1908. 


xii  Additions  to  the  Jyihrary. 

IlARVAKP  College. — Museum  o]  Comparative  Zoology. 

lUiIIotin.     Geological   sor.     Vol.   VIII.   5-6.     1908. 
Havana. — Real  Colcgio  de  Helen. 

Obsorvaciones  metoorologicas  y  magneticas.     1906. 
HEL.siNGFon.s. — Socictd.t  Scieiilianim  Fcnnica. 

Observations    publios    par    I'lnstitut    M6t(5orologique    Central.     1895-96 
(hiver). 

Acta.     Tome  XXXII.     1906. 

Bidrag  till  kiinnedom  af  Finlands  natur  och  folk.     Hilft.  63.     1905. 

Oefversigt  af  fiirhandlingar.     XLVII.     1904-1905. 
Socictas  pro  Fauna  ct  Flora.  Fcnnica. 

Acta.     Vol.  XXVII-XXVIII.     1005-1906. 

Moddclanden.     Vol.   XXXI-XXXII.     1904-1906. 
IlEiiJiANNSTADT. — Siebenl)urgischer  Terein  fur  Naturwissenschaften. 

Verhandlungen  und  MitthPllungen.     Bd.   LV-LVI.     1905-1906. 
Illinois. — State  Lahoraiory  of  'Natural  TJistory. 

Bulletin.     Vol.  VII.   6-9.     1906-1907. 
India. — Imperial  Department  of  Agriculture. 

Memoirs.     Botanical  series.     Vol.  I,  No.   1,  Part  II ;    I.  6 ;    II.   1-2,  4 
1907. 

Memoirs.     Chemical  series.     Vol.  I.   2-5.     1907. 

Memoirs.      Entomological  series.      Vol.   I.   2-5.      1907. 

Agricultural   Ilesearcli  Institute    (Pusa).     Bulletin.     No.   4.     1906. 
Oeoloyical  Survey  of  India. 

Memoirs.     Series  XV.     Vol.  V.  1-2.     1907. 

Records.      Vol.  XXXIV.   3-XXXVI.  2.      1906-1907. 

Palaeontologia  Indica.     New  ser.     Vol.  II.  3.     1906. 
Meteorological  Department  of  the  Government  of  India. 

Indian  meteorological   memoirs.     Vol.  XVIII.   1.  3.     1907-1908. 

Monthly  weather  review.     May,  1906,  to  Jan.,  1907. 

India  weather  review.     Annual  summary.     1905. 

Rainfall   of  India.     1905. 

Report  on  administration.     1906-07. 
Board  of  Scientific  Advice. 

Annual   report.     1905-06. 
Indiana. — Academy  of  Science. 

Proceedings.     1894-1896 ;    1904-1906. 
Ingegneria  Ferroviaria  (Rome).     Vol.  IV.  18.     1907. 
Iowa. — .4cademy  of  Sciences. 

Proceedings.     Vol.    VIII  :     XIII.     1906. 
Geological  Surrey. 

Annual  report.     Vol.  XVI.     1905. 
Irkutsk. — Ol).<ierva1oirc  Physique  Central  Nicolas. 

Annales.     Supplement.     1903. 
Italy. — lieale  Comitato  Geologico  d'ltalin. 

Bullptino.      Vol.  XXXVII.  3-4.      1907. 
Jenafsche  Zcitschrtft  fiir  Naturv:i.<isenschaft. 

Vol.    XXXV.    1-3  ;    XXXVI.   1-2.      1907. 
John  Crerar  Library. 

Annu.Tl  report.      1900. 

Handbook.      1907. 
Johns  Iloplcins  University. 

Circular.     1906,   10  ;    1907,   1-9  ;    1908,   1. 
Journal  of  Comparative  Neurology  and  Pspchology. 

Vol.  XVII.  1-4.     1907. 
Kan.sas. — Academy  of  Science. 

Transactions.     Vol.  I-III  ;    XVIU-XX.  2 ;    XXI.   1.     1907. 
Unirvrsity  of  Kan-sas. 

Bulletin.     Vol.  VII.  5:    VIII.  3.     1907. 


Additions  to  the  Library.  xiii 

Kasan. — Socicte  Physico-niathematUjuc  dc  I'Univcrsite  ImpSriale. 

Bulletin.      Ser.   II.     Tome  XV.   2-3.     1905-1906. 
Kiel. — Natunvissenschaftlichcr  Vereln  filr  Schleswig-Holstein. 
Schriften.     Bd.   XIII.   2.     1907. 
Ron.  Christian  Alhrechts-Univerntdt. 
Chronik.     1905-06. 
Vei-zeichnis   der   Vorlesungon.     1905-06,    Winter   Semester ;     1906.    Som- 

mer  Semester. 
109  dissertations.      1905-1906. 
Kiev. — Socivte  dcs  Naturalistes. 

Memoiros.     Tome  XX.  2.     1907. 
KodaikAxal  — Observatory. 

Bulletin.      No.  7-11.      1907. 
Annial  Report.     1906. 
Kyoto. — Collrge  of  Science  and  Erir/inecriny,  Imperial  Universitij. 

Memoirs.     Vol.   I.  3.     1906-1907. 
La  Plata. — Arehovos  de  Pedagogia  y  Cicncias  Afines. 
No.  4-9.     1907-1908. 
Museo. 

Anales.      Seccion  botanica.     Tome  I   (1902). 

Seccion  paleontologica.     Tome  V    (1903). 
Revista.     Tome  XI    (1904). 
Lausannk. — Societe  Vaudoise  des  Sciences  Naturelles. 

Bulletin.     5e   scr.     Vol.   XLII.     no.   156-XLIII.   160.     1906-1907. 
Leiden. — Nederlandsche  Dierkundigc  Tereeniging. 

Catalogus  der  bibliotheek,  5de  uitgave.     1907. 
Tijdscbrift.      Ser.  II.     Deel  X.  3.     1907. 
Sternwarte. 

Annalen.     Bd.  IX.  1.     1907. 
Verslag.     1904-1906. 
LEirziG. — Kcin.  Sdchsische  Gesellschaft  der  M'issenschaften. 

Berichte.     Mathematisch-pbysische  Klasse.     Bd.   LVIII.  3,  5-8  ;    LXIX. 
1-3.     1906-1907. 
Fiirstl.  JahlonowsM'sche  Gesellschaft. 

.Tahresbericht.     1907. 
Naturforscliende  Gesellschaft. 
Sitzungsberiehte.     1899-1906. 
Lemberg. — Sevccnko-Gesellschaft  der  Wissenschaften. 
Cbronik.     1906,   3-4 ;    1907,   1-3. 

Sammelscbrift    der    mathematisch-naturwissenschaftlich-arztlichen     Sec- 
tion.    Bd.   XI.     1907. 
LifeGE. — Societe  Royale  des  Sciences. 

Memoires.     Ser.   III.     Tome   VI-VII.      1907. 
Lima. — Cuerpo  de  Ingenieros  de  Minas  del  Peru. 

Boletin.     No.  41,  44-49,  51-54.     1907-1908. 
Lisbon. — Sociedade  de  Geographia. 

Boletim.     Serie  XXIV.  9-XXV.   12.     1906-1907. 
London. — Geological  Society. 

Geological  literature  added  to  tbe  library.     1906. 
Quarterly   Journal.     Vol.    LXIII.    1-3  ;     LXIV.    1.      1907-1908. 
Linnean  Society. 

Journal.     Zoology.     No.   191-196,  203.     1905-1907. 
List.     1907-1908. 
Proceedings.     1906-1907. 
Royal  Society. 

Reports  of  the  Commission  on  the  :Mediterranean  fever.     Parts  V-VII. 

1907. 
Reports  on  Ceylon  pearl  oyster  fisheries,  by  W.  A.  Herdman.     V.     1007. 


xiv  Additions  to  the  Library. 

London. — Royal  Society. 

Philosophical   transactions,   Series  A.     No.  414-427.      1007-1908. 

Series  B.     No.   252-259.      1907-1908. 
Proooodinsrs.     Series  A.     No.  52«-537.     1907-1908. 
Series  B.     No.  528-536.     1907-1908. 
Royal  Microscopical  Society. 
Journal.     1907-1908.     1. 
IiOUlSiAN.v. — State  Hoard  of  Agriculture  and  Immigration. 
Gulf  Biologic  Station.     Bulletin.     No.  G-7.     1907. 
LuxEMBOCRO. — Tnstitut  Grand-Ducal. 

Archives  trimestr.     Tome  I.   Fasc.   II-III.     1906. 
Lyons. — Soci6te  d'Aoriculturc,  Sciences  et  Industrie. 

Annales.     190G. 
Madrid. — Comisidn  del  Mapa  GeoUgico  de  Espana. 
Boletin.     2a  ser.     Tomo  VIII.     1906. 
Memorias.     Tome  VI.     1907. 
Otscrvatorio  Asironomico. 
Anuario.     1907-1908. 

Resumen  de  las  observaciones   metoorologicas.     1899-1900. 
Manchester,  Engt.and. — Literary  and  Philosophical  Society. 

Memoirs  and  proceedings.     Vol.  LI.  1-3  ;    LII.  1.     1906-1908. 
Manchester,  N.  H. — Institute  of  Arts  and  Sciences. 

Proceedings.     Vol.    IV.     Part.   I.     1902. 
MARB0RG. — Gesellschaft  zur  Beforderung  der  gcsnmmten  Naturivissenschaften. 

Sitzungsborichte.     Jahrg.     1906. 
Mecklenburg.— Feretw  der  Freunde  der  Naturgeschichte  in  Mecklenburg. 

Archiv.     Jahrg.  LX.  2;    LXI.   1.     1906-1907. 
Meriden. — Scientific  Association. 

Transactions.     Vol.  VI.     1893. 
Mexico. — Instituto  GeoWgico  de  Mexico. 

Boletin.     No.  22,  24.     1906-1907. 
Oiseriatorio  Astronomico  Nacional  de  Chapultepec. 

Anuario.     Tome  XXVII-XXVIII.     1907-1908. 
Ohservatorid  Meteoroldgico  Central. 

Boletin   mensual.     July-Sept..   1904  ;    July-Oct,    1907. 
Observatorio  de  Tacubaya  y  Cuajimalpa. 

Observaciones  meteoroI6gicas.     Ano  de  1904. 
Sociedad  Cicntiflca  "Antonio  Alzate." 

Memorias  y  revista.     Tomo  XXIII.  5-12  ;    XXIV-XXV.  2.     1907-1908. 
Middelbdrg. — Zceuwsch  Genootschap  der  Wetenschappen. 
Archief.     1906,    1907. 

Catalogus  der  numismatische  versameling.     By  G.  A.  De  Man.     1907. 
Verslag.     1893-1902. 
Milan. — Real  Istituto  Lombardo  di  Scienze  e  Lettere. 

Rendiconto.     Serie  II.     Vol.  XXXIX.  17-20;    XL.  1-15.     1908. 
Reale  Osservatorio  di  Brera. 

Publicazioni.     XLIII-XLIV.     1907-1908. 
Societd  Italiana  di  Scienze  Naturali. 
Atti.     XLV.  3-4  ;    XLVI.  1-2.     1907. 
Milwaukee. — Public  Museum. 

Annual  report.     XXV.     1907. 
Missouri. — fiotanical  Garden. 

Annual  report.     XVIII.     1907. 
University  of  Missouri. 

Studies.     Science  series.     Vol.  I.  2 ;    II.  1.     1907-1908. 
Laws   Observatory.     Bulletin.     No.   8-11.     1907. 
Modena. — Rcgia  Accademia  delle  Scienze,  Lettere  ed  Arti. 
Memorie.     Serie  III.     Tom.  VI.     1907. 


Additions  to  the  Library.  xv 

Montevideo. — 3Iuseo  Nacional. 

Anales.     Tome  III.     Entrega  1-2.     1907. 
Obserratorio  Kacional  Fisico-Climatol6'jico. 
Boletin.     Tomo  VI.  52-54.     1907. 
MoNTPELLiER.- — Acddemie  des  Sciences  et  Lcttrcs. 

Memoires.     Section  des  lettros.     S^r.    II.     Tome   III.    .3.      1907. 

Section  des  sciences.     Str.   II.     Tome  III.   5-7.     1907. 
Moscow. — K.  Universitdt,  Mcteorologisclies  Observatorium. 
Beobachtungen.     1903,   1904. 
Societe  Imperialc  des  Naturalistes. 

Bulletin.     Annee  1905,  4  ;    1906.   1-4. 
MVNICU.—Kuii.  Bayerisclic  Akademie  der  WissetiscJiaften. 

Sitznngsberichte.     Mathematisch-pliysiljalische  Classe.     1905,  III ;   190G, 
I-II  ;    1907,  I-III. 
Pliilosophisch-plnlologisch     und     liistorische     Classe. 
1904,  IV  ;    1905.  V  ;    1906,  I-II  ;    1907,   I-III. 
Kon.  Sternicarte. 

Neue  Annalen.     Supplementheft.     I.     1907. 
Mycological  Notes. 

No.  21-26.     1906-1907. 
Nancy. — Acndemie  dc  Stanislas. 

Memoires.     6e  s6r.     Tome  IV.     1906-1907. 
Naples. — R.  Istituto  d'Incoraggiamento  alle  Scienze  Naturali,  etc. 
Atti.     Ser.  VI.     Vol.  LVII-LVIII.     1905-1906. 
R.  Universitd. 

Annuario  del  Museo  Zoologico.     N.   S.     Vol.   II.   1-16.     1907. 
R.  Accadcmia  di  Scienze  Morali  e  Politiche. 

Atti.      Vol.  XXXVII.      1906. 
R.  Accademia  delle  Scienze  FisicTie  e  Matematiche. 

Rendiconto.     Ser.   III.     Vol.  XII.  5-12 ;    XIII.   1-27.     1906-1907. 
Naturae  Novitaies. 

Vol.  XXIX.  1-16.  21-24.      1907. 
New  Bp.unswick. — Natural  History  Society. 

Bulletin.     No.  XXV.     Vol.  V.     Part  V.     1907. 
New  Youk. — Academy  of  Sciences. 

Annals.     Vol.  XVII.  2-3  ;    XVIII.  1.     1907-1908. 
Botanical  Garden. 

Bulletin.     No.   14,   16-17.     1906-1907. 
Linnaean  Society. 

Abstract  of  proceedings.     No.   17-19.     1907. 
Public  Library. 

Bulletin.     Vol.  XI-XII.  3.     1907-1908. 
Newcastle-dpon-Tyne. — North  of  England  Institute  of  Mining  and  Mechanical 
Engineers. 

Transactions.     Vol.    LIV.    9  ;     LV.    6-7 ;     LVI.    4-6 ;     LVII.    1-2,    4-6 ; 

LVIII.   1-2.      1906-1908. 
Subject-matter  index  of  mining,  mechanical  and  metallurgical  literature 

for  1902. 
Annual  report  of  the  council.     1906-1907. 
Nuremberg. — Naturhistorische  Oesellscliaft. 
Abhandlungen.     Bd.  XVI.     1908.     , 
Jahresbericht.     1905. 
Oberlin  College. 

Laboratory  bulletin.     No.   13.     1907. 
Odessa. — Observatoire  Meteorologique  et  Magnetique  de  I'Universite. 

Annales.     Annee  XIII.     1906. 
Ohio. — State  Academy  of  Science. 

Proceedings.     Vol.  IV.     Part  10.     1908. 


xvi  Additions  to  the  Library. 

Ohio. — Geological  Survey. 

Bulletin.     No.   7.     4th  ser.     1905. 
Oxford. — RadcUffc  Library. 

Catalogue  of  books  added.     1905,   1907. 
L'nirer.siti/  Observatory. 

Astrographic  catalogue.     Vols.   I-II.      1900. 
Pacific  Institution. 

Publications.     Special  ser.     No.   2.     1908. 
Paris. — Ecole  yonnale  Sup&ricure. 

Annales.     Tome  XLI-XLIII.      1905-1907. 
Ecole  I'oh/tcchnic/ue. 

Journal.     2e  ser.     Cahier  XI.     1907. 
Mus4e  Ouimet. 

Annales.     Bibliothfeque   d'^tudes.     Tome   XXII-XXIII.      1906-1907. 

(Revue   do   I'histoire    des   religions.)       Annee    XXVII.      Tome 
LIV.  2-3.     1906. 
Museum  d'Histoire  J^aturelle. 

Bulletin.     Ann^e  1906,  6-7  ;    1907,  1-5. 
Socivte  Zoologique  de  France. 
Memoires.     Tome  XVIII.     1905. 
Perth. — Geological  Survey  of  Western  Australia. 

Bulletin.     23-26.     1907. 
Philadelphia. — Academy  of  yatural  Sciences. 

Journal.     2d  ser.     Vol.  XIII.     Part  3.     1907. 
Geographical  Society. 

Bulletin.     Vol.  V.  3-4  ;    VI.  1.     1907-1908. 
Pisa. — Societd  Toscana  di  Science  Vaturali. 
Memorie.     Tom.  XXII.     1907. 

Process!  verbali.     Tom.  XVI.  1-5  ;    XVII.   1-2.     1907-1908. 
Pittsburgh. — Carnegie  Institute. 

Memorial  of  celebration    (founder's  day).     XI.     1907. 
Carnegie  Museum. 

Memoirs.     Vol.  II.  10 ;    III.  1.      1907. 
Publication.     No.  46,  48-49.     1907. 
Potsdam. — Astrophysikalisches  Obscrvatorium. 

Publikationon.     Bd.  XV.  1  ;    XVII ;    XVIII.  2.     1907. 
Photographische   Himmelskarte.     Bd.    IV.     1907. 
Prag. — Kon.  homische  Gesellschaft  der  Wissenschaften. 
Jahresbericht.     1906. 
K.  K.  Stermcarte. 

Astronomische  Beobachtungen.     1900-1904. 

Magnetische  und  meteorologischc  Beobachtungen.     Jahrg.     1906. 
Qdebec. — Literary  and  Historical  Society. 

Historical  Documents.     8th  series.     1906. 
Transactions.     No.    XXVII.     1906-1907. 
Queensland. — Oeograph ical  Journal. 

N.  S.     Vol.  XXI-XXII.     1905-1907. 
Regensburg. — Ilistorischer  Verein  von  Oberpfalz  und  Regensburg. 

Verhandlungen.     Bd.  LVII.     1905. 
Riga. — yaturforschrr-Yerein. 

Korrespondonzblatt.     .Tahrg.  L.     1907. 
Rio  de  Janeiro. — Aluseo  Xacional. 

Archivos.     Vol.  XIII.     1905. 
Rome. — Reale  Accademia  dei  Lincei. 

Atti.     Serio   V.     Rendiconti.     Classe   di   sclenze   fisiche,    matematiche   e 

natural!.     Vol.  XVI-XVII.  4.     1907-1908. 
Rendiconto  dell'adunanza  solenne.     1907,   Vol.   II. 
Accademia  Pontifica  de'^uovi  Lincei. 

Atti.     Anno  TAX.  4-7;    LX.  1-17.     100-5-1 907. 


Additions  to  the  Library.  xvii 

Rome. — Reale  Comttato  Ocoloyico  d'ltalia. 
Bolletino.     1007.     1-3. 
Societd  Jtalhina  clclle  Scicn;:e. 

Memorie  di  Matematica  c  di  Fisica.     Scrie  III.     Tom.  XIV.     1907. 
St.  Louis.- — Academy  o/  Science. 

Transactions.     Vol.  XVI.  5,  7-9  ;    XVII.  1.     1907. 
St.  PETERsnnRG. — Academie  Imperialc  des  Sciences. 

Bulletin.     Ser.  V.     Tome  XXI.  5-XXV.   1.      1904-1006. 
Ser.   VI.      1907,    1-18  ;    1008,   1-4. 
Eortus  Petropolitanus. 

Acta.     Tome  XXV.  2  ;    XXVI.  1  ;    XXVII.   1.     190G-1908. 
Coniite  Geologiqnc. 

Bulletin.     Vol.  XXIII.   7-XXV.  9.     1904-1906. 

Memoires.     Nouv.  ser.     Liv.  3,  16,  18-21,  23-27,  29,  31,  33.     1905. 
Imp.  Russ.  Ocograf.  OhsMchcstvo. 

Izviestiia.     Tome  XLII.  2-3.      1906. 
Institut  des  Mines  de  I'Imperatrice  Catherine  II. 

Annales.     Vol.  I.  1.     1908. 
Russisch-Kaiscrliche  Mineralogische  Gesellschaft. 

Materialien  zur  Geologie  Russlands.     Bd.  XXIII.   1.      1006. 
Verhandlungen.     Ser.   II.     Bd.  XLIII.  2 ;    XLIV.   1-2.     1905-1906. 
Oliservatoire  Constantin. 

Etude  de  I'atmosphere.     Fasc.   II.     1907. 
Observatoire  Physique  Central  Nicolas. 
Annales.     1904,  I ;    II.  1-2. 
San  Antonio,  Texas. — Scientific  Society. 

Bulletin.     Vol.  I.   1.     1905. 
Sioux  City^  Ia.- — Academy  of  Science  and  Letters. 

Proceedings.     Vol.  I-II.     1903-1906. 
Socicte  Mathematique  de  France 

Bulletin.     Vol.   XXXV-XXXVI.   1.     1907-1908. 
Stockholm. — Kongl.  Svenska  VetensJcaps-Akademie. 
Arkiv  for  Botanik.     Bd.  VI.  3-4.     1907. 

Arkiv  for  Kemi,   Mineralogi   och  Geologi.     Bd.   II.   4-6.     1907. 
Arkiv  for  Matematik,  Astronomi  och  Fysik.     Bd.  III.  2-4.     1907. 
Arkiv  f(5r  Zoologi.     Bd.  III.  3-4.     1907. 
Arsbok.     1906-1907. 

Handlingar.     Ny  foldjd.     Bd.  XLI.  4,   6-7  ;    XLII.   1-9.     1907. 
Meteorologiska  lakttagelser  i   Sverige.     Bd.   XLVI.     1904. 
Meddelanden  fran  Nobelinstitut.     Bd.  I.  6-7.     1907. 
Les  prix  Nobel  en  1902,   Suppl ;    1904.   1905. 
Observations   meteorologiques  suedoises.     Vol.   XLVIII.     1906. 
Kongl.  BiMiotek. 

Accessions-katalog.     XX.      1905. 
Entomologisk  Forening. 

Entomologisk  Tidskrift.     Arg.  XXVII-XXVIII.     1906-1907. 
Stuttgart. — Verein  fiir  vaterldndische  Saturkunde  in  Wilrttemierg. 

Jahreshefte.     Jahrg.  LXIII  und  Beilagen  1-2.     1907. 
Sydney. — Australian  Museum. 

Memoir.     IV.  10.     1907. 
Records.     VI.  4-5.     1907. 
Report.     LII.     1906. 
Special  catalogue.     Vol.   II.    1-2.     1907. 
Linnean  Society  of  New  South  Wales. 

Proceedings.     Series   II.     Vol.    XXXI.    1-4 ;    XXXII.    1-3.     1906-1907. 
Royal  Society  of  New  South  Wales. 

Journal  and  proceedings.     Vol.   XXXIX-XL.     1905-1906. 
T.^XIDERMIST.      1907.      2. 
Texas. — Academy  of  Science. 


XX  Additions  to  the  Library. 

From  the  Authoiis  and  Pcblisueus. 

Castillo   (Krancfsco  Fernandez  del).     Moiuoria  leida  en  la  Sociedad  Mexicana  de 

Gcografia  y  Estadistlca:    Concordancia  entre  los  calendarios  Xahuatl 

y   lloniano.      .MT-xico.      1907. 
Dabl    (Ove).     Carl   vim    liinnr's  For1)indelse   mod  Norgc.     Trundhjcm.     10U7. 

From  the  K.   Norsko  Viilciiskabers  Selskab. 
tialissard    de    Marignac    (J.-C).     Oeuvres    completes.     Ilors-sirie    des    M^moires 

de  la   SocietC  de  Physique  de  rHistoire  Natiirolle  de  Genfeve.     Tome 

I-II.     Gen&vo.     1840-1887.  From  the  Society. 

M;u-I><)ii!itd   (Arthur).     A  plan  for  the  study  of  man. 
Itudzki    (M.    P.).     Ueber   die   Ticfe   des   Herdes   des   calabrischen    Erdlebens   vom 

8.      Sept..     1905.      Cracovie.       1907.       (Extrait    dii     P.ull.     Acad.     d. 

Sciences,  Classe  Math.  ..  .Jan.,   1907.) 

From  the  K.   K.   Sternwarte,  Kr&kau. 
Stroobant    (P.),   Delvosal    (J.),-  and   others.     Les   oliservatoires  astronomiques  et 

les  astronomos.     Bruxelles.     1907. 
Wellcome's  photographic  exposure  record  and  diary,   1907.     New  York.     1907. 

From  Messrs.  Burroughs,  Wellcome  &  Co. 
Zawodny    (.T.).     Ein    Beispiel    altromischer    Pietas.     Wien.      19(t7. 

(Separat-Abdruck  aus  dem  "Katholischen   Schulfreund.") 


TRANSACTIONS  OFJIIF. 
CONNECTICUT  ACADEMY  OF  AFiTS  ANi>  StlfeNCES 


lNCOUlH)UATFa     A      I),    Ti 


VOLUME  XIII.    PP.  1-46 


MAY.  1907 


Publications  of  Yale  University 


THE  EFFECT  OF  DIET  ON  ENDURANCE 

BASED   ON   AN   EXPERIMENT,   IN  THOROUGH   MASTICATION, 
,    WITH   NINE   HEALTHY   STUDENTS 
AT  YALE  UNIVERSITY,  JANUARY  TO  JUNE,   1906 


BY 


IRVING  FISHER,  Ph.D. 

Professor  of  Political  Econohiv  at  Yale  University 


NEW  HAVEN.  CONNECTICUT 
1907 


THE    TUTTLE,   MOREHOUSE    &    TAYLOR    PRESS 


^"^     I       19(^7 


I. — The  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance,  Based  on  an  Experi- 
ment WITH  Nine  Healthy  Students  at  Yale  University. 

January-June,  1906. 

Introduction. 

There  appears  to  be  very  little  literature  on  the  subject  of  endur- 
ance. Since  the  eiDOch-making  work  of  Mosso,  much  has  been  written 
on  fatigue,  and  many  varieties  of  ergographs  have  been  constructed 
to  record  muscular  fatigue  ;  but  no  systematic  study  of  endurance 
as  such  a^jpears  to  have  been  made.  Even  the  concept  of  endurance, 
as  related  to  strength  and  fatigue,  has  been  lacking.  No  corre- 
lations have  been  worked  out  between  endurance  and  the  factors 
upon  which  it  depends,  excejDt  that  it  has  been  a  matter  of  common 
experience  that  endurance  increases  with  exercise.  In  respect  to 
diet,  opinions  as  to  its  relation  to  endurance,  so  far  as  the  writer  knows, 
have  rested  on  no  better  foundation  than  the  personal  impressions  of 
adherents  of  special  dietary  systems,  such  as  those  of  Salisbury, 
Dewey,  Haig,  Kellogg,  and  Fletcher.  In  Professor  Chittenden's 
painstaking  study  on  "  Ph^'siological  Economy  in  Nutrition"  he  has 
shown  that  one  result  of  a  gradual  and  systematic  reduction  in  proteid, 
from  the  amount  ordinarily  consumed,  has  been  an  increase  in  strength, 
but  no  data  were  obtained  in  respect  to  endurance. 

The  present  experiment  had  a  somewhat  accidental  origin.  I  was 
engaged  in  collecting  statistics  of  labor-power  in  relation  to  various 
factors,  among  them  especially  diet.  The  data  were  collected  because 
of  their  economic  beariuQ-s  and  without  anv  intention  at  first  of  mak- 
ing  independent  experiments.  But  some  of  my  students,  whom  I  had 
engaged  to  make  computations  and  diagrams,  became  interested  in 
the  material  with  which  they  thus  came  in  contact,  and  expressed  a 
strong  desire  to  tiy  dietetic  experiments  upon  themselves.  Not 
being  a  physiologist,  I  asked  Professor  Chittenden  if  he  could  not 
take  charge  of  these  experiments  for  them.  It  so  haj^pened  that  on 
account  of  other  similar  work  he  was  unable  to  do  so,  but  suggested 
that  I  should  conduct  them  myself.  I  have  done  so  with  consider- 
able hesitation,  not  being  equipped  for  physiologic  studies.  I  have 
therefore  restricted  my  attention  to  the  simpler  practical  aspects  of 
the  problem,  although  some  of  the  technical  points  have  been  inves- 

Trans.  Conn.  Acad.,  Vol.  XIII.  1  May,  1907. 


2  IFisher — The  Efect  of  Diet  on  Endurance. 

tigated  through  the  very  kind  cooperation  of  able  colleagues.  My 
thanks  are  especially  due  to  Professor  Chittenden  and  his  co-workers. 
Professor  Mendel  and  Dr.  Underhill,  for  the  aid  rendered  by  the 
Sheffield  Scientific  School  Laborator}^  in  determining  the  nitrogen 
excreted,  and  for  much  helpful  advice  and  criticism.  I  wish  also  to 
express  my  obligations  to  Dr.  J.  P.  C,  Foster  for  his  services  as 
medical  adviser  to  the  students  ;  to  Dr.  W.  G.  Anderson,  Director 
of  the  Yale  Gymnasium,  and  his  corps  of  assistants,  through  whom 
the  endurance  tests  were  conducted  ;  to  Professor  Rettger  for  fecal 
tests  ;  and  to  the  subjects  of  the  experiment  themselves,  Messrs. 
Bauer,  Edwards,  Lagerquist,  Lawton,  Mitke,  Parmelee,  Reeds,  Taylor, 
and  Weyman,  whose  patient  submission  to  the  painful  tests  of  endur- 
ance was  little  short  of  heroic. 

In  January,  1906,  the  students  above  mentioned  organized  them- 
selves into  an  eating  club.  The  experiment  began  with  an  endurance 
test  on  January  14,  and  consisted  of  two  main  parts,  each  of  which 
lasted  about  ten  weeks. 

The  object  of  the  first  half  of  the  experiment  was  to  test  the  claims 
which  have  been  made  by  Mr.  Horace  Fletcher,  as  to  the  effects  upon 
endurance  of  thorough  mastication  combined  with  implicit  obedience 
to  appetite.  Our  conclusion  in  brief  is  that  Mr.  Fletcher's  claims,  so 
far  as  they  relate  to  endurance,  are  justified. 

Mr.  Fletcher's  method  may  be  briefly  '  expressed  in  two  rules. 

1.  Mastication.  Thorough  mastication  of  all  food  up  to  the 
point  of  involuntary  swallowing,  with  the  attention  directed,  how- 
ever, not  on  the  mechanical  act  of  chewing,  but  on  the  tasting  and 
enjoyment  of  the  food  ;  liquid  foods  to  be  sipped  and  tasted,  not 
drunk  down  like  water.  There  should  be  no  artificial  holding  of  food 
in  the  mouth  beyond  the  time  of  natural  swallowing,  even  if,  as  is  to 
be  expected  at  the  start,  that  swallowing  is  premature.  It  is  not 
intended  to  "  count  the  chews,"  or  hold  the  food  forcibly  in  the  front 
of  the  mouth,  or  allow  the  tongue  muscles  to  become  fatigued  by  any 
unnatural  eft'ort  or  position,  or  in  any  other  way  to  make  eating  a 
bore.  On  the  contrary,  every  such  effort  distracts  one  from 
the  natural  enjoyment  of  food.  Pawlow  has  shown  that  without 
such  attention  and  enjoyment  of  the  taste  of  food,  the  secretion  of 


'  The  reader  who  desires  to  pursue  the  subject  is  referred,  as  to  mastication 
and  instinctive  eating,  to  Higgins,  Humaniculture,  Stokes,  N.  Y. ,  1906;  as  to 
proteid,  to  Chittenden,  Phijsiological  Economy  in  Nutrition,  Stokes,  1904;  and 
as  to  the  general  subject,  to  Horace  Fletcher,  The  A.  B.-Z.  of  our  oivn  Nutri- 
tion, Stokes,  1903. 


Fisher — The  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance.  3 

gastric  juice  is  lessened.  'The  point  of  involuntary  swallowing  is 
thus  a  variable  point,  gradually  coming  later  and  later  as  the  practice 
of  thorough  mastication  proceeds,  until  the  result  is  reached  that  the 
food  remains  in  the  mouth  without  effort  and  becomes  practically  taste- 
less. Thus  the  food,  so  to  speak,  swallows  itself,  and  the  person  eats 
without  thought  either  of  swallowing  or  of  not  swallowing  it  ;  swal- 
lowing is  put  into  the  same  category  of  physiological  functions  as 
breathing,  which  ordinarily  is  involuntary. 

2.  Eolloioing  instinct.  Never  to  eat  when  not  hungry,  even  if  a 
meal  (or  more  than  one,  for  that  matter)  is  skipped.  And  when  a 
meal  is  taken,  not  to  be  guided  by  the  quantity  of  food  offered,  or 
by  past  habit,  or  by  any  theories  as  to  the  amount  of  food  needed. 
The  natural  taste  or  appetite  is  alone  consulted,  and  the  subject 
selects,  from  the  food  available,  only  those  kinds  and  amounts  which 
are  actually  craved  by  the  appetite.  After  practice,  the  appetite 
gradually  becomes  more  definite  and  discriminating  in  its  indica- 
tions. 

These  two  rules — thorough  mastication  and  implicit  obedience 
to  appetite  —  were  alone  employed  during  the  ten  weeks  which  con- 
stituted the  first  half  of  the  experiment. 

Shortly  after  the  beginning  of  the  second  half  of  the  experiment, 
there  was  an  interim  of  six  days  at  Easter  recess,  during  which  the 
few  men  who  remained  in  New  Haven  took  advantage  of  the  tempo- 
rary absence  of  the  cook  to  try  the  possibilities  of  living  without  one 
entirely.  During  this  brief  period  use  was  made  not  only  of  raw  foods, 
such  as  fruits,  nuts  and  milk,  but  also  of  foods  which  could  be  pur- 
chased already  cooked,  such  as  the  flaked  breakfast  foods.  But  all 
the  food  was  cold,  and  several  of  the  men  found  it  cheerless  and 
xinsatisfactory.  Judging  from  their  feelings,  they  Avere  losing  in 
weight  and  vigor.  This  part  of  the  experiment  was  too  brief,  how- 
ever, to  justify  any  reliable  conclusion  as  to  the  virtues  of  a  raw,  or 
rather  a  cookless,  diet. 

The  second  half  of  the  experiment  lasted  about  nine  weeks.  The 
same  two  rules  which  were  employed  during  the  first  half  were 
continued  during  the  second,  but  a  third  rule  was  added.  This  was 
the  use  of  suggestion,  as  follows  : 

3.  When  instinct  is  in  doubt,  use  reason. — This  rule  consists  of 
acquiring  and  applying  a  little  knowledge  of  foods  and  food  elements. 
For  this  purpose,  in  the  present  experiment  two  lists  of  food  were 
given.  One  was  arranged  in  a  tentative  order  of  intrinsic  merit, 
beginning  with,  fruits   and  ending  with  alcohol,    and  the  other  in 


4  I'ls/ier — T/ie  Ejf'ect  of  Diet  on  Endurance. 

the  order  of  tlie  proportion  of  proteid.  The  inen  were  then  asked, 
when  and  only  wlien  the  a])petite  was  entirely  xc  ill  in  g,  to  choose  the 
better  and  puicr  foods  and  the  low  proteid  foods  in  preference  to 
those  high  in  proteid.  In  tliis  way  the  men  gradually  sliifted  their 
diet  upward  in  the  two  lists,  and  thereby  pursued  a  little  faster  the 
same  direction  in  which  they  had  already  been  found  to  be  uncon- 
sciously moving  under  the  influence  of  thorough  mastication  and 
implicit  obedience  to  appetite. 

It  would  too  greatly  lengthen  this  report  if  any  attempt  were  made 
to  repeat  in  detail  all  the  specific  advice  given  to  the  experimenters 
under  Rule  '-i.  What  has  been  said  covers  in  a  general  waj"-  all  the 
points  except  the  advice  (subject  always  to  the  consent  of  appetite) 
to  eat  light  and  quickly  digested  suppers  in  order  to  go  to  bed  on  an 
empty  stomach. 

Careful  record  of  the  amounts  of  food  eaten  and  the  constituents 
of  proteids,  fats  and  carbohydrates  was  kejjt  for  each  man  each  day, 
certain  days  being  omitted  if  for  any  reason  the  record  was  incom- 
plete, as  when,  for  instance,  the  men  were  out  of  town  or  took  their 
meals  away  from  the  club.'  To  avoid  weighing  at  the  table,  the 
food  was  all  weighed  in  the  kitchen  and  served  in  "standard  portions" 
of  100  calories  each,  or  simj^le  fractions  or  multiples  thereof,  and  the 
men  merely  recorded  the  number  of  portions  eaten.  The  proportions 
of  proteids,  fats  and  carbohydrates  were  found  by  means  of  the 
writer's  "  Mechanical  Diet  Indicator. "  '^  Atwater  and  Bryant's 
tables  were  used  as  a  basis  for  calculation.  For  the  first  few  weeks 
the  figures  were  probably  subject  to  some  errors,  and  in  all  cases 
more  or  less  guessing  had  to  be  practiced  with  reference  to  the 
amount  of  lean  and  fat  of  meats  ;  but  the  influence  of  any  errors  on 
the  results  must  necessarily  be  small,  because  meat  supplied,  at 
the  highest,  o\)\y  a  small  fraction  of  the  total  calories.  It  is  believed 
that  the  results  are  in  general  correct  to  two  significant  figures. 

For  the  first  two  weeks  of  the  first  half  of  the  experiment,  the  men 
ate  in  their  ordinary  way.  During  the  following  eight  weeks  they 
masticated  moi'e  thoroughly  and  followed  the  leadings  of  taste  more 
carefully.     Most  persons,  while  nominally  following  taste,  are  largely 


^  The  number  of  days  each  week  on  which  the  record  of  diet  was  kept  was  sel- 
dom under  six. 

-For  a  description  of  this  instrument,  seethe  writer's  "A  New  Metliod  of 
Indicating  Food  Values,"  American  Journal  of  Fhyaioloyy,  April,  1906.  For  a 
description  of  its  practical  uses  see  "A  Graphic  Method  in  Practical  Dietetics," 
Jour,  of  the   Amer.  Med.  Assoc,  Apr.  20,  1907. 


Fisher — The  Effect  of  Diet  on,  Endurance.  5 

controlled  in  their  selection  of  foods  by  many  other  circumstances, — 
as,  conventionality^  or  the  desire  to  eat  what  others  eat  and  the  unwil- 
lingness to  appear  "different";  politeness,  the  desire  to  please  one's 
host  and.  hostess  \foo(l  notions,  the  opinion  that  certain  foods  and  cer- 
tain amounts  of  food,  are  "  wholesome  "  even  if  not  palatable  and  that 
certain  foods  should,  be  avoided  as  injurious  even  if  delicious  to  the 
taste  ;  narrowness  of  choice,  as  at  a  boarding  house  table,  which 
often  supplies  what  is  not  wanted  and  withholds  what  is  ;  and 
habit,  by  which  the  particular  kinds  and  amounts  of  foods  which 
have  become  customary  thi'ough  the  previous  causes— conventionality, 
politeness,  food  notions,  and  narrowness  of  choice — are  repeated  day 
after  day  without  thought.  The  subjects  of  the  present  study  were 
given  a  wide  range  of  choice,  the  menu  including  fruits,  nuts,  cereals, 
puddings  and  pastry,  vegetables,  milk,  meats,  etc.  Meat  if  desired 
was  available  three  times  a  day. 

The  object  of  the  experiment  was  to  find  what  effects  on  diet  and 
endurance  would  follow  from  a  strict  obedience  to  the  taste-instinct, 
when  this  instinct  was  given  a  longer  chance  to  act  b}^  prolonged 
mastication  and  attentive  tasting.  Each  man  was  therefore  encour- 
aged to  choose  his  own  food  out  of  the  menu  for  the  day.  Nothing 
was  set  before  him  until  it  was  ordered,  and  even  after  a  food  was 
ordered  it  was  not  eaten  if  taste  did  not  so  dictate.  The  men  were 
specially  warned,  during  the  fii'st  half  of  the  experiment,  against  any 
conscious  effort  to  decrease  their  food,  proteid,  or  meat  ;  and  while  it 
is  possible  that  subconscious  suggestion  played  a  part,  so  far  as  could 
be  observed  they  were  freer  from  its  influence  than  any  ordinary 
experimenter  who  might  take  up  the  same  experiment  after  reading 
Mr.  Fletcher's  or  Professor  Chittenden's  books. 

That  this  conclusion  as  to  the  relative  absence  of  subconscious  suw- 
gestion  is  correct  was  evidenced  by  the  experiences  both  before  and 
after  this  j^art  of  the  experiment.  For  a  month  prior  to  its  actual 
beginning  (Jan.  14),  the  experiment  had  been  fully  decided  upon, 
and  its  plan  and  scope  understood  by  the  men.  Had  subconscious 
suggestion  played  an  important  role,  it  would  probably  have  shown 
itself  in  a  reduction  of  proteid  during  this  month  ;  but  determinations 
of  the  grams  of  nitrogen  daily  excreted  in  the  urine,  taken  at  the 
beginning  and  end  of  this  month,  indicated  no  substantial  change,  as 
the  following  table  shows.  (M.  does  not  appear  in  this  table,  owing 
to  the  absence  of  any  specimen  for  December.) 


6  Wisher — TJie  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance. 

TABLE  I. 

B  E         Lq        Lw  P  R  T  W  Average 

Middle  Dec.  11.2      11.1       13.8      12.3      11.3      13.9      14.2       15.9        13 

Middle  Jan.  10.4       12.7       14.3       14.3       11.1       14.8       12.2       15.4         13.1 

On  the  otiier  hand,  during  the  second  half  of  the  experiment  (Mar. 
28-June  1),  wlien  tlie  force  of  suggestion  was  consciously  introduced, 
the  reduction  of  flesh  and  proteid  went  on  rapidly,  as  is  seen  in 
Table  II.  The  facts,  therefore,  seem  to  show  that  the  men  followed 
directions  closely,  avoiding  largely  the  influence  of  subconscious  sug- 
gestion and  following  that  of  conscious  suggestion  in  e.xact  accord- 
ance with  the  directions  given  them. 

Changes  in  Diet. 

During  the  first  two  weeks  of  the  first  period  when  no  change  of 
habits  was  undertaken,  the  food  showed  little  tendency  to  change  in 
amount  or  in  kinds.  On  the  other  hand,  for  the  remaining  eight 
weeks,  during  which  thorough  mastication  and  instinctive  eating 
wei'e  practiced,  there  was  a  distinct  though  gradual  tendency  toward 
reduction  in  the  amount  of  food,  in  the  quantity  of  proteid,  in  the 
quantity  of  flesh  foods,  and  in  the  quantity  of  liquids  of  all  kinds — 
water,  tea,  coffee,  cocoa,  and  even  soup.s.  Exact  figures  were  kept 
for  calories,  proteid  and  flesh  foods.  These  showed  that  the  total 
calories  gradually  fell  about  10^^,  the  proteids,  15^,  and  the  flesh 
foods,  40^, 

In  the  second  period,  dui'ing  which  the  force  of  suggestion  to 
reduce  proteid  and  flesh  foods  was  added,  the  same  effects  were 
noted  in  a  still  greater  degree.  During  this  period  the  calories 
dropped  nearh'^  20^,  the  proteid  over  25^,  and  the  flesh  foods  about 
70^.  Comparing  the  diet  at  the  close  of  the  entire  five  months  of 
the  experiment  with  the  diet  at  its  beginning,  it  was  found  that  the 
total  calories  had  fallen  about  25^,  the  proteid  about  40,^,  and  the 
flesh  foods  over  SO;^,  or  to  about  one-sixth  of  their  original  amount. 
A  part  of  the  reduction,  at  least  of  the  calories,  is  ])robably  due  to 
the  change  in  season,  as  the  experiment  began  in  cold  weather  and 
closed  in  hot  weather. 

These  results  are  shown  in  the  following  table  : 


Fisher — The  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance. 


1st 
Period 


2iid 
Period 


TABLE  IL 

AVERAGE  DIETETIC  RECORDS  OF  ENTIRE  CLUB 

Average 

Calories 

Daily 

no.  of 

of  proteid 

"portions" 

Average 

' '  portions  " 

per  lb.  of 

of  flesh 

Week 

weight 

daily 

body  \vt.  • 

foods 

f Jan.  17-23 

149.8 

28.3 

2.7 

2.4 

24-30 

30.3 

2.6 

2.1 

31-Feb. 

6 

27.8 

2.5 

1.6 

Feb.    7-13 

27. « 

2.4 

1.2 

14-20 

25.8 

2.1 

.9 

21-27 

26.4 

2.2 

1.1 

28-Mar. 

6 

25.3 

2.2 

1.2 

Mar.   7-13 

24.6 

2.1 

1.3 

14-20 

25.9 

2.2 

1.1 

21-27 

148 

26.7 

2.2 

1.4 

28-Apr. 

3 

26.7 

2.1 

.8 

Apr.   4-10 

25.7 

1.9 

.5 

11-17- 

27.3 

1.7 

.4 

20-26  3 

26.1 

1.7 

.1 

27-May 

3 

25.5 

1.9 

.5 

May   4-10 

25.7 

1.9 

.4 

11-17 

26.2 

1.9 

.4 

18-24 

24.9 

1.7 

.4 

25-31 

23.2 

1.4 

.4 

June 

144 

Remembering  that  a  "portion  "  is  100  calories,  we  see  that,  dui'ing 
the  first  four  weeks,  the  men  consumed  an  average  of  from  2760  to 
3030  calories  per  da}^,  of  which  120  to  240  were  in  the  flesh  foods, 
such  as  meats,  jioultry,  fish  and  shell-fish,  and  that  2.4  to  2.7  calories 
of  proteid  were  ingested  for  each  pound  of  body-weight.  Trans- 
lating Professor  Chittenden's  figures  for  the  physiological  require- 
ment of  ingested  proteid,  we  find  it  to  be  from  1.3  to  1.7  calories  per 
pound  of  body-weight.  Thus  the  men  were  at  this  time  consuming 
nearly  double  the  Chittenden  allowance.  During  the  last  four  weeks 
of  the  experiment  all  these  magnitudes  were  lower.  The  per  capita 
calories  ranged  from  2220  to  2620,  of  which  only  40  were  in  flesh 
foods,  and  the  proteid  had  fallen  to  1.4  to  1.9  calories  per  pound  of 
body-weight,  which  corresponds  closely  to  the  Chittenden  standai'd. 

Table  II  was  constructed  from  the  following  three  tables  giving 
separate  data  for  the  individual  experimenters. 


'  This  column  is  calculated  throughout  on  the  basis  of  the  body-weights  on 
Jan.  14. 

-Except  E.,  M.  and  P. 

3  Except  E.  The  last  two  days  of  the  Easter  recess,  Apr.  18,  19,  are  omitted 
in  tables  II,  III,  IV,  V. 


Fisher — The  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance. 


TABLE  III. 

DAILY  QUANTITIES   OF  FOOD 

(in  "jDortions"  of  100  calories  each). 


Week 

B 

E 

Lq 

L\v 

M 

P 

R 

T 

W 

Average 

'  Jan. 

19-23 

25.4 

26.1 

22.4 

32.6 

23.9 

27.0 

32.0 

30.1 

29.4 

28.3 

24-:}0 

27.9 

29.1 

24.3 

32.6 

26.8 

26.2 

34.5 

37.3 

33.9 

30.3 

31-Feb.  6 

26.3 

26.4 

25.0 

29.8 

24.4 

23.8 

30.9 

30.8 

33.0 

27.8 

1st     ^ 
Period 

Feb. 

7-13 

25.7 

27.8 

25.7 

31.3 

22.0 

23.2 

28.0 

32.8 

31.6 

27.6 

14-20 

24.0 

32.4 

24.0 

26.1 

21.6 

20.3 

25.1 

29.2 

29.4 

25.8 

21-27 

23.0 

30.9 

23.4 

28.3 

24.5 

18.2 

26.7 

30.3 

32.2 

26.4 

28-Mar.  6 

23.3 

25.7 

23.6 

27.4 

24.1 

18.0 

25.4 

29.1 

30.8 

25.3 

Mar. 

7-13 

23.2 

23.0 

24.5 

27.4 

26.4 

19.2 

23.5 

23.7 

30.1 

24.6 

14-20 

21.9 

21.6 

24.5 

29.1 

30.2 

20.8 

25.0 

30.8 

28.9 

25.9 

21-27 

21.1 

24.2 

25.2 

31.6 

25.9 

21.2 

26.5 

34.4 

30.4 

26.7 

- 

28-Apr.  3 

22.6 

26.3 

26.2 

27.5 

25.2 

23.0 

26.1 

33.5 

30.2 

26.7 

, 

Apr. 

4-10 

24.2 

24.2 

24.6 

27.7 

22.5 

22.5 

26.2 

30.5 

28.7 

25.7 

11-17 

24.0 

26.0 

24.9 

. 

29.0 

30.4 

29.8 

27.3  > 

3nd 

Period ' 

20-26 

26.5 

24.1 

24.5 

23 'd 

23.3' 

25.5 

32.0 

29.4 

26.12 

27-May  3 

25.5 

22.6 

25.4 

24.8 

24.1 

24.4 

23.9 

29.0 

29.8 

25.5 

May 

4-10 

23.0 

25.5 

26.5 

24.4 

27.1 

23.1 

26.0 

28.7 

26.7 

25.7 

11-17 

21.8 

19.2 

26.5 

27.6 

24.5 

23.8 

27.6 

30.3 

34.2 

26.2 

18-24 

22.7 

19.1 

23.7 

27.8 

19.5 

25.4 

24.6 

26.5 

35.2 

24.9 

25-31 

19.3 

17.2 

23.6 

27.1 

17.8 

21.9 

24.2 

20.3 

28.6 

22.2 

From  this  table  we  see  that  there  were  wide  differences  between 
the  men  in  regard  to  the  change  in  the  quantity  of  food.  During 
the  first  period  the  men  who  reduced  their  calorifis  conspicuously 
were  B.,  P.  and  R.,  the  very  men,  as  Table  IX  will  show,  who  lost 
weight  during  this  period. 

During  the  second  period,  reductions  were  noticeable  in  E.,  Lw.,  M. 
and  T.  These,  together  with  B.  and  P.,  wei-e  the  men  who  lost 
Aveight  during  the  second  period.  We  see  here  a  distinct  correlation 
between  quantity  of  food  and  loss  of  body-weight. 

TABLE  IV. 

PROTEID  (ill  calories)  PER   LB.  OF  BODY-WEIGHT 

(Body-weight  as  taken  Jan.  14,  1906) 


Week 

B 

E 

Lq 

Lw 

M 

P 

R 

T 

W 

Average 

'Jan.  17-23 

2.6 

2.9 

1.8 

2.8 

2.6 

2.8 

2.5 

.3.3 

2.7 

2.7 

24-30 

2.5 

2.8 

2.2 

2.8 

2.7 

2.5 

2.5 

3.0 

2.8 

2.6 

31-Feb. 

6       2.2 

3.1 

2.4 

2.9 

2.5 

2.0 

2.3 

2.7 

2.6 

2.5 

Feb.     7-13 

2.1 

2.9 

2.2 

2.6 

2.0 

2.1 

2.0 

2.9 

2.6 

2.4 

1st 
Period ' 

14-20 

2.0 

3.1 

1.8 

2.0 

1.9 

1.7 

1.8 

2.7 

2.2 

2.1 

21-27 

1.8 

3.2 

1.9 

2.3 

2.0 

1.5 

1.9 

2.8 

2.4 

2.2 

28-Mar. 

6       1.8 

3.0 

1.8 

2.3 

2.4 

1.5 

1.8 

2.6 

2.4 

2.2 

Mar.     7-13 

1.9 

2.5 

2.0 

2.3 

2.5 

1.7 

1.7 

2.1 

2.6 

2.1 

14-20 

1.9 

2.3 

1.9 

2.5 

2.7 

1.7 

1.9 

2.8 

2.4 

2.2 

21-27 

1.6 

2.6 

2.0 

2.7 

2.4 

1.7 

1.9 

2.7 

2.2 

2.2 

I 

^  Not  including 

E.,  M.  and  P. 

1    << 

(1 

F. 

Fisher — The  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance. 


TABLE  lY—Contimied. 

PROTEID  (in  calories)  PER  LB.  OF  BODY-WEIGHT 

(Body-weight  as  taken  Jan.   14,   1906) 


3nd     , 
Period  ' 


Week 

B 

E 

Lq 

Lw 

M 

P 

R 

T 

W 

Average 

f  Mar.  28- Apr.  3 

1.8 

2.6 

2.0 

3.2 

2.2 

1.9 

1.8 

2.7 

2.2 

2.1 

Apr.    4-10 

1.5 

2.9 

1.7 

2.0 

1.7 

1.5 

1.8 

3.4 

1.8 

1.9 

11-17 

1.3 

1.8 

1.7 

1.7 

1.9 

1.9 

1.7 

20-36 

1.8 

1.6 

1.6 

l'7 

1.5 

1.5 

3.3 

1.6 

1.7 

27-May  3 

1.7 

3".  5 

1.7 

1.7 

2.0 

1.7 

1.6 

3.2 

1.8 

.1.9 

May     4-10 

1.6 

3.0 

1.9 

1.9 

3.2 

1.4 

1.8 

2.1 

1.5 

1.9 

11-17 

1.6 

1.9 

1.7 

1.9 

1.9 

1.6 

1.9 

2.1 

2.0 

1.9 

18-24 

1.5 

1.8 

1.4 

1.7 

1.8 

1.6 

1.6 

1.7 

2.1 

1.7 

25-31 

1.1 

1.3 

1.5 

1.6 

1.6 

1.3 

1.7 

1.4 

1.5 

1.4 

We  observe  from  Table  IV  that  the  men  who  reduced  their  proteid 
the  most  during  the  first  period  were  B.,  P.,  R.,  T.  and  W,  Of  these 
the  first  thi'ee  only  lost  weight  appreciably,  and  this  was  partly  ascrib- 
able,  as  we  have  seen,  to  reduction  in  their  calories.  Careful 
examination  of  the  figures  would  seem  to  show,  however,  that  there  is 
some  correlation  between  I'eduction  of  proteid  and  loss  of  weight. 

During  the  second  period  there  was  a  decided  reduction  of  proteid 
in  all  cases  except  that  of  R.,  who  had  already  brought  his  proteid 
down  considerably  in  the  first  period.  E.  reduced  his  proteid,  but  not 
until  the  last  three  weeks,  when  he  seemed  to  try  to  make  up  for  lost 
time.  E.,  in  fact,  was  the  only  man  in  the  club,  except  possibly  M. 
who  (through  mere  inadvertence)  did  not  follow  out  the  rules  of  the 
e.xperiment  systematically.  It  need  scarcely  be  said  that  this  is  not 
stated  as  censure  ;  for  the  very  fact  of  the  moderation  of  E.'s  and  M.'s 
mastication  added  to  the  value  of  the  final  comparisons.  Even  E.'s 
sudden  reduction  in  proteid  at  the  end  was  not  maintained  two  weeks 
afterward,  as  was  shown  by  the  exci'etion  of  nitrogen  in  June, 
given  in  Table  VI. 

It  will  be  observed  that  the  proteid  at  the  end  of  the  experiment 
was  reduced  to  a  fairly  uniform  level  for  all  the  men.  Moreover,  the 
proteid  at  the  end  corresponds  closely  with  the  results  of  Professor 
Chittenden's  experiments.  This  is  especially  significant  in  view  of 
the  fact  that  this  level  was  reached  unconsciously— for  only  one  of 
the  men,  Lq.,  Avho  used  the  mechanical  diet  indicator  for  the  entire 
club,  knew  regularly  the  exact  character  of  each  man's  food  propor- 
tions— and  without  any  food  prescription  as  was  employed  in  the 
experiments  of  Professor  Chittenden.  This  means  that  there  is  a 
simple  way  of  reducing  proteid  to  the  level  of  "physiological  econ- 


10  Fisher— TJie  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance. 

omy,"  open  to  the  ordinary  man,  M-ithout  the  necessity  of  special 
knowledge  of  foods  and  without  the  necessity  of  weighing  and  measur- 
ing food,  either  by  the  subject  himself  or  by  others. 

Aside  from  the  changes  in  proteid,  the  proportions  of  food  elements 
did  not  vary  greatly,  the  percentages  of  fat  and  carbohydrate  in  the 
total  fuel  value  remaining  very  nearly  constant.  At  the  close  of  the 
experiment  it  Avas  found  that  for  all  of  the  men  the  proteid  in  propor- 
tion to  the  total  fuel  value  was  very  nearly  10,^,  having  been  reduced 
from  about  14^.  This  reduction  in  the  percentage  of  proteid  was 
almost  entirely  offset  by  the  increase  in  the  percentage  of  fat,  which 
rose  from  about  30^  to  about  33^  on  the  average.  The  percentage 
of  carbohydrate  thus  remained  almost  constant.  Individual  varia- 
tions were  much  less  than  might  have  been  expected.  The  proteid 
at  the  close  of  the  experiment  among  the  different  subjects  deviated 
very  little  from  lO^*^  ;  the  proportion  of  fat  varied  from  28  to  36^j 
and  the  carbohydrate  from  51  to  62^. 

The  results  of  the  experiment  may  throw  some  light  on  the 
problem  of  the  proper  amount  of  food  and  food  constituents  for 
healthj"  men  eating  in  a  natural  manner.  "  For  the  five  men,  Lq.,  Lw.j 
M.,  R.  and  W.,  whose  weights  showed  least  tendency  to  fall  and 
whose  average  weight  at  the  close  of  the  experiment  was  151.4,  we 
find  the  avei'age  total  calories  were  2620,  of  which  10.7^  was  proteid, 
33^  fat,  and  56.3,^  carbohydrate.  The  number  of  calories  agrees 
closely  with  the  estimates  (for  sedentary  persons)  of  Atwater  and 
Benedict  by  means  of  the  calorimeter. 

TABLE  V. 

QUANTITIES   OF  FLESH  FOODS  CONSUMED  (meat,  fish, 

shell-fish,  poultry) 

(In  "portions"  of  100  calories  each). 


1st 
Period 


Week 

B 

E 

Lq 

Lw 

M 

P 

R 

T 

W  . 

Average 

Jan. 

17-23 

2.7 

2.4 

1.5 

2.6 

2.4 

2.6 

2.3 

2.9 

2.1 

2.4 

1 

24-30 

2.2 

2.2 

1.7 

2.0 

1.8 

2.2 

2.1 

2.1 

2.2 

2.1 

31-Feb. 

o 

1.3 

1.9 

1.2 

2.1 

1.6 

1.3 

2.1 

1.9 

1.4 

1.6 

Feb 

7-13 

1.3 

1.6 

.9 

1.7 

.6 

1.2 

1.5 

1.8 

1.2 

1.2 

1 

14-20 

.1) 

2.3 

.2 

1.1 

.   i 

.9 

.9 

1.6 

.5 

.9 

1 

21-27 

1.2 

2.0 

.2 

1.6 

.6 

1.6 

2.1 

.6 

1.1 

28-Mar. 

G 

.8 

2.1 

.3 

1.5 

1.1 

1.1 

1.6 

1.5 

.8 

1.2 

Mar 

7-13 

.7 

1.6 

.1 

2.4 

1.0 

1.2 

1.9 

1.6 

.9 

1.3 

14-20  1.0     1.7      .03  1.9      .9      .7    1.8    1.5      .7      1.1 

21-27  1.0    2.5      .0    2.5     1.7      .7    1.2    2.5      .6      1.4 


Fisher — 2Vie  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance. 


11 


TABLE  Y —ConliniLed. 
QUANTITIES   OF   FLESH   FOODS   CONSUMED  (meat,  fish, 

shell-fish,  poultry) 
(In  "portions"  of  100  calories  each). 


Week 

B 

E 

Lq 

Lw 

M 

P 

E 

T 

W 

Aver 

'  Mar. 

38-Apr.  3 

.9 

1.7 

.0 

1.7 

.6 

.8 

1.1 

.8 

.1 

.8 

Apr. 

4-10 

.4 

1.1 

.0 

1.0 

1.0 

.1 

.8 

.0 

.5 

11-17 

.1 

.0 

.9 

.8 

.  t 

.0 

.4 

2nd 

20-26 

.0 

.0 

.1 

'i 

'o 

.2 

.4 

.0 

.1 

27-May  3 

.16 

1.2 

.0 

.6 

.8 

.2 

.9 

.5 

.0 

.5 

erioo. 

May 

4-10 

.0 

.9 

.0 

.8 

.8 

.0 

.5 

.6 

.0 

.4 

11-17 

.0 

1.2 

.0 

1** 
.  1 

.8 

.0 

.4 

.3 

.0 

.4 

18-24 

.0 

1.3 

.0 

.5 

.5 

.0 

.8 

.2 

.0 

.4 

25-31 

.0 

1.0 

.0 

1.0 

.9 

.0 

.8 

.4 

.0 

.4 

Table  V  shows  that  during  the  first  period  all  except  E.  and  Lw. 
reduced  their  consumption  of  flesh  foods  considerably.  It  is  note- 
worth}',  as  Tables  XI-XIII  will  show,  that  these  two  were  the  men 
whose  improvements  in  endurance  were  probably  among  tlie  least 
during  this  period. 

During  the  second  period  Lq.,  W.,  P.  and  B.  virtually  abandoned 
flesh  foods  entirely,  the  "  portions  "  consumed  daily  averaging  nearer 
zero  than  .1.  These  men  improved  greatly  in  endurance  also.  On 
the  other  hand,  E.,  Lw.,  M.  and  R.  reduced  their  flesh  foods  the 
least,  and  their  ranking  in  respect  to  increased  endurance  was  in 
general  relatively  low. 

Excretions,    Body-  Weight,    Strength. 

The  following  table  of  nitrogen  excreted  in  the  urine  is  interesting 
in  connection  with  the  preceding  table.  It  will  be  seen  that  the 
reduction  in  nitrogen  daily  excreted  corresponds  in  general  to  the 
reduction  in  proteid  consumed. 


TABLE 

VI. 

GRAMS 

OF 

NITROGEN  EXCRETED  DAILY. i 

B 

E 

Lq         Lw 

M 

P 

R 

T 

W 

Middle  Jan.       10.4 
First  April          6.6 
Middle  June       6.3 

12.7 
14.7 
13.1 

14.3       14.3 
9.2       11.1 

8.4 

8.72 
13".  7 

11.1 
6.3 
6.1 

14.8 
11.6 

12.2 
12.4 

8.8 

15.4 
9.0 

9.4 

N.  in  middle') 

J"^^  P""          !-       .093 
kilog.   of           1 

body-weight  J 

.22 

.12      ... 

.21 

.09 

— 

.13 

.13 

'  Each  figure  is  obtained  by  averaging  2  or  3  consecutive  days'  specimens. 
2  Jan.  23  and  Feb.  10. 


]  2  Fisher —  The  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance. 

This  tabic  shows  that  all  the  men  excepting  E.  and  M.  greatly 
reduced  their  nitrogen  excretion  during  the  experiment,  and  that  at 
the  close  (with  the  two  exceptions  noted)  the  men  were  on  about  the 
same  niti'Ogen  level  as  the  subjects  of  Professor  Chittenden's  exper- 
iment, namely,  near  one-tenth  of  a  gram  of  nitrogen  per  kilogram  of 
body-weight. 

Through  the  kindness  of  Professor  Benedict  of  Wesleyan  Univer- 
sity, nitrogen  analyses  were  made  in  December,  1906,  six  months 
after  the  close  of  the  experiment,  to  discover  to  what  extent  the  men 
had  adhered  to  their  newly  acquired  diet  after  the  eating  club  in 
which  it  had  been  practiced  was  disbanded.  The  results  were  B. 
11.0,  Lq.  10.5,  Lw.  7.9,  M.  9.9,  P.  6.8,  R.  11.5,  T.  11.9,  W.  8.9.  These 
show  that  half  of  the  men  had  reverted  to  some  extent  toward  their 
original  diets.  The  men  stale  that  the  reason  for  this  reversion  was 
the  difficulty  in  selecting  food  differing  greatly  in  kind  and  amount 
from  that  customarilv  served  at  their  boarding  houses. 

The  following  table  shows  that  the  volume  of  urine  daily  excreted 
was  greatly  reduced  during  the  experiment  : 

TABLE  VII. 
VOLUiME  OF  URINE  DAILY  EXCRETED   (in  cubic  centimeters) 

B  E  Lq         Lw  M  P  R  T  W 

Middle  Jan.     1435       1160       1130       1391       SIT^       700       1287       1792       1177 

First  April        630        985        900       1252      629       1025        930         797 

Middle  Jime      802       1120        822       785        480       ....         696        970 

From  this  table  we  see  a  striking  reduction  in  the  volume  of  urine 
excreted,  with  the  same  two  notable  exceptions,  E.  and  M.  These 
two,  who  reduced  their  excretions  least,  were  the  men  who  Avere  the 
least  assiduous  in  observing  the  rules  of  the  experiment. 

A  careful  examination  of  the  feces  was  made  by  Professor  L.  F. 
Rettger  of  the  Sheffield  Scientific  School.  A  summary  of  his  report 
follows.  In  it  was  included  a  comparative  statement  for  three  sets 
of  specimens  of  two  days  each,  taken  in  January,  March  and  June, 
referred  to  below  as  series  I,  II  and  III.  These  included  data  as  to 
the  color,  odor,  quantity,  consistency,  approximate  determination  of 
the  number  and  predominant  kinds  of  bacteria,  putrefactive  and 
fermentative  properties,  and  a  true  microscopic  bacterial  examination. 
In  brief,  to  quote  from  Dr.  Rettger's  report  and  letter : 


'  Jan.  23  and  Feb.  10. 


Fisher — The  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance.  13 

"  The  odor  was  very  slight  in  almost  every  specimen  in  the  last 
series,  a  marked  difference  between  these  and  series  I  and  II, 
particularly  I.     The  average  weight  is  less  than  in  both  series  I  and 

II  (av.  wt.    of   series  1=  137.3   grams;  of  II  —  164.8    grams,    and 

III  =  120,4  grams). 

"  The  figures  indicate  considerable  difference  in  the  putrefactive  and 
fermentative  properties  of  the  three  series,  and  the  decrease  is  progres- 
sive. In  series  I  the  amount  of  proteid  dissolved  was  much  larger 
than  in  II  and  III.  .  .  The  specimens  [of  series  III]  were  more 
solid  generally  than  in  both  previous  series.  I  was  unable  to  note 
any  api^reciable  difference  in  the  microscopic  appearance  of  the  last 
series  as  compared  with  the  previous,  except  that  in  specimen  B  of 
the  last  series  a  large  number  of  moulds  were  present.  This  has  little 
significance,  however." 

TABLE  VIII.     FECAL  TESTS' 
Putrefactive  Deuree  Fermentative  Property 


■Mid. 

End 

Mid. 

Mid. 

End 

Mid. 

Jan. 

March 

June 

Jan. 

March 

June 

B 

? 

1 

8% 

+  + 

+ 

+ 

E 

30^ 

25^ 

Wc 

+  + 

+ 

+ 

M 

mo 

\% 

15$g 

+ 

+ 

+ 

Lq 

m% 

% 

50% 

+  + 

+ 

+ 

Lw 

25% 

ihfo 

t 

+  + 

+ 

f 

P 

20;^ 

1 

1 

+, 

— 

E 

30^ 

m% 

t 

+  + 

+ 

T 

T 

20^ 

1 

5% 

? 

+ 

+ 

W 

30$^ 

m 

5% 

+  + 

+ 

+ 

We  here  observe  that  the  degree  of  putrefaction  in  the  last  two 
tests  was  usually  considei'ably  less  than  its  magnitude  in  the  first 
test.  The  least  change  in  the  feces  occurred  in  the  cases  of  Lq.,  M, 
and  E.,  and  the  greatest  changes  in  P.,  T.  and  W.  Here  again  we 
find  some  correspondence  between  the  assiduity  of  the  men  and  the 
observed  physiological  changes  ;  for  E.  and  M.  were  the  least  and  P. 
and  W.  the  most  careful  among  the  experimenters. 

A  critic  has  raised  the  question  whether  the  improvement  in  the 
feces  indicates  lessened  absorption  of  poisons,  and  whether,  if  the 
feces  were  longer  retained,  the  improvement  in  their  character  might 
not  be  in  consequence  of  the  abstraction  from  them  and  absorption 

'  In  the  table,  "  +  "  signifies  the  presence  and  "  —  "  the  absence  of  fermenta- 
tive property  ;  "  +  +  "  I'epresents  a  high  degree  of  fermentative  property  ;  "  ?" 
signifies  that  the  putrefactive  degree  was  doubtful,  if  not  absent. 

f  No  specimen. 


14  Fisher — The  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance. 

into  the  system  of  a  larger  amount  of  poisons.  The  length  of  time  of 
retention  of  the  feces  was  not  measured  in  any  way.  So  far  as  can  be 
guessed  from  the  impressions  of  the  men,  it  was  not  lengthened,  cer- 
tainly not  greatly,  as  in  the  case  of  ]Mr.  Fletcher. '  As  to  the  sig- 
nificance of  the  improvement  in  feces,  Dr.  Rettger  writes  : 

"The  subject  of  intestinal  putrefaction  is  one  of  which  very  little 
is  as  yet  known.  A  retention  of  feces  may  have  the  tendency  of 
lowering  the  amount  of  putrefactive  products.  This  is  due,  I  believe, 
to  two  things  :  first,  an  absorption  of  such  products  as  indol  and 
mercaptan  ;  and  second,  an  unusual  amount  of  antagonistic  action 
exerted  on  the  evil-producing  (putrefactive)  bacteria  by  the  ordinary 
and  presumably  he]{)ful  bactei'ia.  Recent  work  seems  strongly  to 
emphasize  the  latter  point.  .  .  There  is  nothing  to  show  that  a 
small  degree  of  retention  would  make  a  very  great  difference. 

"  The  absence  of  appreciable  amounts  of  putrefactive  bodies  from 
feces  under  the  ordinary  conditions  of  peristalsis  does,  beyond  a 
doubt,  indicate  a  lessened  i:)roduction  of  the  products  (toxines)  ;  the 
system  must  be  the  better  off  on  account  of  this  .  .  .  the  inter- 
pretation of  the  facts  must  be  dealt  with  rather  cautiously." 

The  following  table  shows  the  body-weights  of  the  men  (after 
deducting  weight  of  clothing). 

TABLE  IX. 
BODY-WEIGHTS  IN  POUNDS  (without  clothing) 

B  E        Lq      Lw        M         P  E  T         W        Average 

Jan.  14       148       127      147       153       141       144      170       lafi       153  149.8 

Mar.  28       144       128       147       154       142       136       176       155       151  148 

June  16       138       122       146       149       138       131       175       148       149  144 

We  see  that  during  the  first  period,  the  weights,  except  of  P., 
remained  practically  stationary,  but  that  in  the  second  period  all  of 
the  men  lost  somewhat  in  weight,  though  the  loss  was  trifling  in  most 
cases.  The  only  substantial  losses  during  the  two  periods  combined 
were  :  P.  13  lbs.,  B.  10  lbs.,  and  T.  8  lbs.  Of  these  it  may  be  said 
that  B.  was  distinctly  over  his  normal  weight  at  the  start. 

The  distinct  correlation  between  the  loss  of  weight  and  the  reduction 
in  food,  and  to  some  extent  in  proteid,  has  already  been  noted.  P.'s 
loss  is  ascribable  largely  to  overstudy.  The  general  slight  reduction 
in  weight  of  the  entire  club  is  probably  explained  in  the  same  way, 
for  all  the  men,  with  possibly  two  exceptions,  distinctly  overstrained 

'  See  The  A.  B.-Z.  of  our  own  Nutrition. 


Fisher — The  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance. 


15 


in  their  college  work.  Besides  the  influence  of  overwork,  there  was 
also  present  the  influence  of  the  season, — at  least  if  the  common 
impression  is  correct  that  persons  usually  lose  weight  with  the 
approach  of  warm  weather. 

Gymnasium  tests  were  made  at  the  beginning,  middle  and  end  of 
the  experiment.  These  tests  were  of  two  kinds, — tests  of  strength 
and  tests  of  endurance.  The  times  of  the  tests  were  widely  separated, 
partly  because  those  of  endurance  were  too  exhausting  to  be  often 
repeated,  and  partly  because  it  was  desired  to  avoid  the  influence  of 
"practice";  for  not  only  does  practice  increase  strength  and  en- 
durance, but  it  also  gives  the  users  of  the  strength-registering 
apparatus  a  facility  or  "knack"  in  manipulating  it  which  produces 
a  false  appearance  of  improvement. 

The  dates  of  the  three  tests  were  January  14,  a  week  after  the  end 
of  the  Christmas  vacation  ;  March  28,  just  before  the  Easter  recess  ; 
and  June  10, '  just  before  the  summer  vacation. 

Tests  of  strength,  taken  at  the  beginning,  middle  and  end  of  the 
experiment,  show  the  following  effects  : 


R.  Grip 


L.  Grip 


i 


Date 

Jan.   14 

.  Mch.  28 
(  Jun.   16 

(  Jan.  14 
-  Mch.  28 
(  Jun.  16 

(  Jan.   14 

Back  Lift  -    Mch.  28 

/   Jun.  16 


Leg  Lift 


Total 


(  Jan.  14 
-  Mch.  28 
(    Jun. 


( 


16 

Jan.  14 
Mch.  28 
Jun.   16 


TABLE  X. 

STRENGTH  TESTS  (in  lbs.) 


B   E  Lq  Lw  M 

100  135  95  98  145 

93  130  110  100  112 
91  130  110  92  105 

94  115  82  112  107 
82  115  110  100  105 
75  115  97  105  105 

275  400  280  340  375 

260  440  375  380  275 

280  300  290  250  330 

520  600  370  400  460 

515  600  455  450  410 

400  545  440  445  400 

989  1250  827  950  1087 

950  1285  1050  1030  902 

846  1090  937  892  940 


P        R        T        W    Average 

95     132     120     125  116 

102  127    130    117  113 

103  125    121     115  110 

82     131       95     127  105 

70     115     106     111  102 

70    125      98     110  100 

250     360     370     365  335 

275    390    400    400  355 

265    345     330    364  306 

320     820     545     635  519 

415     865     570     650  548 

300     610    520    650  479 

747  1443  1130  1252  1075 

862  1497  1206  1278  1118 

738  1205  1069  1239  995 


In  this  table  we  see  that  during  the  first  period  there  was  a  slight 
increase  in  strength  (from  an  average  "total"  strength  of  1076  to 
1118),  and  during  the  second  period  a  slight  fall  to  995,  which  is 
about  \^io  from  the  mid-year's  1118,  and  about  8^  from  the  original 


'  But  May  31  for  E.,  Lw.,  R.  and  W.,  on  account  of  earlier  examinations  than 
the  others,  necessity  to  leave  town,  etc. 


16  Fisher— The  Bfect  of  Viet  on  Endurance. 

1076.  Tlius  tlu-  strengtli  of  the  men  remained  nearly  stationary 
throujrhout  the  experiment.  Tlie  greatest  losses  were  those  of  B.,  E. 
and  R.,  whose  records  fell  respectively  from  989  to  846,  1250  to 
1090,  and   1443  to  1205. 

The  loss  of  strength,  like  the  loss  of  weight,  seems  most  probably 
exi)lainabk'  by  the  overstudy  of  the  men.  This  cause  was  certainly  act- 
ively lit  work,  and  would  apply  in  the  case  of  all  of  the  club  with  possi- 
bly two  exceptions.  Overstudy  applied  conspicuously  to  B.  and  R,, 
l)Oth  of  whom  not  only  overworked  during  the  entire  period  of  the 
experiment,  but  had,  just  before  coming  to  the  last  test,  been  through 
the  most  exhausting  and  sleep-robbing  week  of  all.  There  seems, 
therefore,  little  reason  to  ascribe  any  part  of  the  slight  losses  of 
strength  to  the  dietetic  experiment  itself. 

This  opinion  is  confirmed  by  two  facts  :  One  is  that  the  man  who 
was  least  affected  dietetically  by  the  experiment  was  E.,  one  of 
the  three  largest  losers  of  strength,  while  the  men  who  were  most 
affected  dietetically  were  P.  and  W.,  neither  of  whom  lost  strength 
perceptibly,  in  spite  of  P.'s  severe  overwork  and  loss  of  weight.  The 
other  fact  is  that  in  Professor  Chittenden's  experiment,  which  dietet- 
ically was  very  similar,  the  subjects,  who  w'ere  soldiers  and  athletes 
and  not  subject  to  pressure  of  work  of  any  kind,  showed  large  gains 
in  strength.  From  these  two  facts  we  may  infer  that,  so  far  as  the 
diet  is  concerned,  the  effect  would  be  to  increase  rather  than  to 
decrease  strength. 

Changes  in  Physical  Endurance. 

It  is  fortunate  that  the  strength  of  the  men  remained  so  nearl}^ 
stationary  ;  for  it  demonstrates  the  more  clearly  that  the  inci'ease 
in  endurance  which  will  be  shown  below  was  an  increase  in  endur- 
ance per  se,  and  not  in  any  degree  due  to  an  increase  in  strength. 
Strength  and  endurance  are  entirely  distinct  and  should  be  separately 
measured.  The  strength  of  a  muscle  is  measured  by  the  utmost  force 
which  it  can  exert  07ice  ;  its  endurance,  by  the  number  of  times  it 
can  repeat  a  given  exertion  well  within  its  strength. 

After  much  consideration  and  consultation  it  was  decided  not  to. 
place  reliance  on  the  ordinary  ergographs  as  a  means  of  measuring 
endurance.'    Instead,  seven  simple  gymnastic  tests  of  physical  endur- 

^  The  reasons,  in  brief,  were  (1)  because  these  ergographs  are  adapted  to  testing 
only  a  few  unimportant,  and  for  the  most  part  unused,  muscles  ;  (3)  because,  in 
operating  these  devices,  the  subjects  do  not  simulate  real  work,  since  the  mus- 


Fisher — The  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance.  lY 

ance  were  employed,  and  one  of  mental  endurance.  The  seven  phys- 
ical tests  were  : 

(1)  Rising  on  the  toes  as  many  times  as  possible. 

(2)  Deep  knee-bending,-  or  squatting  as  far  as  possible  and  rising  to 

the  standing  posture,  repeating  as  often  as  possible. 

(3)  While  lying  on  the  back,  raising  the  legs  fi'om  the  floor  to  a 

vertical  position  and  lowering  them  again,  repeating  to  the 
point  of  physical  exhaustion. 

(4)  Raising  a  5-lb.  dumb-bell  (with  the  triceps)  in  each  hand  from 

the  shoulder  up  to  the  highest  point  above  the  head,  repeating 
to  the  point  of  physical  exhaustion. 

(5)  Holding  the  arms  from  the  sides  horizontally  for  as  long  a  time 

as  possible. 

(0)  Raising  a  dumb-bell  (with  the  biceps)  in  one  hand  from  a  position 
in  which  the  arm  hangs  down,  up  to  the  shoulder  and  lower- 
ing it  again,  repeating  the  motion  to  the  point  of  physical 
exhaustion.  This  test  was  taken  with  four  successive  dumb- 
bells of  decreasing  weight,  viz.,  50,  25, 10  and  5  lbs.  respectively. 

(T)  Running  on  the  gymnasium  track  at  a  speed  to  suit  the  subject, 
to  as  great  a  distance  as  possible. 

The  mental  test  consisted  of  adding  specified  columns  of  figures 
as  rapidly  as  possible,  the  object  being  to  find  out  whether  the 
rapidity  of  performing  such  work  tended  to  improve  during  the 
experiment. 

From  the  Avisdom  born  of  experience  it  may  be  stated  that  the 
•phj^sical  tests  were  too  numerous  and  too  severe.     But  after   they 

cles  are  placed  in  an  awkward  and  unnatural  position  in  which  "  no  purchase  " 
is  felt  ;  (3)  because  experience  has  shown  that  subjects  waste  their  effort  by 
expending  it  not  only  while  raising  but  while  lowering  the  weight,  and  that  this 
waste  during  the  period  of  relaxation  varies  greatly  with  different  subjects  ;  (4) 
because  a  fixed  weight  is  used  instead  of  a  weight  proportionate  to  the  different 
strengths  of  the  various  subjects.  One  might  as  well  attempt  to  test  the  walk- 
ing powers  of  a  woman  weighing  100  lbs.,  as  compared  with  those  of  a  man  weigh- 
ing 200  lbs.,  by  compelling  the  woman  to  carry  a  100-lb.  weight  so  that  she 
might  walk  with  the  same  weight  as  the  man.  Some  of  these  objections  have 
been  met  in  special  instruments,  such  as  that  of  Prof.  W.  S.  Hall  of  Northwe.st- 
ern  University. 

After  the  experiment  was  half  over,  and  too  late  to  make  use  of  it,  the  writer 
devised  an  ergograph  which,  it  is  believed,  meets  all  of  the  above  objections. 
He  was  led  to  do  so  by  the  fact  that  the  tests  employed  were  so  frightfully 
exhausting  to  the  men.  A  description  of  the  new  ergograph  will  be  published 
later.     It  is  to  be  employed  in  further  tests. 

Trans.  Conn.  Acad.,  Vol.  XIII.  2  Mat,  1907. 


18  JFisher — llie  Effect  of  B let  on  Endurance. 

were  once  adopted  in  January,  it  was  necessary  in  subsequent  tests 
to  adhere  to  them,  so  far  at  least  as  always  to  begin  Avith  the  same 
test  and  follow  the  same  sequence  of  tests  as  far  as  the  series  was 
repeated.  It  is  clear  that  one's  ability  to  succeed  in  an  individual 
test  would  dej)end  greatly  on  what  and  how  many  tests  had  immedi- 
ately preceded  ;  consequently  the  only  modifications  in  the  January 
tests  which  could  legitimately  be  adopted  in  ]March  consisted  in  omit- 
ting all  tests  after  the  first  two  or  three.  These  first  two  or  three, 
being  taken  under  the  same  conditions  as  before,  reflected  correctly 
any  change  in  endurance  so  far  as  those  particular  tests  were  con- 
cerned. 

At  the  final  series  of  tests  in  June,  no  omissions  from  the  January 
l^rogram  were  made  ;  to  save  time,  however,  the  last  two  parts  of 
test  6,  together  with  test  7  (which  came  at  the  end  for  all  the  men), 
wers  repeated  only  up  to  the  point  at  which  they  had  been  carried  in 
January,  although  the  men  were  able  in  June  to  carry  them  much 
further,  and  in  raanj^  cases  did  so  of  their  own  accord.  One  man,  for 
instance  (W.),  who  in  the  run  in  January  was  glad  to  stop  at  10 
laps,  went  on  in  June  to  34,  running  at  the  same  speed  until  near 
the  end  ;  and  this  was  done  after  having  more  than  doubled  his 
former  records  in  almost  all  of  the  other  tests.  The  unlooked-for 
inci'ease  in  endurance  made  the  June  tests  much  more  time-consuming 
than  the  tests  in  January  and  March.  Had  the  men  in  June  taken 
test  7,  and  the  two  last  parts  of  test  6  up  to  the  same  fatigue  limit 
as  in  January,  some  of  them  would  have  had  to  remain  in  the  gym- 
nasium (supperless)  until  bed  time.  One  of  the  men,  who  in  January 
in  the  last  two  parts  of  test  6  raised  the  10-lb.  dumb-bells  318  times 
and  the  5-lb.  dnuib-bells  1,863  times,  Avithout  doubt  could  have  raised 
them  in  June  double  and  probably  treble  these  numbers,  but  to  have 
done  so  would  have  consumed  of  itself  an  hour  and  a  half  of  extra 
time. 

In  view,  therefore,  of  the  only  partial  repetition  of  test  V  and  the 
last  two  parts  of  test  6,  these  records  are  omitted  from  Table  XI. 
The  first  part  of  test  6  (liftuig  the  50-lb.  dumb-bell)  is  also  omitted, 
being  given  separately  below. 

The  following  table  (XI)  shows  the  results  of  the  three  sets  of  tests 
in  January,  March  and  June.'     This  table  will  repay  careful  study. 


^  The  order  in  which  the  tests  were  taken  was  not  the  same  for  all  of  the  nine 
men,  owing  to  the  lack  of  a  sufficient  number  of  gymnasium  assistants  in  taking 
the  tests.  But  care  was  taken  that  each  man  should  himself  i^reserve  the  same 
order  in  all  three  series  of  tests.     Thus,  for  the  March  series  he  took  the  first  two 


Fisher — The  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance.  19 

From  it  we  see  that  with  one  exception  (E.)  all  of  the  men  had  im- 
proved in  the  March  and  June  tests  as  compared  Avith  the  January 
tests,  and  the  eight  men  who  did  improve  showed  improvement  in 
ever}^  test,  except  Lq.,  Lw.  and  T.,  who  showed  slight  falling  off  in 
individual  cases. 

As  inspection  will  show,  some  of  the  increases  are  remarkable. 
The  recorded  increases  in  the  60  odd  cases  were,  with  a  few  excep- 
tions noted  below,  all  true  increases  and  not  due  to  increased  effort 
to  break  a  previous  record.  In  anticipation  of  such  possible  effect 
of  ambition,  the  men  were  urged  in  the  January  tests  to  the  utmost 
limit  they  could  or  would  stand.  The  original  intention  had  been  to 
work  each  muscle  tested  until  it  was  physically  unable  to  repeat  the 
motion,  but  thi§  was  not  usually  found  practicable,  except  in  tests  3,  4 
and  6,  and  in  some  cases  2.  In  the  other  tests  the  will  gave  out  before 
the  muscles.  The  March  and  June  tests  were  so  managed  that  when 
a  man  had  surpassed  his  January  record  he  was  not  allowed  to  pro- 
ceed beyond  the  degree  of  fatigue  which  he  had  reached  in  the  first 
test.  This  was  usually  not  a  difficult  matter,  as  the  fatigue  in 
January  had  been  excessive  and  the  men  had  no  desire  to  suffer 
again  the  painful  after-effects.  Hence,  with  the  exceptions  to  be 
noted,  the  March  and  June  records  not  only  exceeded  those  of  Jan- 
uary, but  were  accomplished  with  much  less  fatigue.  The  actual 
improvement  was  therefore  greater  than  the  recorded  improvement. 

or  three  tests  which  he  had  taken  in  January.  This  explains  why,  in  the  Mai'ch 
series,  the  tests  as  shown  in  the  tables  ai*e  not  the  same  for  all  the  men.  The 
order  of  the  January  and  June  tests  for  the  different  men  is  given  below.  The 
tests  which  were  taken  in  March  are  in  italics. 


B 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

E 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

Lq 

1 

2 

4 

3 

5 

Lw 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

M 

1 

5 

2 

3 

4 

P 

3 

1 

5 

2 

4 

R 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

T 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

W 

3 

5 

1 

2 

4 

20  Fisher — Th<;  Efect  of  Diet  on  Endurance. 

TABLE  XI. 
TESTS  OF  PHYSICAL  ENDURANCE. 

B         E         Lq        Lw      M  P  R  T  W 

(   Rising   Jan.   300  1007   333'  69  •  127  1482   702   900   1263 
(1)-    on    Mar.  400'^  1265'  2620^  65'  400'  ....   831=  1500*  .... 
/   Toes   June  500-  1061'  3000"  85^  1500"'  1800=  1263^  ISOO*  3350^ 

(   Deep   Jan.   82   142    70   48   132   208   374   129   404 

(2)-        Knee        Mar.      ...        ...       191'     47' 

(    Bending     June     200^       81'     202=     58'     loo^     230=     453'     250*      508* 

(        T  Jan.       25«      52«        9^    22*      30«    27«        50«      23«        30" 

(3)-^     15    ^^'         Mar. ...       336     _  346       406 

(     i*ai«i"g     Jxane       33"       38 «      20"     35"       31"     37«       103 «       19"        53 « 

(      5-lb.        Jan.       75 «     138 «      78 «    38 «      51"    44 «      100 «      83 «      185 « 

(4) -^  Dumb-bell  Mar.      ...       ...       106«  ._.       ...     ... 

(    (triceps)     June     127"       59 «      80"     51"       75"     56"       104"     101"      501" 

MS       MS       M     S      M     S        MS       MS        MS       MS        MS 

f    Holding    Jan.    5-  0     1-33     4-  7     3-37    3-30    5-39     2-  5     3-22    11-  0 

(5)^       Arms       Mar 5-49 15-35 

[-Horizontal  Ji;ne  9-36"  2-56'  3-50'  3-  0'  6-  5     10-1*  3-16'  3-24'  23-45' 

,«,  i  T.  "'V^  11   Jan.        50"       18"       16"       6"      20"     11"         10"       25"        54" 
]    (bice  s)     ^"""^     105"      10"      26"    33"      30"    29"        27 »      75  ^      108  ^ 

Criticism  of  Mecords  of  Physical  Endurance. 

That  the  fatigue  after  the  March  and  June  tests  was  in  general 
much  less  than  after  the  January  test  was  made  evident  by  three 
substantial  proofs.  The  first  was  the  feelings  of  the  men  themselves 
as  recorded  in  the  foot-notes  to  Table  XI.  After  the  March  and  J  une 
tests,  every  man  of  the  eight  who  showed  improvement  felt  "  not 
tired,"  or  "  less  tired  than  in  January  test,"  which  is  the  same  as 
saying  "not  exhausted";  or  else  he  had  gone  "  to  limit"  as  in  Jan- 
uary, which  means  that  the  muscle  itself  refused  to  continue  work. 
The  last  was  usually  true  of  the  "leg-raising,"  "raising  5-lb.  dumb- 
bell (triceps)"  and  "raising  25-lb.  dumb-bell  (biceps)".  The  o\\]y  tests 
in  which  there  was  the  possibility  of  being  mistaken  as  to  the  degree 
of  fatigue  were  the  "rising  on  toes"  and  "holding  arms  horizontal." 
In  the  former  fatigue  comes  so  slowly,  and  in  the  latter  the  pain  is 
so  intense  that  they  prove  to  be  tests  of  will  power  or  "grit  "  quite  as 


^  Cramped. 

=  Not  as"  tired  as  in  January  test. 

^  Not  to  limit. 

*  Not  nearly  as  tired  as  in  January  test. 

*  Not  tired. 

"  To  limit  of  muscle's  eapacity. 

'  About  same  fatigue  as  in  January, 


Fisher — The  Fffect  of  Diet  on  Endurance.  21 

much  as  of  muscle  power.  In  these  cases  the  men  had  some  difficulty 
in  remembering  the  original  degree  of  fatigue.  But  the  increases 
were  so  great  and  the  men  were  so  positive  as  to  their  feelings  that 
there  remains  little  room  to  doubt  the  substantial  correctness  of  the 
results.  In  a  few  other  individual  cases,  as  of  Lw.  and  Lq.,  whose 
records  in  test  1  were  sometimes  stopped  by  cramps,  there  is  some 
room  for  doubt  as  to  the  correctness  of  the  recorded  improvement. 

The  second  proof  that  tlie  fatigue  of  the  men  in  the  June  tests  was 
less  than  that  in  the  January  tests  was  found  in  the  fact  that  the 
stiffness  and  soreness  which  followed  in  June  were  markedly  less 
than  in  January  and  of  much  shorter  duration.  This  Avas  true  of  all 
the  eight  men  who  showed  improvement,  except  R. 

The  third  proof  of  less  fatigue  in  June  than  in  January  for  the 
eight  men  is  that  in  June  the  men  finished  the  ordeal  of  the  endurance 
tests  with  more  strength  left  than  in  January,  although,  as  we  saw 
from  Table  X,  they  began  the  two  tests  with  slightly  less  strength. 
The  fact  that  they  had  more  strength  left  after  the  June  test  is  made 
evident  by  the  first  part  of  test  6,  given  below,  which  in  each  case 
came  after  the  endurance  tests  were  nearly  or  quite  finished.  This 
consisted  in  lifting  a  50-lb.  dumb-bell.  The  weight  being  so  great, 
this  was  practically  a  test  of  strength  rather  than  of  endurance. 
Now  all  of  the  eight  men  who  showed  improvement  in  the  endurance 
tests  of  Table  XI,  showed  improvement  in  this  strength  test  also,  as 
the  following  table  shows : 

TABLE  XII. 
LIFTING  (by  biceps)  50-lb.  DUMB-BELL.  ^ 


B 

E 

Lq 

Lw 

M 

p 

R 

T 

W 

Jan. 

03 

13 

13 

03 

13 

03 

43 

33 

133 

Jime 

13 

03 

53 

83 

133 

13 

10  3 

132 

26  3 

Bnt,  as  we  have  seen  in  Table  X,  the  strength  tests  taken  before 
the  endnrance  tests  showed  a  slight  falling  off  in  June  as  compared 
with  Januar}?^  for  all  but  one  (Lq.)  of  these  eight  men.  In  other  words, 
in  June  the  men  began  their  endurance  tests  weaker  than  in  Jan- 
uary, but  finished  them  stronger.     The  larger  residuum  of  strength 

•^  This  part  of  test  6,  being  one  of  strength  rather  than  of  endnrance,  was  not 
included  in  the  endurance  Table  XI.  Had  it  been  included  it  would  have 
increased  even  more  the  percentage  of  improvement  shown,  for  it  shows  an 
average  increase  from  2.4  to  8.4,  or  250^. 

2  Not  to  limit. 

3  To  limit  of  muscle's  capacity. 


22  FtsJier — I'lu   Ejf'ect  of  Diet  on  Ev durance. 

left  after  the  June  tests  as  compared  with  the  Janiiar}'  tests  indicates 
that  the  June  tests,  in  si)ite  of  being  far  more  severe,  fatigued  the 
men  less. 

The  50-lb.  dumb-bell  test  resolved  the  last  doubts  in  my  own  mind 
whether,  for  some  of  the  men,  the  recorded  results  might  not  exag- 
gerate the  true  improvement.  The  two  men  of  whose  records  I 
should  have  felt  a  little  doubt  were  B.  and  R.  Both  of  them  came 
to  the  June  test  after  prolonged  mental  exertion,  and  their  exhaustion 
at  the  end  was  far  more  evident  than  that  of  any  of  the  others.  That  it 
was  great  is  clear  from  their  own  statements  given  below,  though 
onh^  R.  reported  himself  as  having  been  about  as  stiff  and  sore  after 
the  June  as  after  the  January  tests.  But  both  B.  and  R.,  whereas 
they  had  less  strength  (Table  X)  before  the  June  endurance  tests 
than  before  the  January  tests,  had  more  strength  left  (Table  XII) 
after  the  June  tests  than  after  the  January  tests.  At  the  close  of 
the  January  tests  they  were  so  exhausted  that  B.  could  not  raise 
the  50-lb.  dumb-bell  at  all  and  R.  could  raise  it  onl}-  4  times.  Had 
their  exhaustion  after  the  June  tests  been  as  great,  it  seems  certain 
that  B.  would  still  have  been  unable  to  raise  it,  and  R,  would  have 
been  unable  to  raise  it  more  than  4  times  ;  but  as  it  was,  B.  raised 
it  once  and  R.  10  times. 

The  value  of  such  a  positive  proof  that  the  June  tests  were  more 
easily  endured  than  those  of  January  was  not  perceived  until  the 
figures  were  analj^zed.  Had  it  occurred  to  me  in  time,  all  the  strength 
tests  taken  before  the  endurance  tests  would  have  been  repeated  after 
them.  It  is  true  that  the  strength  tests  at  the  beginning  were  not 
of  the  same  muscles  as  those  (the  biceps)  used  in  the  strength  test  by 
dumb-bells  at  the  end,  but,  as  Table  X  shows,  the  strengths  of  different 
muscles  for  the  most  part  vary  in  unison  wnth  each  other.' 

It  is  significant  that  the  ox^y  ^ii^^i  whose. strength,  as  shown  by  the 
above  table,  was  less  at  the  close  of  the  June  experiuient  than  at  the 
close  of  the  January  experiment  was  E.,  who  was  also  the  onl^^  man 
whose  endurance  showed  any  reduction.  The  facts,  therefore,  in  his 
case  are  not  discordant  with  those  already  stated  ;  for,  as  has  been 
stated,  E.was  the  least  assiduous  in  following  the  experiment.    This  was 


'  Out  of  the  108  comparisons  of  strength  (i.  e. ,  comparisons  for  each  of  nine 
men  in  each  of  four  tests  for  January  vs.  March,  March  vs.  June,  and  January 
vs.  June),  only  20  are  discordant  with  the  general  trend  as  shown  by  the  totals. 
Thus,  for  B.  the  general  trend  between  March  and  June  as  shown  by  the  total 
was  downward,  and  this  downward  trend  is  found  in  all  but  one  of  his  four  tests 
the  discordant  case  being  the  "back  lift." 


.Fisher — 71ie  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance.  23 

often  remarked,  both  to  him  and  to  me,  by  the  other  members  of  the 
club,  and  it  was  suggested  more  than  once  that  I  should  "nudge" 
liim.  But,  as  I  had  been  desiring  a  "control,"  or  a  subject  in  wliich 
all  the  conditions  except  mastication  were  the  same  as  for  the  other 
men,  I  decided  to  say  nothing.  The  result  was  instructive,  for  E.'s 
case  stood  out  as  exceptional  in  almost  all  respects.  His  reduction 
in  quantity  of  food  (Table  III),  except  for  a  spurt  at  the  end,  was 
less  than  of  most  of  the  men  ;  his  reduction  in  proteid  (Table  IV), 
with  the  same  exception,  was  the  least  of  all ;  his  reduction  in 
<,uantity  of  flesh  foods  (Table  V)  was  the  least  of  all  ;  his  nitrogen  in 
June  (Table  VI)  was  one  of  the  highest  ;  his  reduction  in  volume  of 
urine  (Table  VII)  was  one  of  the  lowest  two  ;  his  improvement 
in  the  fecal  tests  (Table  VIII)  was  third  to  lowest  ;  his  loss  of 
strength  (Table  X)  was  second  greatest  ;  and  as  to  endurance,  he 
was  the  only  one  who  failed  to  show  improvement. 

There  was  only  one  other  man,  M.,  who  was  thought,  though  in  a 
smaller  degree,  to  masticate  less  carefully  than  the  experiment  called 
for  ;  and  for  him  we  find  corresponding  peculiarities,  though  in  a 
smaller  degree.  Thus,  his  reduction  in  total  daily  food  (Table  III) 
was  less  than  of  most  of  the  men  ;  his  reduction  in  proteid  (Table 
IV)  was  less  than  the  average  reduction  ;  his  reduction  in  flesh 
foods  (Table  V)  was  the  third  smallest  ;  his  June  nitrogen  was  the 
highest  (Table  VI)  ;  his  reduction  in  quantity  of  urine  (Table  VIl) 
was  one  of  the  lowest  two  ;  his  improvement  in  fecal  test  (Table  VIII) 
was  second  to  lowest ;  his  loss  of  strength  (Table  X)  was  the  third 
greatest  (or  fourth,  if  measured  in  percentage)  ;  and  his  increase  in 
endurance,  though  great,  was  (except  in  test  1,  which  is  subject  to 
some  doubt)  less  than  the  average. 

The  shortcomings  of  these  two  men,  E.  and  M.,  as  to  mastication 
were  not  intentional,  but  due  to  carelessness  and  force  of  habit,  as 
well  as,  in  the  case  of  M.,  to  the  fact  that  he  waited  on  table  and  felt 
naturally  more  pressed  for  time.  Their  experience  is  valuable  in 
showing  that,  in  a  general  way,  the  changes  in  diet  and  endurance 
were  proportionate  to  the  thoroughness  of  mastication  and  the  follow- 
ing of  natural  appetite. 

The  men  kept  diaries  in  which  are  recorded  their  sufferings  after 
the  various  tests.  These  show  a  decided  lessening  in  stiffness  and  sore- 
ness in  the  later  tests,  though  in  the  June  tests  the  men  had  generally 
done  double  the  amount  of  work  that  they  had  done  in  January.  It 
would  have  been  a  physical  impossibility  to  do  as  much  in  January 
as  was  easily  accomplished  in  June  in  tests  3,  4  and  6  ;  and  granted 


24  Fisher — Tlie  Ejfect  of  Diet  on  Endurance. 

that  it  had  been  even  possible  in  January  to  goad  the  men  to  do  as 
much  in  tests  1,  2  and  5  as  they  did  without  urging  in  June,  they 
must  certainly  have  been  ill. 

The  following  are  statements  from  the  men  themselves  : 

Personal  Impressions  at  end  of  Experiment. 

(B)  I  was -"e?7/ sore  [after  the  June  test,  Saturday,  June  16,  1906]' 
However,  1  think  the  soreness  was  not  so  severe  or  lasting  as  it  was 
after  the  January  test.  The  muscles  of  my  right  arm  were  swollen 
considerably  and  I  Avas  unable  to  straighten  it  for  two  or  three 
days.  But  the  swelling  was  not  so  severe  as  it  was  after  the 
earlier  test  and  the  arm  was  much  more  usable.  The  muscles  of  the 
thighs  were  the  sorest ;  they  were  nearly  worn  out.  During  Sunday, 
Monday  and  Tuesday  after  the  test  I  had  difficulty  in  walking  ;  and 
going  down  stairs  Avas  quite  a  difficult  and  severe  undertaking. 
Wednesday  morning  the  soreness  had  not  left,  though  it  had  de- 
creased considerably.  I  took  a  considerable  tramp  that  day,  and  by 
night  I  coidd  scarcely  feel  the  soreness  at  all.  By  Thursday  I  had 
practically  regained  my  normal  endurance ;  walked  six  or  seven 
miles  that  day.  The  calf-muscles  too  Avere  quite  sore,  but  much  less 
so  than  after  the  January  test.  There  was  another  particular  dis- 
tinction. After  the  earlier  test  the  calf-muscles  were  hard  and 
knotted  for  several  days  ;  but  this  time,  Avhile  they  were  sore,  they 
Avere  almost  normally  soft.  Saturday  evening  Avhen  I  Avent  to  bed 
they  Avere  quite  hard,  but  Sunday  morning  they  AA'ere  normal  and 
practically  remained  so.     .     .     . 

I  have  no  doubt  that  in  my  case  there  Avas  great  increase  in 
endurance,  though  I  think  that  I  lost  in  amount  of  energy  that  I 
could  exert  at  any  given  moment.  This  loss  is  due  perhaps  to  two 
things  ;  (1)  I  took,  on  the  Avhole,  less  exercise  than  during  the  time 
preceding  the  January  test  ;  (2)  I  had  been  working  quite  hard  for 
three  months  steadily,  Avhile  the  January  test  followed  a  three  weeks' 
vacation  during  which  I  did  little  or  nothing.  As  to  increase  of 
endurance  there  can  be  no  doubt.  '  For  example,  in  the  deep  knee- 
bending,  I  began  to  get  tired  at  50  and  had  no  idea  of  going  above 
100.  When  I  reached  this  I  set  my  goal  at  125,  then  150,  160,  and 
was  able  to  reach  200  before  I  was  exhausted.  In  January',  after  I 
Avas  tired  I  Avas  not  able  to  go  on  very  long  before  I  became  com- 
pletely exhausted.  This  shows  increased  endurance.  I  had  the 
same  experience  in  the  other  hard  physical  tests.  In  case  of  the  run, 
I  Avas  sure  I  could  not  go  more  than  three  laps  after  my  iirst  lap ; 


Fisher — The  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance.  25 

but  I  made  11  or  12  and  could  have  ifone  several  more.  Considerinsr 
everything,  I  have  no  doubt  that  I  was  able  to  hang  on  much  longer, 
after  I  began  to  get  tired,  ihan  in  January. 

I  am  at  a  loss  to  ascribe  the  increased  endurance  to  anything  else 
than  to  the  diet.  M}'-  way  of  living  otherwise  continued  about  the 
same  after  the  Januar^^  test  as  it  was  before.  .  .  .  Personally  I 
am  convinced  that  the  increased  endurance  must  be  due  to  diet  and 
manner  of  eating  ;  all  other  factors  that  I  can  think  of  are  unfavor- 
able rather  than  favorable  to.  more  endurance.  I  am  convinced  to 
the  extent  that  I  shall  certainlv  continue  "  Fletcherizing"  and  usino- 
a  low-proteid  diet. 

(E)  All  effects  of  [June]  test  disappeared  entirely  Avithin  four 
days.     [Effects  of  January  test  lasted  six  days.] 

(Lq)  The  stiffness  and  soreness  had  entirely  disappeared  in  four 
days.  It  was  not  nearly  so  severe  as  the  test  in  January.  After  I 
was  through  in  January  I  could  hardly  go  down  the  stairs  of  the 
Gymnasium,  and  three  days  after  the  test  going  up  and  down  stairs 
was  accompanied  with  a  great  deal  of  pain.  ...  I  was  stupid 
mentally  for  a  whole  week  the  first  time,  but  in  the  last  test  I  passed 
that  stage  in  a  couple  of  days.  .  .  .  Had  it  not  been  for  the  late 
hours  and  long  stretches  of  work,  I  should  have  been  able  to  make  a 
better  comparison  Avitli  conditions  in  January,  though  as  it  was 
results  show  improvement.     .     .     . 

I  cannot  say  as  to  the  help  mentally  I  have  derived,  for  I  have, 
always  gone  to  my  limit  and  I  would  be  unwilling  to  make  any  posi- 
tive statement.  As  for  the  physical,  I  know  there  is  an  improve- 
ment there,  for  my  stomach,  which  was  never  so  very  strong,  has 
been  gi-eatly  helped. 

(Lw)  There  was  no  stiffness  or  soreness  felt  in  the  triceps  or  the 
stomach  muscles  as  the  result  of  the  last  tests.  The  thieh  muscles 
were  a  little  stiff  on  the  second  day  only — about  such  stiffness  as  one 
might  expect  from  a  long  walk.  The  calves  of  my  legs  began  to 
stiffen  on  Friday  [June  15, 1906,  the  day  after  the  test]  and  continued 
to  do  so  on  Saturda}',  after  which  the  stiffening  began  to  lessen,  and  was 
scarcely  felt  on  Monday.  The  biceps  of  my  right  arm  gave  me  the 
most  trouble.  These  were  sore  on  Frida}'  A.  M.  and  continued  to 
increase  in  soreness  till  Sunday  evening,  feeling  Avorst,  however, 
Sunday  A.  M.  When  I  arose  Mondav  A.  M.  all  the  soreness  and 
stiffness  had  disappeared.  A  peculiarity  about  the  latter  whicli  im- 
pressed me  was  the  fact  that  although  my  arm  was  very  sore  it  did 
not  seem  to  be  v^ry  stiff.     After  the  tests  in  January  I   could  not 


26  Fisher — The  Ejfect  of  Diet  on  End  urn  nee. 

straighten  my  arm,  Imt  I  could  after  the  last  tests  in  spite  of  the 
extreme  soreness.  I  had  entirel}'  recovered  by  Monday  from  the 
tests.  At  no  time  after  the  tests  did  I  feel  any  pain  in  proceeding 
up  and  down  stairs,  and  if  I  remember  rightly  I  couldn't  sa}'  the  same 
in  January;  neither  did  I  feel  particularly  uncomfortable  at  any  time. 
After  the  half-mile  run  and  the  lifting  tests  which  I  took  later,  I  felt 
no  soreness  or  stiffness  afterward. 

I  think  the  credit  must  be  given  to  the  diet  experiment.  I  have 
worked  harder  from  January  to  June  than  ever  before,  and  have  taken 
less  exercise.  As  my  mental  work  was  so  different  from  that  previous,' 
I  cannot  form  an  estimate  of  an}-  increase  or  decrease  in  efficiency, 
but  as  I  have  said  before,  I  always  rested  up  more  quickh\  During 
tlie  spring  I  have  not  felt  that  "all  gone  feeling"  which  usually  has 
ap])eared  in  the  past.  The  diet  which  we  have  had  has  relieved  me 
of  the  sour  stomach  after  meals,  and  I  have  felt  better  and  worked 
harder  on  less  exercise  than  ever  before.  .  .  .  After  a  moderate 
amount  of  exercise,  I  have  felt  no  such  stiffness  as  used  to  come. 

(M)  The  stift'ness  and  soreness  were  entirely  worn  off  in  two 
days.  I  did  not  feel  it  nearly  as  much  as  I  did  last  January.  In  fact, 
I  did  not  exert  myself  to  the  utmost  this  last  time  because  I  had  sev- 
eral examinations  to  take  a  dav  or  two  later. 

My  general  impression  is  that  the  experiment  was  an  all  around 
benefit  to  me.  I  fully  believe  that  during  the  tests,  they  reflected 
the  true  state  of  the  case  in  showing  my  efficiency  in  June  compared 
with  that  in  January,  I  believe  that  there  was  a  decided  improve- 
ment in  efficienc}^  and  could  ascribe  it  partly  to  my  exercise  and  the 
other  part  to  the  new  manner  of  eating,  I  believe,  however,  that  my 
exercise  played  a  ver^'  small  part  because  I  think  what  I  gained  in 
exercise  I  lost  in  sickness  [mumps], 

^\x  exercise  this  year  was  practically  the  same  as  years  preceding. 
After  April  1st  I  had  very  little  exercise,  on  account  of  the  mumps. 
This  left  me  in  a  weak  condition  over  a  month,  I  had  lots  of  woi"k 
.  to  make  up  and  studied  harder  from  April  to  June  than  anv  other 
]»eriod  of  my  course.  My  exercise  was  neglected  these  three  months 
and  I  studied  almost  constanth'  every  day  and  until  12  at  night. 

My  experience  has  shown  me  that  I  was  at  my  best  in  mind  and 
body  when  I  ate  meat  four  times  a  week.  I  have  tried  both  more  and 
less  and  found  the  above  to  be  the  medium.  I  also  found  that  I  could 
do  more  when  I  had  the  largest  meal  at  noon.  The  greatest  benefit 
of  the  experiment  to  me  ])ersonally  is  that  last  year  I  broke  down  in 
the  spring  term  and  this  spring  I  kept  up  my  work  and  health  in  a 
much  better  condition. 


Fisher — The  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance.  27 

(1*)  I  went  into  the  second  test  witli  some  trepidation,  knowing 
tliat  I  had  lost  considerable  weight  the  preceding  ten  weeks. 
Physicall}',  I  cannot  say  that  I  felt  stronger  before  the  second  test 
than  before  the  first  ;  nor  did  I  feel  weaker.  As  the  test  developed, 
however,  I  soon  saw  that  my  endurance,  both  mental  and  physical, 
had  increased. 

Generally  speaking,  the  soreness  was  less  extensive,  less  trying  or 
acute,  and  (I  think)  shorter-lived  than  in  Januar}'.  ...  It  seems 
to  rae,  as  1  finished  the  test  much  fresher  than  in  January,  a  clear 
gain  in  efficiency  is  proven.  The  test  seemed  certainly  to  make  a 
true  report.     .     . 

I  can  ascribe  gain  in  endurance  to  nothing  but  the  diet  and  thor- 
ough mastication.  Every  other  factor  in  the  situation  was  against 
this  gain — exercise,  of  which  T  took  certainly  no  more  than  usual 
and  in  the  latter  weeks  much  less  ;  work,  of  which  I  had  had  a  long, 
hard  pull  as  against  the  three  weeks'  rest  preceding  the  January 
test  ;  sleep,  much  decreased  for  most  of  May  and  June.  You  stated 
last  December  that  you  wished  ever}^  factor  to  be  in  favor  of  the 
first  test  and  against  the  second.  This  condition  has  been  true  in 
high  degree  for  my  case.  .  .  Whatever  the  efficacy  of  the  two 
tests  in  proving  the  superiority  of  low  proteid  and  thorough  masti- 
cation for  the  other  members  of  the  club,  I  feel  convinced  that  they 
prove  that  superiority  with  considerable  force  in  my  own  case. 

I  have  tried  meat  and  chicken  a  number  of  times  in  the  last  two 
weeks,  partly  from  curiosity  and  partly  from  necessity.  But  in  every 
case  anticipation  has  been  pleasanter  than  realization,  and  vlv^  low- 
proteid  tendencies  bid  fair  to  remain  for  some  time  to  come.  I  may 
say  that  I  had  no  opinion  on  the  diet  question  when  the  experiment 
started,  but  am  now  a  hearty  low-proteid  exponent. 

I  went  into  the  test  with  considerable  foreboding  as  to  my  endur- 
ance showing  ;  for  I  have  Avorked  now  without  a  break  for  twenty- 
two  weeks  at  hard  mental  labor,  the  last  two  weeks  being  especially 
confining  and  involving  large  losses  of  sleep  and  exercise.  I  may 
say  that  I  have  been  unusually  well  for  six  or  eight  weeks,  and 
bowels  have  been  running  with  greater  ease  and  constancy  than  for 
several  years,  .  .  The  end iirance-tests,  showing  a  good  increase 
in  every  test,  consequently  came  as  a  complete  surprise  ;  and  my 
self-confidence,  largely  absent  at  the  start,  returned  in  increasing 
measure  as  the  test  went  on.     .     , 

Thursday,  June  21  [5  days  after  test].  Played  golf  this  morning 
and  afternoon   (9  holes  each  time)  with  perfect  ease,  no  difficulty 


28  Fisher — Jlie  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance. 

with  walking  or  driving  tlic  l)all.     Soreness  wholly  gone  at  present 
writing,  no  touch  of  it  noticeable  anywhere. 

(R)  The  outcome  of  the  last  endurance  test  was  about  the  same 
as  the  one  held  January  14,  1906.  I  was  feai'fully  sore  for  about  one 
week,  reaching  the  climax  at  the  middle  of  the  week. 

(T)  '{''hroughout  the  test  I  passed  from  one  event  to  another 
with  much  shorter  periods  between  than  I  did  in  January.  With  the 
exception  of  lying  on  my  back  and  raising  my  feet,  I  at  no  time  ap- 
proached as  near  exhaustion  as  I  did  in  Januar3%  In  Januar}^,  in  rising 
on  my  toes  and  in  the  deep  knee-bending,  I  continued  till  I  fell  to 
the  floor.  I  was  not  exhausted  at  the  close  [of  the  June  test],  but 
marked  papers  for  2^  hours  before  going  to  bed.  Sunday  I  scarcely 
felt  anj^  the  worse,  though  my  muscles  felt  a  little  queer  when  I  poked 
my  finger  into  them.  Monday  m^^  leg  muscles  were  a  little  stiff 
after  a  period  of  rest,  but  not  painful  in  the  least.  My  right  shoulder 
was  a  trifle  lame,  due  wholly  I  think  to  hitting  it  once  in  a  while  in 
the  last  test  with  the  10  and  5;lb.  weights.  My  right  arm  at  the 
elbow  was  decidedly  lame  and  would  not  admit  of  being  completely 
straightened,  though  it  was  undoubtedly  better  than  in  January. 
By  Tuesday  all  the  other  stiffness  had  practically  left  me  except  the 
right  elbow,  which  was,  however,  better.  By  Thursday  I  was  unable 
to  detect  any  soreness  whatever  in  any  part. 

(W)  May  31.  After  the  test  I  felt  fairly  tired  and  ready  to  quit 
— however,  not  nearly  so  exhausted  as  before  in  January.  Could 
walk  down  stairs  with  more  confidence  and  could  raise  my  supper  to 
my  mouth  much  more  easily  than  after  the  first  test.  .  .  .  The 
results  certainly  far  surpassed  any  expectation  I  had,  especially  as 
in  the  morning  I  did  not  feel  quite  as  spry  and  active  as  usual,  due 
to  a  little  unusual  over-exertion  the  previous  day. 

June  1.     Sore  in  thighs  and  biceps,  also  felt  my  abdominal  muscles. 

June  2.  Expected  to  be  much  worse  on  this  the  second  daj^,  as  in 
January,  but  not  so.  About  same  as  yesterday.  Later  in  the  day 
could  run  up-stairs  two  steps  at  a  time  as  I  could  yesterday— a  thing 
undreamed  of  in  January  for  over  a  week  after  the  test. 

June  3.  Felt  pretty  well  today,  much  improved  over  yesterday, 
still  felt  my  thighs  in  walking  down  hill  or  down  stairs,  but  not 
nearly  as  bad  as  yesterday. 

June  4.  Feel  my  thighs  only  very  little,  other  muscles  not  felt  at 
all.     Rode  a  bic^^cle  5^  miles  ;  did  not  feel  it. 

•Tune  5.     Seem  to  be  all  well,  haven't  noticed  a  soreness  all  day. 


Fisher — The  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance.  29 

The  following  table  expresses  the  percentage  of  improvement  in 
the  records  of  Table  XI. 

TABLE    XIII. 
IMPROVEMENT  IN  PHYSICAL  ENDURANCE  IN  PERCENTAGES. 


\ 

B 

E 

Lq 

Lw 

M 

P 

R 

T 

W 

<i)  \  \Z.- 

-Mar. 
-June 

33  + 

66  + 

36  ± 

686- 

800- 

-5± 
23  + 

315  + 
1081  + 

"21  + 

18  + 
79  + 

66  + 
100  + 

165  + 

..,s  S  Jan. 
^^>    ]Jau. 

-Mar. 
-June 

144  + 

-43  ± 

172  ± 
188  + 

-2  + 
21  + 

"17  + 

"16  + 

'21  + 

"94  + 

"26  + 

..T,  S  Jan. 

-Mar. 
-June 

'33 

-37 

122- 

50 
59 

"•"3 

26 
37 

106 

-17 

33 

77 

iA\    i  Jan. 
^^^    ^Jau. 

-Mar. 
-June 

"69 

-57 

36 
2 

"34 

'47 

"27 

'"4 

"33 

170 

.-,  \  Jan. 
'•'^    iJan. 

-Mar. 
-June 

'92- 

"89  ± 

"-7± 

-17  + 

66  + 

74  + 

"77  + 

"56  + 

"'i± 

43  + 
115  + 

(6)  \  Jan. 

-June 

110 

-44 

62 

450 

50 

163 

170 

200 

100  + 

A    i  Jan. 
^^-  ]  Jan. 

-Mar. 
-June 

33  + 

85  ± 

26  ± 
-13± 

298  + 
194± 

14  + 
95  + 

140  + 
312  + 

26 
56  + 

18  + 

73  + 

66  + 
66  + 

37  + 
109  + 

In  the  preceding  table  most  of  the  figures  are  succeeded  by  a  "  +  ", 
which  signifies  that  the  true  improvement  was  greater  than  the 
figures  indicate.  Thus,  the  first  entry  in  Table  XIII,  "  33  +  ",  means 
that  B.'s  improvement  between  January  and  March  in  test  (I) 
(rising  on  toes)  was  more  than  33^.  Similai'ly,  "686- "for  Lq.  in 
same  test  means  that  improvement  was  less  than  686,'^.  Again, 
"215+ "for  M.'s  same  test  signifies  that  his  improvement  in  this 
test  may  have  been  greater  or  less  than  215^.  Finally,  when  any 
figure  is  not  followed  by  a  sign,  as  for  instance,  B.'s  (3)  (leg  raising), 
the  meaning  is  that  the  figure  given  is,  humanly  speaking,  correct. 
This  accuracy  applies  only  to  those  tests  in  which  the  muscles  were 
worked  till  they  were  physicalh'"  unable  to  repeat  the  movement. 
The  reasons  for  the  various  suflixes  may  be  found  by  studying  the 
foot-notes  of  Table  XI.' 

^  For  instance  the  "  +  "  after  33  for  B.'s  (1)  is  explained  by  the  fact  (as  indi- 
cated in  the  foot-note  to  Table  XI)  that  after  his  March  test  he  was  not  as  fatigued 
as  after  his  January  test,  although  he  had  improved  upon  his  January  record 
by  33^.  The  only  cases  in  which  the  explanation  of  the  suffixes  will  not  be 
found  from  the  foot-notes  to  Table  XI  are  the  following:  E.'s  (1),  36  +  ,  in 
which  case  the  "  — "  is  inserted  owing  to  the  fact  that  E.  had  come  to  the  March 
test  after  the  refreshment  of  a  nap  ;  and  M.'s  (1),  1081  + ,  in  which  case  the  "  — " 
is  inserted  owing  to  the  fact  that  this  high  figure  is  inconsistent  with  the  other 
results  of  the  test,  it  being  thought  that  M.  may  have  been  mistaken  in  his 


30  Fisher — 7^7/6  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance. 

The  t:il)k'  .shows  enormous  differences  in  the  figures  even  of  the 
same  man  for  the  same  period.  Tlius,  the  June  improvement  of 
\V.  reads  165 +,  20 4- ,  77,  17o,  11 5 ±,  100  +  .  Such  wide  differences 
between  the  improvements  in  different  tests  seem  puzzling  at  first, 
but  they  are  explained,  partly  if  not  wholly,  by  two  reasons.  The 
first  is  the  obvious  one  that  many  of  the  figures  are  not  exact  records, 
but  understatements,  and  naturally  their  margin  within  the  truth 
will  vary  widely.  Thus,  the  records  for  deep  knee-bending  (2)  for 
W.  show  merely  that  the  improvement  is  ooer  26^c  ;  the  true  figure 
may  well  be  100^,  which  would  be  more  consistent  with  the  other 
figures.  But  the  deep  knee-bending  test  had  been  found  in  January 
very  painful  and  inconvenient  in  its  after-effects,  and  there  was  there- 
fore less  inclination  in  the  June  tests  to  approach  closely  to  the  limit 
in  this  particular  test. 

The  other  reason  is  that  in  some  tests  a  larger  fraction  of  the  total 
strength  of  the  muscle  tested  was  called  into  play  than  in  others. 
Thus,  "leg  raising"  requires  a  very  large  fraction  of  the  strength  of 
the  abdominal  muscles,  while  "rising  on  toes"  requires  only  a  small 
fraction  of  the  strength  of  the  calf  muscles.  This  may  explain  why, 
in  general,  the  improvement  in  the  test  of  the  calf  muscles  seemed 
so  much  greater  than  in  that  of  the  abdominal  muscles.  This  expla- 
nation is,  however,  purely  hypothetical.  It  would  be  interesting  to 
find  out  experimentall}^  how  much  an  improvement  in  the  endurance 
of  a  muscle  shows  itself  when  it  is  exerted  in  different  degrees,  sa}'  to 
Ibfc,  oOfi  and  25^  of  its  strength-capacity.' 

Bearing  in  mind  these  two  possible  reasons  for  the  variations  in  the 
figures,  and  also  the  fact  that  there  must  have  been  more  or  less  actual 
differences  in  the  improvement  of  different  muscles,  we  need  not  be 
surprised  at  the  disparities  which  the  table  shows. 

If  we  omit  the  cases  in  which  the  records  are  at  all  doubtful  (with 
suffix  ±)  or  exaggerated  (suffix  — ),  we  have  left  the  following  table 
for  the  eight  men  who  showed  improvement  : 


remembrance  of  his  January  test.  The  "  — "  has  been  inserted  whenever  there 
was  the  slightest  groimd  of  any  kind  for  thinking  the  figures  might  be  overstate- 
ments. With  these  figures  weeded  out,  the  remaining  ones  certainly  understate 
the  actual  improvement. 

'  The  original  object  of  using  the  graded  dnmb-bells,  oO-lb.,  25-lb.,  10-lb., 
and  5-lb. ,  for  testing  the  biceps,  was  to  throw  light  on  this  problem  ;  bnt  for 
reasons  previously  stated,  these  tests  were  not  fully  carried  ont. 


Fisher — The  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance.  31 

TABLE  XIV. 

PERCENTAGE  OF  IMPEOVEMENT  (exact  or  understated) 
OF  EIGHT  MEN. 


B 

Lq 

Lw 

M 

P 

R 

T 

W 

(1) 

Jan. -Mar. 
Jan. -June 

;53  + 

66  + 

..- 

..- 

... 

'21  + 

18  + 

79  + 

66  + 

100  + 

165  + 

(2) 

/  Jan. -Mar. 
t  Jan. -June 

144  + 

188  + 

--- 

"17  + 

"10  + 

... 

'94  + 

'26  + 

(3) 

\  Jan. -Mar. 
(  Jan. -June 

':'52 

--- 

50 
59 

"3 

26 
37 

106 

-17 

33 

77 

(4) 

\  Jan. -Mar. 
(  Jan. -June 

'69 

36 
3 

'34 

'47 

"27 

""4 

'22 

170 

(•5) 

j  Jan. -Mar. 
/  Jan. -June 

--- 

--- 

--- 

--- 

77  + 

... 

..- 

... 

(6) 

-[  Jan. -June 

no 

62 

450 

50 

163 

170 

200 

100  + 

Av. 

j  Jan. -Mar. 
]  Jan. -June 

33  + 

84  + 

36 
84  + 

50 
181 

"29  + 

26 

56  + 

18  + 

89  + 

66  + 

80  + 

33 

107  + 

The  figures  of  Table  XIV  show  an  imdoubted  increase  in  endur- 
ance, both  for  the  first  half  and  more  especially  for  the  Avhole 
period  of  the  experiment. 

But,  for  an  accurate  presentation,  we  ma^^  carr}^  our  criticism  one 
stage  further.  The  figures  given  hitherto  represent  a  conglomerate 
sort  of  endurance,  made  up  of  endurance  of  different  muscles  subject 
to  different  degrees  of  strain.  As  pointed  out  before,  the  calf  mus- 
cles were  called  upon  for  only  a  small  fraction  of  their  strength- 
capacit}^  whereas  the  abdominal  muscles  were  called  upon  for  a  very 
large  fraction.  Moreover,  the  fraction  must  have  varied  somewhat 
in  different  tests,  according  lo  the  variation  in  strength  and.  weight. 
An  ideal  test  would  be  one  in  which  the  same  fraction  of  strength, 
was  used. ' 

Fortunately,  such  an  exact  test  is  afforded  by  the  25-lb.  dumb- 
bell. It  followed  immediatelv  after  the  50-lb.  dumb-bell  had  been 
I'aised  until  the  biceps  was  unable  to  repeat  the  motion.  At  the 
moment  the  50-lb.  test  ended,  the  25-lb.  test  began.  At  this  moment 
the  strength  of  the  biceps  was  just  at  or  barely  below  the  fifty  lbs. 
required  to  raise  the  heavier  dumb-bell.  In  other  words,  in  raising  the 
25-lb.  dumb-bell  the  muscle  needed  just  fifty  per  cent,  of  its  strength 
at  the  time  the  test  began.  The  use  of  the  25-lb.  dumb-bell  grad- 
ually reduced  this  strength  from  50  to  25  lbs.     The  test  was  there- 

^  It  is  on  this  principle  that  the  new  ergograph,  before  referred  to,  is  con- 
structed. 


32  J'lxlier — Tlie  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance. 

fore  j)t'ifectly  uniform  for  all  the  men  ;  it  showed  how  many  con- 
tractions were  necessary  in  each  case  to  bring  down  the  strength  of 
the  biceps  from  50  to  25  ;  it  showed  how  much  the  muscle  could 
endure  before  being  robbed,  by  fatigue,  of  half  its  strength.  Thus  at 
the  beginning  the  strength  is  50  lbs.;  after  the  first  contraction  it  is, 
say,  49  ;  after  the  second,  48,  etc.  But  the  contractions  continue  until 
the  strength  sinks  below  25  lbs.  The  loss  of  strength  may  be  said  to 
measure  fatigue.  The  sloioness  of  this  loss  may  be  said  to  measure 
endurance  and  is  well  indicated  by  the  number  of  contractions 
necessary  to  tire  a  muscle  from  a  strength  of  50  lbs.  to  a  strength  of 
25  lbs. 

Four  exceptions,  however,  need  to  be  noted.  Three  men,  B.,  Lw. 
And  P.,  wei'e  unable  in  January  to  raise  the  50-lb.  dumb-bell  at  all 
(see  Table  XII).  Consequently  their  January  test  with  the  25-lb, 
dumb-bell  did  not  begin  at  50^  of  the  strength,  but  at  a  higher  frac- 
tion. This  explains  their  high  apparent  improvement.  Thus,  Lw.  is 
credited  Avith  an  im])rovement  of  450fc,  because  in  January  he  could 
raise  the  25-lb.  dumb-bell  only  6  times,  and  in  June,  33  times. 
But  the  33  contractions  in  June  began  at  just  50^^^  of  the  strength  of 
the  muscle,  owing  to  its  pi"evious  exhaustion  to  the  50-lb.  level  by 
the  50-lb.  dumb-bell,  whereas  the  six  contractions  in  January  besfan 
at  a  higher  level;  for  at  that  time  the  biceps  could  not  raise  the 
50-lb.  dumb-bell  at  all.  Its  strength  was  at  that  time  less  than  50 
lbs.,  say  40  lbs.,  in  which  case  the  lifting  of  the  25-lb.  dumb-bell 
required  not  50^^^  but  Q2^'fc  of  its  strength.  To  compare  a  50^  test  of 
June  with  a  62^^  test  in  January  gives  a  record  of  improvement 
which  is  not  one  of  pure  endurance,  but  which  includes  the  element 
of  increased  strength.  This  is  "  endurance  "  in  the  crude  sense  in 
which  we  may  say  a  man  has  more  endurance  for  carrying  trunks 
than  a  boy  ;  but  for  a  comparison  of  pure  endurance,  the  boy  should 
be  given  smaller  trunks  to  handle  than  the  man. 

The  fourth  case  is  E.,  to  whom  the  reverse  reasoning  applies.  In 
June  when  he  reached  test  6,  he  was  unable  to  raise  the  50-lb.  dumb- 
bell at  all,  though  in  January  he  had  raised  it  once.  Hence,  while 
the  25-lb.  dumb-bell  was  a  50^  test  in  January,  it  was  a  more 
severe  one  in  June,  and  the  -44,^^  which  records  his  falling  off  does 
not  represent  a  pure  loss  in  endurance,  but  partly  also  a  loss  of 
strength.  To  reckon /?w/-e  endurance  we  need  to  bring  -44  up  toward 
zero. 

Making  the  four  omissions  just  mentioned,  we  may  use  the  remain- 
ing records  from  the  last  line  of  Table  XIII,  as  a  barometer  of  2>ure 
endurance. 


Fisher — The  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance.  33 

We  therefore  have  three  methods  of  estimating  the  increase  of 
endurance  between  January  and  June.  These  may  be  put  tosfether 
in  the  following  table  : 

TABLE  XV. 
PERCENTAGE  OF  INCREASE  OF  ENDURANCE,  JANUARY  TO  JUNE. 

BY  THREE  METHODS. 
B  E  Lq  Lw  M  P  R  T  W 

Vtest?     \       ^^±     ~^'^±     1^^±       ^^±     ^l'^±       ^^+    "^'^i      66  ±      109  ± 

Omittins;    ) 

doiibtful    )■       84+     -..         84+181  29+       56+89+      80+      107  + 

cases  "  +  "   ) 

"Pure"     ) 
endurance    -      ---         ---  62        ...  50  ...      170        200         100  + 

of  biceps    ) 

The  first  line  of  this  table  tells  us  the  averao-e  of  the  recorded  im- 
provement  in  endurance  shown  for  each  man.  But  as  each  such  aver- 
age is  made  up  from  the  figures  of  Table  XIII,  some  of  which,  as 
indicated  in  that  table,  are  possibly  too  high,  some  doubt  necessai'ily 
attaches  to  it,  though  practically  the  only  real  cases  of  doubt  are 
Lq.  and  M.  The  average  of  these  averages  is  101^  for  the  entire 
club,  and  is  probably  within  the  truth  ;  for  most  of  the  individual 
figures  which  go  to  make  up  this  result  are  understatements,  not 
overstatements. 

The  second  line  shows  the  average  improvement  in  tests  in  which 
there  is  no  doubt  that  the  figure  is  at  least  not  too  high,  though  it 
may  be  too  low.  The  avei'age  of  these  is  89^,  and  is  therefore  cer- 
tainly too  low  an  estimate  of  the  average  improvement  for  the  eight 
men  who  improved  at  all. 

The  third  line  shows  the  increase  of  pure  endurance  (that  is,  en- 
durance considered  apart  from  strength)  for  the  five  men  for  whom 
the  figures  were  available.     The  average  of  these  is  11  Bf,?'. 

We  are  quite  safe  in  saying  therefore  that  the  average  improvement 
of  the  eight  men  who  improved  was  90^.  As  to  the  degree  of  retro- 
gression of  E.,  it  is  diflicult  to  say,  though  it  is  believed  that  the  fig- 
ures exaggerate  it.  This  is  certainly  true  of  the  25-lb.  dumb-bell  test, 
for  reasons  given.  My  own  impression,  and  E.'s  also,  is  that  he  actually 
gained  in  endurance  from  the  dietetic  experiment,  but  that  his  gain 
was  not  enough  to  offset  the  loss  occasioned  by  (1)  the  hard  term's 
work,  which,  as  in  the  case  of  the  other  men,  was  a  decided  handicap, 
and  (2)  the  omission  of  his  customary  exercises,  which  must  have 

Trans.  Conn.  Acad.,  Vol.  XIII.  3  May,  1907. 


34  Fisher — The  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance. 

been  a  greater  handicap  in  bis  ease  tlian  in  any  other  of  tlie  men  ; 
for  lie  liad  been  accustomed  for  six  years  to  heavy  gymnasium  train- 
ing, but  during  tlie  year  of  the  experiment  this  training  was  given 
up,  largely  because  of  the  difficulty  in  findiijg  time  for  it.  If  this 
interpretation  is  correct,  we  may  liken  the  experiment  to  nine  men  try- 
ing to  swim  against  a  current.  The  eight  who  exerted  themselves 
the  most  succeeded  in  forging  ahead ;  the  one  Avho  tried  the  least 
drifted  backward,  though  the  effect  of  the  swimming  (dieting)  was  to 
propel  him  forward.  Whether  or  not  E.  was  actually  propelled  for- 
ward by  diet  must  remain  a  matter  of  conjecture  or  inference  ;  but 
that  the  other  eight  men  gained  is  an  established  fact. 

Changes  in  Mental  Eitlurance. 

The  mental  test  consisted  in  adding  a  specified  number  of  figures. 
The  following  tables  show  the  time  during  which  the  addition  was 
performed  and  the  number  of  errors  committed  : 

TABLE   XVI. 

TIME  OF  PERFORMING  A  UNIFORM  AMOUNT  OF  ADDITION. 

B        E        Lq      Lw      M         P         R        T        W  Average 

M      S     M     S      M      S     M      S     M     S      MS      M      S     M      S     M      S     M      S 

Time    (    Jan.   14  5  40    4  49    6  15    4  54    6  46    3     1    7     6    6  41    4     6    5  29 

of       \    Mar.  28  5  16    4  27    4  35    4  15    5  47    2  43    6  32    7  18    4  34    5     3 

adding  (  i  June  16  4  50    5     9    4  40    4  23    5  50    2  58    7    3    6     5    4     7    5     0 

This  shows  that  during  the  fii'st  period  seven  had  improved  and 
two  had  fallen  off,  and  on  an  average  there  had  been  a  decrease  from 
5m.  29s.  to  5m,  3s.,  an  average  improvement  of  26s.  W.  showed  an 
increase  in  time  of  adding,  although  he  would  naturally  have  been 
expected  to  improve  on  account  of  having  taken  up  clerical  Avork 
involving  adding. 

During  the  second  period  there  was  an  average  improvement  of 
only  3s.  ;  three  retrogressed  15s.  to  42s.,  three  retrogressed  3s.  to  8s., 
and  three  improved  26s.  to  73s.  The  fact  that  the  men  held  their 
own  in  the  June  adding  test  is  probabl}'^  indicative  of  actual  improve- 
ment, for  they  were  fatigued  mentall}^  by  examinations,  etc.,  on  the 
day  when  they  entered  the  June  test.  During  the  entire  experiment 
there  was  an  average  improvement  of  29s.  ;  seven  had  improved  and 
two  had  retrogressed  (Is.  and  20s.) 


'E.,  Lw.,  R.  and  W.  taken  on  May  31. 


Fisher — The  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance.  35 

The  following  table  shows  that  the  number  of  errors  committed 
Avas  remarkably  constant  for  most  of  the  men  and  for  the  average  : 

TABLE  XVII. 
NUMBER  OF  ERRORS  OF  ADDITION. 

B  E         Lq      Lw      M       P        R        T       W  Average 

(Jan.   14         10  8         12        4         1         1         2         1         1        4.4 

Errors  \  Mar.  28        16  5  8        4        3        0        8         2         I         4.  G 

( June  16  8         13  5        4        2         16         0        2        4.5 

The  adding  test  Avas  too  short  to  be  of  great  value.  In  future 
tests  a  larger  number  of  figures  will  be  employed,  and  a  diiferent 
method.  After  the  specified  amount  of  adding  has  been  done,  it 
will  be  at  once  repeated  on  another  equivalent  set  of  examples.  The 
excess  of  time  required  for  the  second  set  over  that  required  for  the 
first  may  be  called  the  "  fatigue  time,"  and  this  fatigue  time,  taken 
as  a  percentage  of  the  total  time  of  adding,  may  be  used  as  a  criterion 
of  endurance— the  less  it  is,  the  greater  the  endurance,  and  vice 
versa.  This  j^Ian  w^as  developed  too  late  to  be  put  into  operation  at 
the  beginning  of  the  experiment.  It  Avas,  however,  employed  in  the 
March  and  June  tests,  and  confirmed  the  conclusion  reached  above, 
that  there  was  little  difference  between  the  mental  endurance  in 
March  and  June.  Five  of  the  men  showed  a  less  "fatigue  time  "  in 
June  than  in  March,  and  four  a  greater. 

The  following  statements  of  the  men  themselves  will  show  that 
their  feelings  as  to  working  power  were  in  harmony  with  the  conclu- 
sion that  it  had  improved  : 

Subjective  Impressions  as  to  3Iental  Working  Poioer. 

B.  (March)  "  Not  decreased  at  any  rate,  seems  to  have  increased." 
(June)  I  did  more  work  during  the  latter  part  of  year  than  I 
ever  did  before  in  an  equal  period  of  time.  But,  I  had  the 
work  to  do  and  compelled  myself  to  do  it.  However,  I  was 
mentally  tired  at  the  close  of  the  yeai*,  particularly  so  at  the 
time  of  the  test,  for  it  came  after  the  siege  of  exams  for  Avhich 
I  did  m}'^  own  work  besides  a  couple  of  days  of  hard  tutoring. 
This  much,  at  any  rate,  is  positive  :  There  was  no  decrease 
of  mental  power  resulting  from  the  experiment.  I  was  no 
more  tired  at  the  close  of  last  year  than  I  was  at  the  close  of 
the  year  before.  After  a  week's  rest  I  felt  quite  normal  and 
then  did  considerable  mental  Avork  all  summer. 


36  Fisher —  The  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endarance. 

E.  (March)  "  Working  power  improved.  Can  concentrate  atten- 
tion for  a  lonsjer  time." 
(June)  "  I  accomplished  a  greater  amount  of  mental  woi'k  than 
in  previous  years  during  the  corresponding  period  of  the  col- 
lege year.  I  do  not  think  that  my  feeling  of  fitness  for  it 
was  any  greater,  however,  and  I  cannot  say  that  my  experi- 
ence of  fatigue  after  the  work  was  any  less.  I  learned  to  eat 
slower  than  liad  been  my  custom  dui'ing  previous  years. 
Though  not  subject  to  indigestion,  I  experienced  less  stomach 
disorders  during  the  period  of  the  experiment." 

Lq.  (March)  "  I  have  put  in  more  long  hours  during  this  term 
than  any  previous  term,  consequently  have  had  a  good  deal 
less  sleep.  I  do  not  know  that  I  can  work  any  better,  except 
that  I  can  work  a  longer  period  at  one  time  without  feeling  so 
tired  from  it." 
(June)  "  Of  course  a  great  deal  of  the  extra  Avork  was  outside 
work  which  was  an  extra  tax.  I,  however,  did  a  great  deal 
more  work  on  papers  that  I  i:)repared  than  I  ever  had  before. 
Although  I  spent  longer  hours  than  before  I  did  not 
feel  the  effect  of  the  work  so  much  as  before." 

Lw.  (March)  "  Have  been  working  harder  during  the  past  four 
months  and  have  taken  less  exercise  than  at  any  other  equal 
period  during  past  2|^  years.  The  character  of  the  work  has 
been  so  different  that  I  am  unable  to  say  whether  there  is  an}"" 
increase  in  working  power,  but  I  find  that  I  rest  up  very 
quickly  after  becoming  tired  (mentally). 

"  When  March  tests  were  taken  I  did  not  feel  as  'fit'  for  test 
on  that  particular  day  as  at  time  of  January  tests.     Had  been 
'  working  hard  and  had  been  under  nervous  strain,  which  un- 
doubtedly affected  the  tests." 
(June)     "  I  have  Avorked  harder  from  January  to  June  than  ever 
'before,  and  have  taken  less  exercise.     As  my  mental  work  Avas 
so  different  from  that  previous,  I  cannot  form  an  estimate  of 
any   increase   or   decrease  in   efficiency,    but  as  I  have    said 
before,  I  always  rested  up  inore  quickly." 

M.     (March)     ''I  think  on  the  whole  a  slight  improvement." 
(June)     "  Do  not  notice  any  change." 

P.  (March)  "  I  have  never  Avorked  so  steadily,  or  with  so  little 
necessity  to  exercise  the  Avill  to  Avork,  as  in  the  central  six 
Aveeks  of  the  test.  The  Avork  I  was  doing  was  chieflA'  research 
in  the  Library,  poring  for  three  or  four  hours  at  a  time  over 
old  records — not  labor  of  the  most  interesting  kind." 


Fisher — I'he  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance.  37 

(June)  My  work  from  March  to  June  was  of  a  more  confining 
sort  than  ever  before  in  the  spring.  From  March  to  tlie  Easter 
recess  I  was  occupied  Avith  library  research  ;  from  Easter  on  I 
was  engaged  on  an  essay  and  the  marking  of  some  260  Social 
Conditions  theses.  On  these  last  I  spent  considerably  more 
time  and  effort  than  in  the  preceding  year.  Thus  ray  work 
was  harder  and  more  time-filling  than  usual.  I  had  much  less 
out-door  exercise  than  in-  previous  springs,  and  missed  that 
relaxation  from  efi'ort  which  all  prior  springtimes  have  bred. 
Yet  there  was  no  feeling  of  overwork,  or  even  of  work  as  a 
burden,  till  the  first  of  June.  From  then  on  I  did  feel  tired, 
and  examination  time  found  me  with  a  mind  very  difficult  to 
keep  in  harness.  Undoubtedly  I  had  over-pushed  myself,  but 
did  not  realize  it  till  June.     .     . 

R.     (March)     Felt  an  increase  in  efficienc3^ 

(June)  My  power  for  mental  work  was  greater  between  the 
March  and  June  tests  than  between  the  January  and  March 
tests  and  the  latter  was  greater  than  before  the  experiment 
began  in  January.  I  can  state  without  hesitation  that  my 
mental  working  power  increased  in  consequence  of  "  Fletcher- 
izing." 

T.  (March)  Felt  that  he  had  at  least  held  his  own,  but  "  surprised 
to  find  that  everj^  one  of  my  tests  (physical)  had  improved." 
For  the  first  test  came  after  the  rest  and  recreation  of  the 
winter  holidays  when  he  "  Avas  in  splendid  condition.  Since 
then  I  have-  had  to  work  extremely  hard  with  little  regular 
exercise  and  rarely  in  bed  before  about  midnight."  Surprised 
also  that  the  mental  test  showed  no  improvement,  probably 
because  "  the  confusion  around  me  was  considerably  greater 
than  in  the  first  test."  Can  do  his  ordinary  mental  work 
faster  than  before,  though  not  sure  that  he  can  work  longer. 
(June)  "  I  consider  I  did  more  work  last  year  during  the  period 
of  the  expei'iment  than  any  other  year.  During  the  whole 
nine  months  of  the  college  year  I  was  practically  working  up 
to  my  limit  of  endurance.  I  did  not  grow  sleepy  as  early 
evenings  as  jarevious  years  and  my  attention  was  not  as  easily 
distracted  from  my  work  as  previous  years. 

"  The  lack  of  improvement  in  the  second  mental  test  may 
have  been  due  largely  to  the  fact  that  I  was  mentally  fagged 
out  after  the  examinations  and  was  feeling  the  need  of  ray 
holidavs." 


38  Fisher — The  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance. 

W.    (]\Iarcli)    No  definite  impression  either  of  gain  or  loss. 

(June)     "On  the  whole  I  felt  quite  as  Avorkish  as  ever  I  did  in 

the  spring  months  and  did  not  feel  the  hot  days  as  much  of 

a  drag  as  usual." 
As  to  illness,  in  the  course  of  the  experiment  there  were  the  usual 
winter  colds,  though  apparently  these  were  less  common  than  before. 
One  man  had  grip  for  a  few  days,  another  the  mumps,  and  several  had 
constipation.  In  general,  the  men  expressed  themselves  as  better 
than  usual  and  in  some  cases  they  were  very  enthusiastic.  None  of 
the  ailments  suffered  by  the  men  were  ascribable  to  the  test  itself, 
unless  it  be  a  case  of  what  appeared  to  be  slight  rheumatic  sensations 
of  T,,  who  had  alwaj^s  been  a  heavy  meat-eater,  and  who  during  the 
experiment  introduced  at  first  much  acid  fruit.  That  the  acid  in 
conjunction  with  the  high  proteid  might  occasion  such  symptoms  is 
at  least  consistent  with  some  of  the  numerous  theories  of  rheuma- 
tism. On  avoiding  very  acid  fruits  he  soon  lost  all  these  symptoms. 
The  following  extract  from  the  diar}^  of  B.  is,  I  think,  typical  of 
the  facts  in  this  respect  to  general  health  :  "  Have  now,  March  28, 
slight  sore  throat.  In  regard  to  colds,  I  have  been  troubled  less 
this  3'^ear  than  at  any  time  for  years  ;  but  this  fact  may  be  due  to 
great  change  in  climate,  Nebraska  to  Connecticut.  Have  usually  had 
colds  more  or  less  all  winter  ;  therefore  my  freedom  has  been  indeed 
remarkable.  From  September  last  till  the  beginning  o'f  the  experi- 
ment I  experienced  frequent  attacks  of  indigestion,  'heart-burn.' 
Have  been  almost  free  from  that,  though  two  or  three  times  I  bad  the 
same  experience  after  eating  ba*nanas." 

Sumtnary. 

The  phenomena  observed  during  the  experiment  may  be  summar- 
ized as  a  slight  reduction  of  total  food  consumed,  a  large  reduction 
of  the  proteid  element,  especially  for  flesh  foods,  a  lessened  excretion 
of  nitrogen,  a  reduction  in  the  odor,  putrefaction,  fermentation 
and  quantity  of  the  feces,  a  slight  loss  of  weight,  a  slight  loss  of 
strength,  an  enormous  increase  of  physical  endurance,  a  slight 
increase  in  mental  quickness.  These  phenomena  varied  somewhat 
with  diff^erent  individuals,  the  variations  corresponding  in  general  to 
the  varying  degree  in  which  the  men  adhered  to  the  rules  of  the 
experiment. 

That  we  are  correct  in  ascribing  the  results,  especially  in  endur- 
ance, to  dietetic  causes  alone,  cannot  reasonably  be  doubted  when  it  is 
considered  that  no  other  factors  of  known  significance  were  allowed 


Fisher — The  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance.  39 

to  aid  in  this  result.  On  the  contrary,  so  far  as  the  operation  of 
other  factors  was  concerned,  these  must  have  worked  against  ratlier 
than  for  the  results  achieved.  Exercise  was  in  no  case  indulged  in 
to  a  greater  extent  than  had  previously  been  the  custom,  and  in  most 
cases  it  Avas  less.  The  men  were  warned  not  to  take  up  exei'cise, 
except  so  far  as  they  had  been  accustomed  to  befoi'e  the  experiment 
began,  and  if  they  varied  their  exercise  at  all,  to  lessen  rather  than 
increase  it.  They  were  very  conscientious  on  this  point,  as  on  others, 
— so  much  so  that  some  of  them  at  first  gave  up  exercising  until  they 
began  to  feel  "logy."  This  over-zeal  was  corrected  ;  but  in  no  case, 
have  I  reason  to  think  that  the  exercise  taken  was  more,  or  more  sys- 
tematic, than  previously.  M.  was  probably  the  most  systematic  in 
taking  exercise.  His  statement  on  this  point,  as  previously  given, 
the  reader  may  care  to  review.  / 

The  men  did  not  practice  on  the  endurance  tests  between  times. 
This  was  expressly  forbidden,  and  the  men  were  too  trustworthy  to 
admit  of  a  doubt  on  this  point.  The  tests  themselves,  needless  to 
say,  were  too  far  apart  to  have  given  any  chance  for  repetition  to 
give  "  knack,"  and  were  too    severe   to  count   as  beneficial  exercise. 

Nor  were  the  men  more  regular  in  their  hours  of  retiring  or  other 
habits.  On  the  contrary,  they  were  rather  more  reckless  in  burning 
the  midnight  oil.  It  developed  that,  with  their  increased  freedom 
from  fatigue,  they  indulged  more  freely  than  ever  their  propensity 
to  Avork  in  the  lines  of  their  respective  ambitions.  At  first  they  felt 
justified  in  doing  this,  as  it  accorded  with  their  instructions  not  to 
remove  any  handicaps  to  their  chance  of  improving  their  endurance, 
but  to  increase  rather  than  decrease  such  handicaps.  But  this  liberty 
became  license,  and  I  was  forced  to  remonstrate  with  the  men  for 
their  late  hours  and  overstud}^,  which  tended  to  rob  them  of  their 
surplus  endurance  almost  as  fast  as  it  accrued.  Long  before  the 
experiment  was  finished  the  men  had  given  every  appearance  of 
improved  working  power,  but  I  was  not  at  all  sure  that  they  would 
have  any  of  it  left  to  show  in  the  final  test,  because  of  their  tendency 
to  use  it  up  in  work.  Had  the  extent  of  their  working  proclivities 
been  realized  in  advance,  it  is  doubtful  if  the  experiment  would  have 
been  undertaken  at  all.  It  should  be  stated  that  all  except  M.  were 
graduate  students,  and  almost  all  of  them,  in  addition  to  their  uni- 
versity work,  were  earning  their  own  way. 

The  advance  of  warm  weather  must  have  tended,  had  not  their 
diet  counteracted  it,  to  tire  the  men,  if,  at  least,  Ave  may  trust  com- 
mon impressions  as  to  "  spring  lassitude," 


40  Fisher — The  Ejfeet  of  Diet  on  Endurance. 

Again,  the  conditions  immediately  preceding  the  March  and  June 
tests,  as  compared  with  those  preceding  the  Januarj'  test,  were  such 
as  to  give  the  advantage  to  the  January  test.  The  latter  came  soon 
after  the  Christmas  holidays,  when  the  men,  as  they  themselves 
stated,  felt  refreshed  and  at  their  best,  whereas  the  March  test  came 
just  before  the  Easter  recess,  after  a  hard  term's  work,  and  the  June 
tests  came  after  a  like  period  of  hard  work, — in  some  cases,  as  of  B. 
and  R.,  immediately  after  exhausting  examinations. 

Finally,  the  tests  themselves  were  serious  drains  on  vitalit3\     Each 

.required  a  period  of  from  several  days  to  two  weeks  for  recuperation, 

and  each  robbed  the  men  temporarily  of  several  pounds  of  weight. 

The  cookless  diet  experiment  for   six  days   also  cost  something  to 

those  who  took  part  in  it. 

In  addition  to  the  tests  mentioned  in  this  report  was  one  on  Jan- 
uary 23  of  leg-raising,  deep  knee-bending  and  arm-stretching,  taken 
after  a  night  from  which  two  hours  of  sleep  were  purposely  cut  off. 
After  consideration,  it  was  decided  not  to  repeat  this  test  as  being 
too  fatiguing.  It  therefore  has  been  omitted  from  this  report  ;  but 
it  added  one  more  burden  for  the  men. 

When,  therefore,  we  observe  the  known  handicaps, — the  over-study, 
the  strain  of  the  tests,  the  advance  of  warm  weather,  the  fact  that 
the  first  test  came  after  rest  and  the  other  tests  after  work,  and 
when  we  are  unable  to  find  any  other  cause  than  diet  — such  as  exer- 
cise, regularitj^  of  bed-time  or  other  habits  —  we  are  forced  to 
conclude  that  the  only  causes  which  produced  the  endurance  were 
dietetic. 

Possibly  some  persons  may  be  disposed  to  find  a  convenient  escape 
from  this  conclusion  b}^  ascribing  the  improvement  to  suggestion. 
[Jnder  this  theory'-,  the  men  impl'oved  because  they  expected  to.  It 
is  quite  true  that  there  may  be  more  force  in  autosuggestion  than 
most  of  us  realize.  But,  fortunately,  for  the  present  case  we  scarcely 
need  to  argue  the  point ;  for  as  a  matter  of  fact  it  was  not  true  that 
all  of  the  men  expected  to  improve.  This  was  certainly  not  true 
before  the  March  test.  In  fact,  the  men  were  about  equally  divided 
in  their  predictions  as  to  the  outcome,  and  used  to  have  animated 
discussions.  Yet,  both  the  confident  and  the  skeptic  faction  im- 
}»roved  in  endurance  in  the  March  test ;  and  so  far  as  I  am  acquainted 
with  their  ])rognostioations  and  have  noted  their  improvement,  there 
was  little  if  any  correlation  between  those  prognostications  and  their 
improvement. 

It  is  of  course  still  possible  that  some  unobserved  element  has  crept 


Fisher — The  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance.  41 

into  tlie  case,  to  which,  and  not  to  the  diet,  the  improvement  in 
endurance  was  due ;  but  in  view  of  all  the  facts  recited,  this  is 
extremely  improhable.  What  slight  doubt  i-emains  should  be  resolved 
by  further  studies.  I  earnestly  hope  that  other  and  more  careful 
studies  may  be  made  by  more  competent  investigators  than  I. 

We  conclude  that  the  improvement  in  endurance  was  exclusively 
due  to  dietetic  causes.  The  only  dietetic  causes  at  work  were  (1) 
thorough  mastication,  (2)  implicit  obedience  to  appetite,  (3)  (during 
the  second  half  of  the  experiment)  when  appetite  did  not  clearly 
determine  the  choice,  the  voluntary  selection  of  the  non-flesh  and 
low-proteid  foods,  and  (4)  an  ample  variety  of  good  foods,  well 
cooked. 

So  far  as  cooking  is  concerned,  this  cause,  as  has  been  said,  entered 
iinintentionally.  But  there  is  no  evidence  that  it  was  a  prime  factor 
in  the  experiment,  while  there  is  some  evidence  to  the  contrarj^ 
Thus,  E.,  who  especially  remarked  the  culinary  virtues  of  the  cook 
and  who  missed  her  services  more  than  any  one  else  during  the  brief 
period  of  her  absence,  was  the  one  member  of  the  club  who  failed  to 
improve  in  endurance. 

If  we  allow  oui'selves  to  speculate  as  to  the  changes  in  the' charac- 
ter of  diet  which  were  produced  by  thorough  mastication,  we  may 
draw  an  inference  from  the  fact  that  the  carnivorous  animals  are  fast- 
eaters,  whereas  the  grain-eating  animals  are  slow-eaters.  It  would 
seem,  therefore,  when  man  changes  his  habits  from  fast  eating  to 
slow  eating  he  naturally  changes  his  food  from  the  food  of  a  fast- 
eating  to  that  of  a  slow-eating  animal.  The  question,  therefore, 
which  is  the  natural  food  for  man,  may  possibly  be  associated  with 
the  question,  which  of  the  two  methods  of  eating  is  natural  to  man. 
Was  the  slow  eating  of  the  nine  men  an  artificial  and  unnatural  prac- 
tice, as  would  be  indicated  from  the  fact  that  the  majority  of  men 
eat  far  faster  ?  Or,  are  the  ordinary  habits  of  man  in  respect  to  the 
manner  of  fast  eating  themselves  unnatural  ?  I  have  not  attempted 
to  gather  the  facts  necessary  to  solve  this  problem,  but  it  certainly 
constitutes  an  interesting  one  for  the  physiologist  and  anthropologist. 
The  few  facts  upon  which  I  have  chanced  to  fall  would  seem  to 
indicate  that  man  is  naturally  a  slow  eater,  and  that  the  huny-habit 
to  which  most  of  us  are  prone  is  a  consequence  of  the  artificial  high- 
pressure  to  which  modern  civilization  has  subjected  us.  Certain  it  is 
that  the  conditions  which  give  rise  to  quick-lunch  counters  and  to  the 
short  stops  of  trains  for  refreshments,  were  produced,  not  in  order  to 
meet  any  natural  propensity  to  eat  fast,  but  on  the  contrary,  in  the 


42  M^shei — llie  Efect  of  Diet  on  Endurance. 

interest  of  the  more  rapid  transaction  of  business,  with  wliich  meal- 
times are  regarded  as  an  interference. 

We  may  therefore  at  least  conclude  that  whatever  the  speed  of 
eating  which  is  natural  to  the  human  animal,  his  actual  speed  under 
civilized  conditions  is  greater  than  natural.  It  is  noteworthy  also 
that  children  are  very  deliberate  in  eating  their  cookies.  It  is  only 
after  they  are  reproved  for  keeping  their  elders  waiting  that  they 
begin  to  imitate  the  latter  and  bolt  their  food.  Dr.  Higgins  '  and 
Dr.  Hasse  °  have  pointed  out  also  some  physiological  considerations, 
based  on  the  anatomy  of  the  human  throat  compared  with  the 
tliroats  of  the  carnivores  and  of  "  poltophagic"  animals,  which  would 
indicate  that  man,  to  a  large  extent  at  least,  is  naturally  a  slow-eating 
animal.  Dr.  Henrj^  Camj^bell  '  has  also  given  some  evidence,  based 
on  a  study  of  the  primitive  tribes,  to  show  that  chewing  is  more 
thorough  among  uncivilized  races,  and  that  the  hurry  habit  to  which 
we  are  accustomed  is  largely  promoted  by  the  use  of  prej^ared  and 
'  mushy  "  foods, — which,  in  fact,  appear  to  have  been  devised  ex- 
pressly for  the  purpose  of  being  quickly  swalloAved. 

The  evidence,  however,  on  the  natural  food-habits  of  man  is  as  yet 
very  meager,  and  it  is  only  provisionally  that  we  may  consider  the 
thorough  mastication  advocated  by  Mr.  Fletcher  as  "  natural."  With 
this  reservation  we  may  say  that  the  experiment  here  described  may 
be  called  an  experiment  in  natural  eating,  or  an  effort  to  restore  a 
blunted  or  lost  food-instinct,  so  that  it  may  serve  as  a  safe  guide  to 
the  propei"  quantities  and  kinds  of  foods.  If  it  be  asked  in  Avhat 
way  this  natural  eating  tended  to  improve  endurance,  whether  it  was 
because  of  the  finer  sub-division  of  food  through  mastication  ;  the 
increased  "  insalivation  "  ;  the  increased  flow  of  "  appetite  juice  "  ; 
the  better  adaptation  of  foods  to  the  particular  needs  of  the  individual 
and  the  moment  ;  the  lessened  quantity  of  food  ;  the  lessened  proteid  ; 
or  the  lessened  amount  of  flesh  foods,  no  satisfactory  answer  can  be 
given,  although,  as  the  previous  discussion  shows,  there  is  more  or 
less  evidence  on  some  of  these  points.  There  are  certainly  some  very 
fascinating  problems  for  the  physiologist  to  solve  in  regard  to  fatigue 
as  related  to  diet.  Are  the  "  fatigue  poisons "  due,  for  instance, 
chiefly  to  the  combustion  of  proteid  in  excess  of  the  phj^siological 


'  See  Humaniculture,  N.  Y.     Stokes,  1904. 

5  See  A.rchiv  fiar  Anatomie  (Waldeyer's)  1905,  p.  321. 

2  "  Observations  on  Mastication,"  London  Lancet,  Ji;ly  11,  18,  25  and  Aug.  8, 
1903.  Reprinted  in  Horace  Fletcher's  The  A.  B.-Z.  of  Our  Orvn  Nutrition, 
Stokes,  1903.      See  pp.  126-135. 


1 


Fisher — The  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance.  43 

needs,  as  the  theoiy  of  Chittenden  would  explain  them  ?  Or,  are  they 
largely''  due  to  the  ingestion  of  these  poisons  with  flesh  foods,  as  the 
vegetarians  and  Dr,  Haig  have  maintained  ?  Or,  do  both  explana- 
tions have  a  share  '? 

The  results  of  the  experiment  demonstrated  so  great  an  increase 
of  endurance  as  to  seem  at  first  incredible.  It  certainly  was  a  sur- 
prise, both  to  the  men  and  to  me.  But  statistics  which  I  have  been 
collecting  during  the  last  two  years  have  prepared  me  to  find  great 
differences  and  changes  in  endurance.  The  special  result  of  the 
present  experiment  is  to  show  that  diet  is  an  important  factor  in 
producing  such  alterations.  The  fact  that  endurance,  even  among 
persons  free  from  disease,  is  one  of  the  most  variable  of  human  fac- 
ulties— far  more  variable  than  strength,  for  instance — is  evident  to 
any  one  who  has  made  even  a  superficial  examination.  Some  persons 
are  tired  by  climbing  a  flight  of  stairs,  whereas  the  Swiss  guides, 
throughout  the  summer  season,  day  after  day  spend  the  entire  time 
in  climbing  the  Matterhorn  and  other  peaks  ;  some  persons  are 
"winded"  by  running  a  block  for  a  street  car,  whereas  a  Chinese 
coolie  will  run  for  hours  on  end  ;  in  mental  work,  some  persons  are 
iinable  to  apply  themselves  more  than  an  hour  at  a  time,  whereas 
others,  like  Humboldt,  can  work  almost  continuously  through  eight- 
een hours  of  the  day.  Among  statistics  gathered  independently  of 
the  present  experiment,  I  have  found  measurable  differences  between 
persons  far  greater  than  the  change  of  endurance  of  the  eight  students 
which  we  have  seen.'  Amon^r  some  50  tests  of  different  persons 
holding  their  arms  horizontally,  many  were  found  whose  arms  actually 
dropped  against  their  will  inside  of  ten  minutes,  whereas  several  Avere 
able  to  hold  them  up  over  an  hour,  and  one  man  held  them  3  hours 
i  and  20  minutes,  or  a  round  200  minutes,  and  then  dropped  them 
voluntarily.  Similarly  with  deep  knee-bending,  some  persons  were 
found  physically  unable  to  rise  again  from  the  stooping  posture  after 
accomplishing  less  than  500  bendings,  whereas  several  succeeded  in 
stooping  1,000  times,  and  in  one  case,  2,400,  Again,  in  leg-raising, 
the  legs  positively  refused  to  rise  to  the  vertical  in  some  cases  before 
40  times  were  reached,  whereas  in  two  cases  this  motion  was  per- 
formed 1,000  times  or  over.  On  the  new  ergograph  previously 
referred  to,  among  the  16  j^reliminary  tests  there  was  a  range  in 
endurance  between  different  persons  from  18  to  145  and  in  the  same 
person  at  different  times  from  29  to  110. 

•  For  an  account  of  some  of  these  statistics  see  "  The  influence  of  flesh-eating  on 
endurance."     Yale  Medical  Journal,  March,  1907. 


44  Fisher — The  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance. 

It  is,  to  sa\'  the  least,  remarkable  that  hitherto  so  little  effort  has 
been  directed  toward  discovering  the  factors  which  explain  such 
differences  in  endurance.  That  exercise  is  one  of  the  most  and  per- 
haps the  most  important  factor  has  alone  been  recognized.  A 
correspondent  assures  rae  that  by  means  of  moderate  regular  exercise 
he  succeeded  in  increasing  his  endurance  between  100  and  200^  in 
three  Av^eeks  as  measured  by  leg-raising  and  "dipping."  The 
influence  of  diet  has  always  been  regarded  as  small  or  negligible,  and 
the  opinion  has  been  almost  universal,  until  recently,  that  a  diet  rich 
^n  protcid  promotes  endurance.  Even  among  those  whose  researches 
have  led  them  to  the  opposite  conclusion,  there  is  very  little  concep- 
tion of  the  extent  to  which  diet  is  correlated  with  endurance.  Such 
a  person,  a  medical  friend  of  the  writer,  stated,  when  the  present 
experiment  was  planned,  that  he  did  not  think  the  dietetic  factor  strong 
enough  compared  with  others  to  produce  any  marked  effect.  We 
have  all  heard,  of  course,  of  the  enthusiastic  reports  of  vegetarians 
as  to  their  increased  endurance,  but  these  we  have  discounted  as 
exaggerations.  The  result  of  the  present  experiment,  however, 
would  seem  to  indicate  that  one's  im|)roveraent  in  endurance  is  usually 
not  less,  but  greater,  than  he  himself  is  aware  of.  Probably  it  is 
also  true  that  we  may  lose  a  large  fraction  of  our  working  power 
before  we  are  distinctly  conscious  of  the  fact. 

While  the  results  of  the  present  experiment  lean  toward  "  vegeta- 
rianism," they  are  only  incidentally  related  to  that  propaganda. 
Meat  was  by  no  means  excluded  ;  on  the  contrary,  the  subjects  were 
urged  to  eat  it  if  their  appetite  distinctly  preferred  it  to  other  foods. 

The  sudden  and  complete  exclusion  of  meat  is  not  always  desir- 
able, unless  more  skill  and  knowledge  in  food  matters  are  employed 
than  most  persons  possess.  On  the  contrary,  disaster  has  repeatedly,  , 
overtaken  many  who  have  made  this  attempt.  Pawlovv  has  shown 
that  meat  is  one  of  the  most  and  perhaps  the  most  "peptogenic" 
of  foods.  Whether  the  stimulus  it  gives  to  the  stomach  is  natural,  or 
in  the  nature  of  an  improper  goad  or  whip,  certain  it  is  that  stomachs 
which  are  accustomed  to  this  daily  whip  have  failed,  for  a  time  at 
least,  to  act  when  it  was  withdrawn. 

Nor  is  it  necessary  that  meat  should  be  permanently  abjured,  even 
when  it  ceases  to  become  a  daily  necessity.  The  safer  course,  at  leasts 
is  to  indulge  the  cravinij  whenever  one  is  "meat  hungrv,"  even  if,  as 
in  many  casc'^,  this  be  not  oftener  than  once  in  several  months.  The 
rule  of  selection  employed  in  the  experiment  was  merely  to  give  the 
benefit  of  the  doubt  to  the  non-flesh  food  ;  but  even  a  slight  preference 
for  flesh  foods  was  to  be  followed. 


Fisher — Tlie  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance.  45 

Under  flesh  foods  are  included  all  meat-  and  "  stock-"  soups.  It 
has  been  shown  that  although  these  extracts  of  meat  contain  a  large 
amount  of  nitrogen,  it  is  not  in  the  form  of  proteid  which  can  be 
utilized,  but  only  of  waste  nitrogen  which  must  be  excreted.  Ap- 
parently the  sole  virtue  of  such  soups  is  that  they  supply  the  "  pepto- 
genic  "  stimulus  above  referred  to. 

The  experiment  will  be  seen  to  harmonize  with  and  supplement  the 
experiment  of  Professor  Chittenden,  on  which  it  was  founded  ;  but 
the  objects  of  the  two  experiments  were  quite  different.  Professor 
Chittenden's  was  aimed  to  ascertain  the  physiological  requirements 
as  to  proteid,  and  did  not  touch  upon  the  question  of  endurance. 
Moreover,  Professor  Chittenden,  in  order  the  better  to  measure  the 
proteid  and  nitrogen,  artificially  reduced  the  quantities  ingested, 
whereas  in  the  present  experiment,  test  was  made  of  Mr.  Fletcher's 
claim,  that  thorough  mastication  leads  naturally  to  the  adoption  of 
the  physiological  amount  of  proteid.  This  we  found  to  be  true,  espe- 
cially after  the  introduction,  at  the  middle  of  the  test,  of  the  sugges- 
tion that  when  appetite  was  in  doubt,  the  lower  proteid  foods  should 
be  selected.  But  the  tendency  was  quite  marked  during  the  first 
pei'iod  also,  and  might  have  been  expected  to  lead  to  the  same  results 
without  the  introduction  of  even  the  suggestion  of  voluntary  choice, 
had  the  experiment  been  long  enough.  This  was  the  experience  of 
others,  notably  Mr.  Fletcher  himself,  whose  case,  in  fact,  first  called 
Professor  Chittenden's  attention  to  the  possible  virtues  of  low 
proteid. 

The  practical  value  of  the  experiment  consists  in  the  fact  that  any 
layman  can  appl}-  it,  with  or  without  a  knowledge  of  food  values, 
though  with  more  advantage  if  he  possesses  than  if  he  lacks  such 
knowledge. 

If  the  dietetic  rules  of  the  present  experiment  are  followed,  no  self- 
denial  as  to  foods  is  required.  It  is,  however,  absoluteh"  necessary 
that  there  should  be  self-control  enough  to  break  up  the  habit  of 
hurried  eating  to  which  modern  civilization  has  brought  us,  habitu- 
ating us,  as  it  does,  to  eat  against  time. 

Experience  indicates  that  appetite  does  not  lead  to  a  diet  fixed  in 
amount  or  constituents,  but  moves  in  undulating  waves  or  cycles. 
The  men  who  took  part  in  the  experiment  were  encouraged,  after 
any  of  the  symptoms  which  seemed  to  be  associated  with  high  pro- 
teid (such  as  heaviness,  sleepiness,  stiffness  or  soreness  after  exer- 
cise, or  catching  cold),  to  cut  down  on  their  j^i'oteid  and  substitute 
fat  to  restrain  the  gastric  juice.     This  advice  was  intended  to  make 


46  FlsJier — The  Effect  of  Diet  on  Endurance. 

api»lication  of  the  theories  of  Folin'  that  we  usually  cany  a  reservoir 
of  proteid,  enough  to  supply  our  needs  for  body-building  for  a  fort- 
night. If  this  reservoir  is  exhausted,  proteid  starvation  occurs  and 
the  body  feeds  on  itself  ;  if  it  is  filled  too  far  it  overflows  and  causes 
the  evils  of  excessive  proteid.  If  this  theory  is  correct,  the  art  of 
eating  may  consist  largely  in  maintaining  a  golden  mean  such  that 
the  proteid  reservoir  is  neither  empty  nor  overflowing,  or  at  any  rate, 
not  overflowing  much.  Many  persons  fear  to  reduce  their  proteid  to 
the  Chittenden  minimum  for  fear  of  proteid  starvation  ;  but  the 
experience  of  those  who  have  tried  it  would  seem  to  show  that  this 
fear  is  groundless,  provided  no  violence  is  done  to  natural  appetite. 
This  ma}^  be  trusted,  so  it  would  appear,  to  raise  a  warning  in  the 
form  of  "  nitrogen  hunger  "  before  the  danger  point  is  reached. 

'"A  Theory  of  Protein  Metabolism."     American  Journal  of  Physiology,  March, 
1905. 


TRANSACTIONS  OF  THE 
CONNECTICUT  ACADEMY  OF  ARTS  AND  SCIENCES 


Incorporated  A.  D.  1799 


VOLUME  XIIL-    PP.  47-64 


JULY,  1907 


Publications  of  Yale  University 


RELATIONS  BETWEEN  BERMUDA  AND  THE  AMERICAN 
COLONIES  DURING  THE  REVOLUTIONARY  WAR 


«Y 


ADDISON    E.   VERRILL 


J- 


NEW    HAVEN,    CONNECTICUT 
1907 


THE    TUTTLE,   MOREHOUSE   &    TAYLOR    PRESS 


II. — Relations  between  Bermuda  and  the  American  Colonies 
DURING  the  Revolutionary  War.     By  A.  E.  Verrill. 

In  this  brief  account  the  following  subjects  will  be  discussed  : 

1.  Commercial  and  social  relations  before  the  war  ;  dependence  of 
Bermuda  on  the  Colonies  for  foodstuffs,  clothing,  etc. 

2.  Seizure  of  the  Bermuda  gunpowder  in  1775. 
8.  Bermuda  privateers. 

4.  Plans  for  the-  captui'e  of  Bermuda  by  the  Americans  and 
French. 

5.  Biographical  Sketches. 

In  order  to  appreciate  the  attitude  and  conduct  of  "the  inhabitants 
of  the  Bermudas  during  the  Revolutionary  war,  it  is  necessary  to 
consider  the  peculiar  conditions  under  which  they  had  long  lived 
and  their  intimate  relations  with,  and  dependence  upon,  the  Ameri- 
can Colonies. 

1.      Commercial  and  social  relations. 

After  the  decline  and  final  cessation  of  tobacco  cultivation,*  about 
1700,  the  inhabitants  of  Bermuda  became  very  much  impoverished, 
for  they  had  few  products  to  export  and  were  unable  to  raise  sufli- 
cient  foodstuffs  to  support  themselves.  This  condition  continued 
down  to  and  after  the  Revolutionary  war. 

During  that  period  they  were  largely  dependent  upon  their  traffic 
with  the  American  Colonies  for  their  food  and  clothing.  Cessation 
of  that  traffic  meant  destitution,  if  not  famine,  for  them.  The 
islands  were  over-populatedf  and  they  had  a  superabundance  of 
negro  slaves,  without  adequate  employment  for  them.  Agriculture 
was  pursued  on  a  small  scale  and  in  the  most  primitive  manner. 

The  amount  of  arable  land  suitable  for  cei'eals  Avas  small.  Culti- 
vation of  the  soil  by  the  whites  was  considered  degrading.  The 
slaves  were  very  ignorant  and  without  proper  tools,  plows  and  har- 
rows being  then  unknown  there.];  Under  such  circumstances  many 
of  the  more  enterprising  men  emigrated  to  America  and  went  into  com- 

*See  The  Bermuda  Islands,  A.  E.  Verrill,  vol.  i,  pp.  555-560. 

f  The  population  in  1787  was  estimated  at  10,381,  of  whom  4,919  were  colored. 
See  The  Bermuda  Islands,  vol.  i,  pp.  561-565,  570. 

X  Plows,  yokes,  and  various  other  agricultural  implements  were  first  intro- 
duced by  Governor  Reid,  1839-40.     See  The  Bermuda  Islands,  i,  pp.  557,  895. 

Trans.  Conn.  Acad.  Vol.  XIII.  4  June,  1907. 


48  ^4.  J£.  Verrill — Relations  heticeen  Bermuda  and  the 

mcrce.  Sonic  utulertook  the  building  of  vessels,  the  Bermuda  cedai* 
being  adTiiirably  ada})ted  for  tliat  use  ;  others  erected  salt  works  at 
Turks  Island,  in  the  Bahamas,*  and  went  there  during  the  winter 
season  to  manufacture  salt,  most  of  which  they  took  to  the  American 
Colonies  to  exchange  for  food  and  clothing,  for  salt  was  their  princi- 
pal export.  Thus  it  came  about  that  Bermudian  vessels,  for  more 
than  sixty  years,  had  monopolized  a  large  part  of  the  West  Indian  and 
coastwise  commerce  of  the  American  Colonies.  Many  native  Ber- 
mudians,  from  the  best  families,  had  gone  to  America  for  their  educa- 
tion, and  many  went  ii^to  business  or  the  learned  professions  there. 
These  various  intimate  business  relations  and  familv  ties,  as  well  as 
their  bwn  cherished  love  of  liberty,  naturally  led  to  friendliness  and 
s^^mpathy  with  the  Americans  during  the  war.  Besides,  they  had 
themselves  suffered  greatly,  in  previous  yeai's,  by  oppressive  English 
laws.  The  Berniudians,  however,  like  the  Americans,  were  divided 
into  two  parties.  Those  who  were  opposed  to  the  British  Govern- 
ment, or  at  least  to  its  treatment  of  the  Colonies,  seem  to  have  been 
largely  in  the  majority.  They  were  repeatedly  denounced  by  the 
Governors  as  rebels  and  traitors.  On  the  other  hand,  even  the  mem- 
bers of  the  Assembly  did  not  hesitate  to  openly  oppose  and  criticise 
Governor  Bruere  in  no  measured  terms,  w^hile  he  in  turn  denounced 
them  and  other  local  officials  as  traitors.  This  mutual  enmity  con- 
tinued from  17 75  to  1782,  under  three  successive  governors.  It  cul- 
minated in  September,  1780,  w^hen  the  Governor  dissolved  the  legis- 
lative Assembly  for  rebellious  conduct. 

It  is  certain  that  very  many  of  the  inhabitants  of  Bermuda  were 
willing  and  ready  to  aid  the  Americans  in  every  way  they  safely 
could.  It  is  also  a  matter  of  official  record  that  the  Continental 
Congress  granted  very  unusual  and  highly  important  favors  to  the 
Bermudians,  by  sending  them  large  amounts  of  provisions  ;  allow- 
ing them  free  importation  of  salt ;  permitting  them  to  enter  the 
harbors  ;  and  exempting  their  vessels  from  capture  by  American 
privateers.  Such  privileges  were  not  granted  to  other  English 
colonies.  If  the  American  Colonies  could  have  maintained  a  suita- 
ble fleet  to  hold  the  islands,  their  capture  would  have  been  easy,  a!id 
no  doubt  welcomed  by  the  majority  of  the  people. 

The  first  act  of  the  Colonies  that  affected  Bermuda  was  the  reso- 
lution adopted  Friday,  the  30th  of  September,  1774  :f  "Resolved, 

*  The  Bermndians  erected  salt  works  there  as  early  as  1678.     See  The  Ber- 
muda Islands,  i,  p.  520. 

f  Secret  Journals  of   the   Continental   Congress,  vol.   1,  p.    121   (Philad.    ed, 
1800). 


American  Colonies  during  the  Mevolutionary  War.  49 

Tluatfrom  and  after  the  10th  of  September,  1775,  the  exportation  of 
all  merchandize  and  every  commodity  whatsoever,  to  Great  Britain, 
Ireland,  and  the  West  Indies,  ought  to  cease,  unless  the  grievances  of 
America  are  redressed  before  that  time." 

In  a  resolution  ado'pted  Aug.  1,  1775,  defining  the  islands  and 
colonies  with  which  commerce  was  prohibited,  the  "Summer  Islands," 
or  Bermudas,  were  specifically  mentioned.* 

Before  the^ resolution  went  into  effect,  tlie  Uerraudians  had  pre- 
sented more  than  one  petition  stating  their  lack  of  provisions  and 
begging  for  relief.  At  the  session  July  11,  1775,  an  "Address  from 
the  inhabitants  of  Bermuda "  was  presented. f  This  document  is 
not  preserved,  but  was  probably  one  of  those  referred  to  at  the 
session  of  Nov.  22,  1775. 

On  July  17,  1775,  the  following  was  recorded  :J  "The  address 
from  the  Deputies  of  the  several  parishes  of  the  islands  of  Bermuda 
being  again  read,  ordered  :  That  the  President  return  them  an 
answer,  acknowledging  the  receipt  of  the  address  and  informing  them 
that  it  will  be  considered,  and  desiring  them  to  send  an  account  of 
the  provisions  imported  for  some  years  past  for  the  use  of  the 
iidiabitants  of  that  island  ;  and  also  enclose  therein  a  copy  of  a 
resolve  entered  into  on  Saturdaj^  last,  respecting  the  importation  of 
gunpowder,  etc." 

This  reference  is  to  a  resolution  introduced  by  Benjamin  Frank- 
lin, and  passed  July  15,  1775,§  in  Avhich  it  was  provided  that  any 
vessel  importing  gunpowder,  saltpeter,  sulphur,  or  firearms,  should 
be  allowed  to  export  products  of  any  kind,  of  equal  value,  thus 
assuring  a  profit  at  each  end  of  the  voyage.  This  was  evidently  a 
great  inducement  to  the  people  of  Bermuda  to  engage  in  that  kind 
of  traffic,  to  obtain  the  foodstuffs  and  clothing  that  they  so  badly 
needed. 

After  the  seizure  of  the  gunpowder  at  Bermuda,  in  August,  and 
evidently,  as  will  be  shown  later,  as  a  reward  for  their  aid  in  that 
affair,  the  attitude  of  Congress  suddenly  changed. 

Under  date  of  Wednesday,  Nov.  22,  1775,  the  following  entry 
occurs  :  ||  "  The  committee  of  the  whole,  to  whom  are  referred  the 
several  petitions  from  the  islands  of  Bermuda,  representing  the  dis- 


*  Journals  of  the  Continental  Congress,  vol.  ii,  p.  239,  Washington  ed.,  1905. 
f  Journal  Continental  Congress,  i,  p.  150. 

I  Secret  Joni-n.  of  The  Continental  Congress,  vol.  i,  p.  21,  ed.  of  1800. 
§  Journal  Continental  Congress,  ii,  p.  184,  ed.  1905. 

II  Journal  of  Continental  Congress,  i,  p.  236,  237,  Boston  ed.,  1821. 


50  A.  HJ.  Verrill — Relations  between  Bermuda  and  the 

tress  to  which  they  were  exposed,  by  the  non-export  agreement,  and 
praying  to  be  relieved  in  such  manner  as  tlie  Congress  may  deem 
consistent  with  the  safety  of  America,  report  that  they  have  con- 
sidered the  same,  and  thereupon  came  to  the  following  resolutions  : 
That  the  inhabitants  of  the  Islands  of  Bermuda  appear  friendly  to 
the  cause  of  America  and  ought  to  be  supplied  with  such  and  so 
great  of  the  products  of  these  colonies,  as  may  be  necessarj^  for 
their  subsistence  and  home  consumption  ;  that  in  the  opinion  of  this 
committee  they  will  annually  require  for  the  purposes  aforesaid  : 

72000  bushels  of  Indian  corn, 
2000  barrels  of  bread  or  flour, 
1000  barrels  of  beef  or  pork, 
2100  bushels  of  peas  or  beans,  and 
300  tierces  of  rice, 

and  that  they  be  permitted  to  export  the  same  yearly.  That  the 
said  inhabitants  ought  to  pay  for  the  above  annual  allowance  in  salt, 
but  it  is  not  the  design  of  this  resolution  to  exclude  them  from  the 
privilege  of  receiving  American  goods  to  any  amount  in  exchange 
for  arms,  ammunition,  saltpeter,  sulphur,  and  field  pieces,  agreeabl}^ 
to  a  resolution  passed  the  15th  of  July  last.  That  to  enable  each 
of  the  colonies,  as  can  conveniently  furnish  the  islands  of  Bermuda 
with  the  above  mentioned  allowance,  to  divide  whatever  advantages 
may  result  therefrom,  in  proportion  to  their  respective  shares  of  the 
general  expense,  it  is  further  the  opinion  of  the  committee  that  the 
colony  of  South  Carolina  supply  them  with  300  tiei'ces  of  rice  ; 
that  the  colony  of  North  Carolina  supply  them  with  16000  bushels 
of  Indian  corn,  and  468  bushels  of  peas  or  beans  ;  Virginia  with 
36000  bush.,  of  Indian  corn,  and  10500  bush,  of  peas  or  beans  ; 
Maryland  with  20000  bush,  of  corn  and  552  bush,  peas  ^or  beans. 
Pennsylvania  Avith  1200  barrels  of  flour  or  bread,  and  600  barrels 
of  beef  or  pork  ;  New  York  with  800  barrels  of  flour  or  bread  and 
400  barrels  of  beef  or  pork. 

Also  to  inform  the  inhabitants  of  Bermuda  that  Congress  would 
also  supply  them  with  other  necessaries,  such  as  lumber,  soap  and 
candles,  whenever  the  quality  and  quantity  of  those  articles  used  in 
the  islands  be  ascertained.  That  Edw.  Stiles  be  permitted,  under 
the  direction  of  the  Committee  of  Safety  of  the  Colony  of  Penn- 
S3'lvania,  to  send  the  brig  "  Sea  Nymph,"  Sam'l  Stobel  master, 
with  4000  bushels  of  Indian  corn,  800  barrels  of  flour,  100  barrels 
of  bread,  20  barrels  of  pork,  8  barrels  of  beef,  30  boxes  of  soap, 


I 


American  Colonies  during  the  Revolutionary  War.  51 

and  15  barrels  of  apples,  to  Bermuda  for  the  immediate  supply  of 
the  inhabitants,  and  that  the  said  cargo  be  considered  as  a  part  of 
the  annual  allowance  aforesaid,  for  the  year  ensuing." 

Other  cargoes  of  provisions  are  recorded  as  having  been  sent  to 
Bermuda.  Among  them  are  the  dates  :  June  5,  1776  ;  May  18, 
177!i  ;  Aug.  30,  1880,  etc.  The  Secret  aiul  Marine  Committee, 
'  charged  with  fitting  out  vessels  with  cargoes  to  Bermuda,"  was 
discharged  Aug.  2,  1776.  ]5ut  an  act  had  been  previously  passed, 
July  24,  1776,  making  an  exception  in  favor  of  Bermuda  vessels,  and 
permitting  them  to  enter  American  ports  for  commercial  purposes. 
But  as  the  governors  of  Bermuda  considered  all  such  traffic  treason- 
able, it  must  have  been  carried  on  secretly  and  with  considerable  risk. 
Thus  more  or  less  destitution  continued  in  Bermuda  di;ring  the  war, 
as  the  records  show.  The  receipt  of  a  letter  or  petition  is  mentioned 
on  May  30th,  1776.  It  was  taken  up  at  the  session  of  June  6th, 
Avhen  the  committee  reported  upon  it  as  follows  : — * 

"  The  committee  to  whom  was  refen-ed  an  extract  of  a  letter  from 
a  gentleman  in  Bermuda,f  dated  26th  April,  and  continued  to  May 
1st,  to  a  gentleman  in  Philadelphia,  brought  in  their  report,  which 
was  read,  and  the  same  being  taken  into  consideration  :  Resolved, 
That  the  Secret  Committee  be  instructed  to  fit  out  two  fa^it  sailing 
vessels  and  load  them  with  provisions,  to  be  sent  immediately  to 
supply  the  inhabitants  of  the  islands  of  Bermuda,  and  that  the  com- 
mittee of  secret  correspondence  be  directed  to  take  such  means  as 
they  may  think  proper,  by  these  vessels,  to  discover  the  state  of  those 
islands  and  the  disposition  of  the  inhabitants  ;  and  that  the  marine 
committee  be  instructed  to  take  such  measures  as  they  may  think 
proper,  for  purchasing,  manning,  arming,  and  fitting  at  the  said 
islands,  of  two  sloops  of  war  for  the  service  of  the  United  Colonies." 

No  report  of  the  results  of  this  exj)edition  has  been  found  on  the 
records. 

In  1878-9  the  islands  were  allowed  to  send  from  each  parish  one 
licensed  vessel  to  Savannah,  New  York,  or  other  English  ports,  to 
obtain  provisions  ;  but  they  had  very  little  to  offer  in  exchange. 

*  Secret  Journ.  Continental  Congress,  i,  pp.  45,  46,  47  (ed.  1800). 

t  The  gentleman  here  referred  to  was,  without  much  doubt,  Mr.  Silas  Deane, 
at  that  time  in  Bermuda,  where  he  had  stopped  to  purchase  a  '"  fast  sailing 
vessel "  while  on  his  way  to  France,  as  instructed  by  Congress.  See  below,  p.  60, 
for  an  extract  from  one  of  his  letters,  probably  the  same  one  here  referred  to. 


52  A.  E.  Verrill — Relations  between  Bermuda  and  the 


1 1.     Seizure  of  the  Gxinpowder  in  1775. 

That  the  American  army  was  at  first  in  desperate  need  of  gunpow- 
der and  other  munitions  of  war,  is  well  known.  General  Washington, 
from  the  very  first,  used  the  most  strenuous  efi^orts  to  increase  the  sup- 
ply and  economize  what  he  had.  The  manufacture  of  saltpeter  and 
the  gathering  of  sulphur  were  encouraged  by  special  acts  of  Congress 
in  th€  summer  of  1775.  It  is  well  known  that  in  August,  1775,  the 
gunpowder  stored  in  a  public  ))owder  magazine  in  Bermuda  was 
secretly  seized  by  an  American  expedition  and  brought  to  the  Colonies 
to  supply  the  armies  in  the  field,  who  were  then  sorely  in  need  of  it. 
The  affair  caused  great  excitement  in  Bermuda  at  the  time,  but  none 
of  the  inhabitants*  were  proved  guilty  of  aiding  in  the  enterprise, 
although  the  governor  and  other  officials  made  great  efforts  to  do  so. 
The  transaction  has  to  tliis  day  remained  very  much  of  a  mystery. 
The  lives  of  those  engaged  in  it  were  at  stake,  both  in  tliis  country  and 
Bermuda,  for  the  result  of  the  impending  war  was  then  very  uncer- 
tain. Various  more  or  less  I'oraantic  and  fictitious  incidents  have 
been  connected  with  the  affair  in  Bermuda,  but  they  seem  to  rest  on 
no  basis  whatever.  The  powder  was  certainly  taken  away  in  the 
night,  with  no  apparent  disturbance.  At  that  time  Bermuda  was 
very  poorly  fortified  and  weakly  garrisoned.  It  is  said  in  Bermuda 
that  the  barrels  of  powder  were  rolled  through  the  governor's  garden. 
Even  now,  though  several  have  written  on  the  subject,  the  amount 
of  gunpowder  taken,  its  destination,  the  persons  concerned,  and  the 
name  of  the  vessel  or  vessels  that  took  it  away  are  not  positive!}' 
known.  No  direct  mention  of  the  act  is  found,  to  my  knowledge, 
in  any  American  official  record. 

In  the  following  pages  I  have  reviewed  all  the  official  American 
records  known  to  me  that  have  been  supposed  to  refer  to  the  affair, 
and  have  collected  all  the  other  evidence  available.  Very  likely 
careful  researches  in  the  official  records  of  that  period  in  Bermuda 
and  London  might  bring  out  some  additional  evidence,  but  the  secrets 
of  the  persons  concerned  seem  to  have  been  well  kept. 

As  many  of  the  warlike  undertakings  of  the  Continental  Congress 
were  at  that  time  delegated  to  the  "  Secret  Committee  of  Marine 
and  Commerce,"  very  little  is  to  be  learned  from  the  official  records 
in  regard  to  this  transaction.  It  was  probably  undertaken,  like  the 
later  expedition  of  Capt.  Whipple,  in  accordance  with  the  urgent 
desire  of  General  Washington,  who,  in  his  letters,  refers  to  a  Mr, 


American  Colonies  during  the  Revolutionary  War.  53 

Harris,   as  one  of    the   persons  who  had  told   him  of   the   powder 
there. 

The  only  official  record  that  has  been  supposed  to  refer  to  it,  and 
that  very  doubtfully,  is  in  the  Pennsylvania  Committee  of  Safety 
minutes,  Sept.  20,  1775,*  pp.  340,  341,  where  it  is  stated  that  1800 
pounds  of  powder  had  been  imported  from  Bermuda  by  Capt.  Ord 
in  "The  Lucy";  of  this,  700  lbs.  were  noted  as  damaged  and  "  not 
fit  to  use."  Some  Avriters  have  stated  that  100  barrels  of  powder 
and  many  other  stores  were  taken  from  the  Bermuda  magazine. 
But  there  is  no  official  record  of  this.  A  few  days  after  the  expe- 
dition under  Captain  Whipple  had  sailed  (Sept.  12),  it  was  pub- 
licly announced,  it  was  said,  perhaps  in  the  news])apers,  that  100 
barrels  of  gunpowder  had  arrived  from  Bermuda.  I  have  not  been 
able  to  consult  the  newspapers  of  that  date.  Perhaps  "The  Phila- 
delphia Packet,"  a  semi-official  organ,  was  the  authority  referred  to. 

The  official  records  give  Aug.  6,  1775,  as  the  date  when  the 
powder  imported  in  the  "  Luc\' "  was  received  in  Philadelphia. 
But  Mr.  DeLancey  Clevelandf  states  that  the  powder  was  seized 
Aug.  14,  1775.  If  the  latter  date  be  correct,  the  former  record  must 
refer  to  a  previous  importation  by  Capt.  Ord.  This  is  not  unlikely, 
for  Capt.  Ord  owned  more  than  one  vessel,  and  was  then  engaged  in 
commerce.  Moreovei',  a  subsequent  importation  of  gunpowder  from 
Bermuda  is  on  record,  and  there  may  have  been  various  others,  for 
considerable  illicit  traffic  was  continually  carried  on  by  the  Bermu- 
dians,  according  to  the  charges  made  by  their  governor  at  that  time. 
The  Continental  Congress  had  already  offered  special  rewards  for 
the  importation  of  gunpowder  and  firearms.  The  unusual  favors 
subsequently  granted  to  the  Bermudians  (see  especially  the  act  of 
Nov.  22,  1775,  above,  p.  49),  indicate  that  much  larger  contribu- 
tions than  the  1800  lbs.  of  powder,  about  half  of  it  "  unfit  for  use," 
had  been  received  from  them. 

I  am,  therefore,  now  led  to  believe  that  the  importation  in  the 
"Lucy"  was  entirely  independent  of  the  powder  taken  from  the 
large  magazine. [j; 

*  Vol.  X,  pp.  377-784,  Harrisburg  ed.,  1852.  See  The  Bermuda  Islands,  i,  p. 
873  (461). 

t  See  article  "  How  Wasbington  got  his  Powder,"  in  New  York  Evening  Post, 
Feb.  24,  1904  ;  reprinted  in  the  Bermuda  Eoyal  Gazette,  March  29.  By  DeLan- 
cey  Cleveland,  a  great-grandson  of  Capt.  George  Ord. 

X  According  to  tradition  in  Bermuda  powder  was  taken  from  more  than  one 
magazine  for  the  Americans. 


54  A.  H]  VerrlU — Tiehitions  heticeen  Bermuda  and  the 

It  seems  quite  probable  that  Captain  Ord  had  previously  been 
informed  of  tlie  gunpowder  in  Bermuda,  and  of  the  means  of  secur- 
ijig  it,  and  that  when  he  heard  of  the  rewards  offered  by  Congress 
for  the  importation  of  gunpowder,  he  hui'ried  back  to  Bermuda  and 
secured  it.  The  intervening  time  Avas  sufficient  for  that  purpose. 
But  whether  the  Americans  took  it  from  the  magazine,  or  received 
it  from  friend)}'  Bermudians,  who  had  taken  it  out  to  them  in  boats, 
is  uncertain.  In  Bermuda  the  latter  view  seems  to  have  been  held. 
The  voj^age  from  Bermuda  in  the  sailing  vessels  of  that  period 
usually  took  at  least  a  week,  and  usually  a  longer  time  in  summer. 
So  that  if  the  seizure  took  place  on  Aug.  14th,  the  powder  could  not 
have  reached  Philadelphia  before  the  22d  to  28th,  and  probably 
rather  later  than  that,  perhaps  a  week  or  more  later.  Possibly  it 
may  have  been  taken  directly  to  New  York,  Providence,  or  some 
other  port  nearer  to  Washington's  army  than  Philadelphia.  But  it 
is  certain  that  Washington  had  not  heard  of  its  ai-rival  up  to  Sept. 
6th,  when  he  wrote  the  circular  letter  to  the  Bermudians,  to  be  taken 
there  by  Capt.  Whipple,  and  probably  he  had  not  heard  of  it  before 
Capt,  Whipple  sailed,  Sept.  12th.  This  would  tend  to  make  the 
date  of  Aug.  14th,  for  the  seizure,  seem  more  probable.  The  powder 
that  was  received  by  the  "  Lucy,"  Aug.  6,  must  have  left  Bermuda 
about  July  28th,  or  earlier.  According  to  some  traditions  and  pub- 
lished accounts,  there  were  two  vessels  concerned  in  the  seizure  : 
one  of  them  from  South  Carolina,  and  the  other  from  Philadelphia. 
If  so,  part  of  the  gunpowder  may  have  been  taken  directly  to  South 
Carolina,  where  it  was  much  needed  at  that  time.  It  is  probable 
that,  as  a  matter  of  safet}',  no  official  record  was  made  of  the  arrival 
of  this  captured  powder.  Many  of  the  warlike  acts  of  the  secret 
committees  of  that  period  were  never  recorded,  for  good  and  suffi- 
cient reasons,  as  affairs  then  stood. 

Recently,  Miss  Caroline  Clifford  Newton,  daughter  of  the  late 
Professor  H.  A.  Newton,  of  Yale  Universitj'",  has  called  my  atten- 
tion to  the  fact  that  Captain  Samuel  Stiles,  of  Georgia,  has  been 
reputed  to  have  taken  a  part  in  the  seizure  of  the  gunpowder.  He 
was  the  great-great-grandfather  of  Miss  Newton.  He  was  an 
adventurous  ship  captain,  who  owned  his  own  vessels,  and  was 
engaged  in  commerce  at  that  time.  Miss  Newton  states  that  accoi-d- 
ing  to  famih"^  traditions  he  took  a  prominent  part  in  that  affair, 
importing  some  of  the  powder  in  his  own  ship.  He  ma}-,  indeed, 
have  commanded  the  second  vessel,  said,  in  the  contemporary 
accounts,  to  have  hailed  from  South   Carolina,  as  mentioned  above. 


American  Colonies  during  the  Revolutionary  War.  55 

In  the  "Historical  (.Collections  of  Georgia,"  by  the  Rev.  George 
White,  p.  276  (New  York,  1855),  the  author  mentions  Capt.  Samuel 
Stiles,*  and  says  :  "It  is  said  that  the  Bermudians  being  in  a  starv- 
ing condition,  stole  the  government  powder  from  the  magazines  and 
sold  it  for  provisions,  and  that  Mr.  Stiles  was  the  person  who 
arranged  the  trade  and  carried  off  the  powder." 

Mr.  White  also  states  that  Capt.  Stiles  was  engaged,  during  the 
war,  in  importing  powder  from  the  West  Indies,  both  for  Congress 
and  for  the  colony  of  Georgia. 

The  gunpowder  mentioned  in  the  minutes,  quoted  above,  was 
recorded  as  having  been  imported  by  Capt.  Ord  in  the  "  Lucy." 
But  one  of  Capt.  Ord's  descendants,  Mr.  DeLancey  Cleveland,  says 
that  according  to  family  traditions  the  powder  taken  from  the  maga- 
zine Avas  brought  away  in  the  "  Retaliation."  Capt.  Ord  received  a 
commission  from  the  Continental  Congress,  Dec.  4,  1776,  as  a  priva- 
teer in  command  of  the  brigantine  "  Retaliation,"  of  90  tons,  armed 
with  14  guns,  and  manned  by  100  men.  His  commission,  a  copy  of 
which  I  have  at  hand,  is  now  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  Cleveland.  It 
Avas  signed  "  By  order  of  The  Congress,  John  Hancock,  President." 

As  no  commissions  to  privateersf  were  granted  by  Congress  or  the 
Colonies  up  to  1776,  according  to  the  best  authorities,  Capt.  Ord  was 
not  a  privateer  in  1775,  though  he  doubtless  had  a  commission  and 
official  orders  of  some  kind — perhaps  from  the  Governor  of  Pennsyl- 
vania. J  There  is  no  evidence  that  his  vessel,  the  "  Lucy,"  was  armed 
at  that  time,  though  it  was  then  usual  to  arm  even  mercantile  vessels 
for  defence.  It  is  not  improbable  that  the  name  of  the  vessel  might 
have  been  changed  from  "  Lucy  "  to  "  Retaliation  "  when  it  was 
put  in  commission  as  a  privateer,  but  there  is  no  evidence  of  this. 
The  latter  indicates  a  name  given  after  hostilities  had  begun,  and 
perhaps  after  the  loss  of  a  vessel  by  capture,  but  Capt.  Ord  is  said 
to  have  owned  more  than  one  vessel  during  the  war. 

*  According  to  Mr.  White,  Capt.  Stiles  came  to  America  aboiit  1769,  and 
owned  a  plantation  in  Bryan  County,  Ga.  When  the  war  broke  ont  his  family 
was  in  Bermuda,  but  he  early  joined  the  cause  of  the  Colonies.  He  was  present 
at  the  siege  of  Savannah. 

f  The  first  resolution  of  Congress  in  regard  to  giving  commissions  to  priva- 
teers seems  to  have  been  on  March  23,  1776. 

ij:  It  is  a  tradition  among  his  descendants  that  Capt.  Ord  fitted  out  this  expe- 
dition at  his  own  expense.  Mr.  De  Lancey  Cleveland  informs  me  that  the  fam- 
ily tradition  is  not  very  positive  as  to  the  name  of  the  vessel. 


56  A.  E.  Verrill — Relations  betioeen  Bermuda  and  the 

A  little  later*  there  is  a  record  of  the  arrival  of  "eight  half 
barrels  of  powder"  shipped  from  Bermuda  by  Henry  Tucker, 
"  Chairman  of  the  Deputies  of  several  Parishes  of  Bermuda."  It 
is  recorded  as  having  belonged  to  Capt.  John  Cooper  of  North 
Carolina,  and  was  intended  for  the  use  of  that  colony.  There  is  no 
reason  to  suppose  that  this  was  not  a  private  shipment. 

It  has  often  been  said  that  the  arrival  of  the  gunpowder  from 
Bermuda  enabled  Washington  to  recapture  Boston  on  March  17, 
following.  I  have  not  been  able  to  find  any  reliable  evidence  of 
this.  It  appears  that  Congress  supplied  Washington's  army  at  that  ^ 
time  with  gunpowder  from  any  and  every  available  source.  Proba- 
bly the  Bermuda  gunpowder  was  put  into  the  general  supply. 
Doubtless  some  of  it,  if  not  all^  reached  Washington's  army,  at 
Cambridge,  as  there  was  ample  time,  but  I  have  found  no  record  of 
its  arrival. 

Just  before  the  arrival  of  the  small  supply  on  the  "Lucy,"  a 
much  larger  quantity  had  been  ordered  sent  to  General  Washington 
from  Philadelphia. 

The  Continental  Congress  on  Aug.  1,  iVTojf  "Resolved,  that  out 
of  the  powder  belonging  to  the  continent  now  in  this  city,  five  tons 
be  sent  to  General  Washington  in  the  speediest  and  safest  manner 
by  the  delegates  of  the  colony  of  Pennsylvania,"  and  that  "  out  of 
the  next  that  arrives  "  1,000  lbs.  should  be  allotted  to  New  Jersey, 
and  "  out  of  the  same  parcel "  one  ton  should  be  reserved  for  N. 
Carolina,  to  be  lodged  in  the  "  magazine  of  New  York,"  if  not 
required  by  Gen.  Washington  or  Gen.  Schuyler.  Perhaps  this  lot 
that  was  soon  expected  was  the  Bermuda  guni)0wder.  If  so,  the 
storing  of  part  of  it  in  the  New  York  magazine  would  indicate  that 
it  was  taken  directly  to  New  York  from  Bermuda. 

It  is  claimed  by  the  descendants  of  St.  George  Tucker,J  who  came 
to  Virginia  several  years  previously  (1771)  and  took  an  active  part 
in  the  cause  of  the  colonists,  that  he  was  active  in  securing  the  gun- 
powder. But  precisely  what  he  actually  did  do  seems  to  be 
unknown.     He   may  have  helped  to  make  the  plans  for  the  seizure. 

*  See  New  Eiig.  Hist,  and  Gen.  Records,  vol.  1,  No.  4,  p.  441,  Oct.,  1896. 

f  Journals  of  the  Continental  Congress,  ii,  p.  238,  ed.  1905. 

t  See  the  article  by  J.  T.  McLaughlin,  .)r.,  his  great-grandson,  in  The  Rojah 
Gazette,  March  15,  1904,  reprinted  from  The  New  York  Evening  Post,  March  5, 
1904.  p.  8,  in  reply  to  an  article  by  Mr.  C.  E.  Hayward,  Feb.  20,  1904,  Supple- 
ment, 13.  ] .  Mr.  Hayward  stated  that  the  powder  was  put  aboard  of  two  Ber- 
muda vessels  ofif  the  North  Rocks.     This  is  a  very  doubtful  tradition. 


American  Colonies  during  the  ReDolutionary  War.  57 

It  is  a  matter  of  record  that  he  was  sent  to  Bermuda  (June,  ll'lo), 
just  before  the  event,  and  that  he  did  not  return  to  Virginia  till 
Nov.,  1776.  So  it  would  appear  that  he  had  other  objects  in  charge 
beyond  the  securing  of  the  gunpowder,  I  do  not  find  that  he  was 
accused  of  having  a  hand  in  it  at  that  time.  While  in  Bermuda  he 
was  admitted  to  the  local  bar. 

It  is  probable  that  the  American  sailors  did  the  actual  work  of 
removing  the  gunpowder,  and  that  some  of  the  inhabitants  of  Ber- 
muda may  have  acted  as  guides  and  as  pilots  for  the  boats,  in  that 
night  adventure. 

Shortly  after  the  Rhode  Island  expedition  had  sailed  and  the  news 
of  the  arrival  of  the  powder  had  been  received,  a  second  vessel  was 
sent  from  Rhode  Island  to  notify  Capt,  Whipple.  Both  vessels 
reached  Bermuda  and  their  people  were  well  received  by  the  inhabi- 
tants, who  told  them  of  the  previous  capture  of  the  powder. 

It  is  stated  that  Capt,  Whi{)ple,  while  there,  entertained  on  board 
his  vessel  five  members  of  the  Council,  who  assured  him  that  "the 
people  were  hearty  friends  of  the  American  Cause  and  heartily  dis- 
posed to  serve  it."     He  returned  Oct,  20,  1775. 

It  appears,  from  documents,  that  these  vessels  anchored  off  the 
southwestern  end  of  the  islands,  and  that  there  Avere  British  war 
vessels  at  the  other  end.  But  the  latter  did  not  venture  to  attack 
the  Americans. 

Capt.  Whipple  was  also  told  that  the  Governor  had  notified  Gen- 
eral Gates  of  the  seizure  of  the  powder,  and  that  he  had  sent  from 
Boston  an  armed  sloop  and  a  transport,  which  were  then  in  St. 
George's  harbor. 

In  accordance  with  the  promises  of  General  Washington,  the  Con- 
tinental Congress,  in  November,  soon  after  the  powder  had  been 
received,  ordered  a  cargo  of  provisions  sent  to  Bermuda  to  relieve 
the  immediate  distress  of  the  inhabitants,  and  also  allowed  annual 
shipments  ;  and  later  permitted  private  firms  to  send  cargoes  there 
from  several  of  the  Colonies.  (See  above,  p.  49.)  It  also  allowed 
salt  to  be  brought  back  in  payment  for  provisions.  Moreover,  a 
law  was  passed,  November,  1777,  exempting  Bermudian  vessels  from 
capture  by  American  privateers.  This  exception  was  contained  in 
all  the  letters  of  marque  issued  after  Nov.  27,  1777. 

Inasmuch  as  Congress  had  specifically  named  the  "Summer  Islands" 
among  the  places  with  which  trade  was  prohibited,  in  its  act  of  Aug. 
1st,  the  arrival  of  a  large  amount  of  gunpowder  from  thence  through 


58  A.  E.  T'eiTill — Relations  hetifeen  Bermuda  a?id  the 

the  friendh^  aid  of  the  Bermudian  people,  is  the  only  logical  explan- 
ation of  the  sudden  chanare  in  its  attitude. 

Before  Gen,  Washington  heard  of  the  success  of  this  first  expe- 
dition lie  made  an  urgent  appeal*  to  Gov.  Cooke  of  Rhode  Island 
to  send  one  of  the  armed  vessels  of  that  colony  to  Bermuda.  This 
plan  was  approved  by  the  Governor  and  Committee  of  Rhode  Island, 
and  the  vessel  was  dispatched  Sei)t,  12,  1775,  in  command  of  Capt. 
Abraham  Whipple,  who  carried  with  him  a  circular  letter  from 
General  Washington,  dated  Sept.  G,  1775,  to  the  inhabit-ants  of  Ber- 
muda,f  asking  them  to  aid,  so  far  as  they  safely  could,  in  this  enter- 
prise, and  promising  in  return  to  use  his  influence  with  Congress  to 
secure  the  sending  of  much  needed  provisions,  and  obtain  other 
favors  for  them.  The  following  is  an  extract  from  General  Wash- 
ington's letter  : — 

"  We  are  informed  that  there  is  a  very  large  magazine  in  your  island  under  a 
very  feeble  guard.  We  would  not  wish  to  involve  you  in  an  opposition  in  which, 
from  your  situation,  we  should  be  unable  to  support  you  ;  we  know  not,  therefore, 
to  what  extent  to  solicit  your  assistance,  in  availing  ourselves  of  this  supply;  but 
if  your  favoiir  and  friendship  to  North  Amei'ica  and  its  liberties  have  not  been 
misrepresented,  I  persuade  myself  you  may,  consistently  with  your  own  safety, 
promote  and  fiirther  this  scheme,  so  as  to  give  it  the  fairest  prospect  of  success. 
Be  assured  that  in  this  ease  the  whole  power  and  exertion  of  my  influence  will  be 
made  with  the  honorable  Continental  Congress,  that  your  island  may  not  only 
be  supplied  with  provisions,  but  experience  every  other  mark  of  affection  and 
friendship  which  the  grateful  citizens  of  a  free  country  can  bestow  on  its 
brethren  and  benefactors." 

III.     Bermuda  Privaieers. 

Notwithstanding  the  friendly  relations,  there  were  in  Bermuda 
plenty  of  people  who  held  the  same  views  as  the  loyalists  in  America. 
Some  fitted  out  privateers  to  prey  upon  American  commerce  and 
enrich  themselves,  as  the  Governor,  George  J.  Bruere,  advised.  A 
privateer's  commission  was  given,  Jan.  10,  1778,  to  Capt.  Bridger 
Goodrich,  in  command  of  the  "Hammond  "  of  100  tons,  8  guns,  and 
20  men,  to  "cruise  against  the  American  colonies."     It  was  armed 


*  In  his  letter,  dated  "  Camp  at  Cambridge,  4  Aug.,  1775,"  General  Wash- 
ington mentioned  the  great  and  pressing  need  of  gunpowder  for  the  army  and 
the  very  precarious  snpply.  He  also  said:  ""No  quantity,  however  small,  is 
beneath  notice,  and,  should  any  arrive,  I  beg  it  may  be  forwarded  as  soon  as 
jiossible." 

\  This  letter  luis  been  ptiblished  in  full  in  several  books.  See  J.  Sparks, 
"Writings  of  George  Washington,"  iii,  p.  77.  Also  Stark's  Bermuda  Guide, 
pp.  :55-37,  1898. 


Americcm  Colonies  during  the  Revolutionary  War.  59 

by  Robt.  Shelden  and  Wm.  Goodrich,  merchants  of  Bermuda.  Sev- 
eral other  privateers  were  fitted  out  there  and  commissioned  by  Gov. 
George  James  Bruere,*  in  1778  to  1780,  "to  cruise  against  the  French, 
Spanish,  and  Americans."  Gov.  George  Bruere.  in  one  of  his  earliest 
addresses,  Nov.  23,  1780,  also  referred  to  their  great  success  and 
urged  the  fitting  out  of  more.  Among  those  recorded  were  the 
"  Miraculous  Pitcher,"'  Capt.  H.  Middleton  ;  sloop  "  Whalebone," 
Capt.  John  Brice  ;  the  "Spitfire";  the  "Jolly  Bacchus."  Others 
might  be  found  recorded,  very  likely,  by  a  more  thorough  search  of 
the  Bermuda  records. 

In  an  address  by  Gov.  George  Bruere,  June  19,  1781,  he  said  that 
"  a  noble  ship  "  was  being  fitted  out  as  a  privateer  by  a  private  family, 
and  added:  "  I  flatter  myself  her  success,  as  well  as  the  good  fortune 
the  other  armed  vessels  constantly  meet  with,  will  convince  the  rea- 
sonable and  dispassionate  that  interest  as  well  as  duty  lay  on  the  side 
of  equipments  against  our  Confederate  Enemies." 

Some  of  the  Bermuda  privateers  were  also  captured  by  the  Amer- 
icans. One  which  was  captured  and  taken  to  Boston  and  condemned 
there  had  70  negro  sailors  on  board. 

I  have  not  attempted  to  compile  a  list  of  American  vessels  cap- 
tured by  the  Bermudian  privateers  and  condemned  there,  but  a  con- 
siderable number  are  recorded. 

After  the  arrival  of  Governor  Wm.  Brown,  in  1782,  privateering 
was  discouraged  f  He  said  "  the  spirit  of  privateering  will  draw  the 
resentment  of  the  enemy." 

IV.     Plans  for  the   Capture   of  Bermuda   hy  the   Americans  and 

French. 

Although  the  various  petitions  and  letters  from  the  Bermudians, 
referred  to  in  the  journals  of  the  Continental  Congress,  have  not 
been  preserved,  the  character  of  the  wording  of  the  resolutions  is 
sufficient  to  show  the  strong  sympathy  between  the  Bermudians  and 
Americans.  It  is  well  known  that  there  were  many  in  authority  in 
this  country  who  advised  the  capture  of  Bermuda.     Very  likely  the 

*  Gov.  George  James  Briiere,  appointed  1764,  died  in  Aug.,  1780.  He  was 
succeeded  by  Lt.-Gov.  Thos.  Jones,  Sept.,  1780.  He  was  replaced  Oct.,  1780,  by 
Gov.  George  Bruere.  who  was  replaced  by  Governor  Wm.  Brown,  Jan.  4,  1782. 

f  Governor  Brown  was  a  native  of  Salem,  Mass.  He  was  a  very  able  and 
much  respected  citizen,  and  an  eminent  jurist.  He  was,  however,  a  devoted 
loyalist,  and  was  obliged  to  leave  his  country  and  sacrifice  his  property  on  that 
account.     His  letter  as  to  privateering  is  in  "  The  Lansdowne  MSS."  vol.  78. 


00  A.  E.  Verrill — Relations  hetxrieen  Bermuda  and  the 

visit  of  Mr.  St.  George  Tucker  to  Bermuda,  from  June,  1775,  to 
November,  1776,  was  only  in  part  to  secure  gunpowder.  It  may 
have  been  more  particularly  to  promulgate  the  revolutionary  ideas 
of  the  American  Colonists. 

It  is  not  improbable  that  he  was  also  instructed  to  ascertain  the 
disposition  of  the  people  in  regard  to  the  plan  for  the  capture  of 
Bermuda,  and  its  practicability,  and  to  enlist  their  aid  and  sympathy 
in  other  wavs.  He  came  back  with  a  cargo  of  salt,  which  was  then 
much  needed.  After  he  returned  to  America  he  joined  the  Conti- 
nental army.  He  became  a  Lieutenant  Colonel  in  1789,  and  M'as 
wounded  in  the  battle  of  Guilford  Court  House.  He  was  appointed 
Professor  of  Law  in  1789,  and  Judge  of  U.  S.  District  Court  in 
1815.     (See  biographical  sketch  below.) 

It  is  certain  that  Bermuda  was  at  that  time  very  j)oorly  fortified 
and  feebly  garrisoned.  St.  George's  was  the  only  town  and  principal 
harbor,  for  Hamilton  was  not  made  the  capital  till  1812.  But  the 
irarrison  was  greatlv  increased  in  1778  and  1779.  Gen.  Sir  Henry 
Clinton,  writing  to  Lord  George  Germain,  Oct.  8,  1778,  stated  that 
he  had  sent  300  men  to  garrison  Bermuda;  and  in  a  later  letter, 
Nov.,  1779,  he  says,  "I  have  sent  an  additional  force  to  Bermuda. 
That  place  is  of  the  greatest  consequence." 

Probably  some  of  the  old  and  more  or  less  ruined  forts,  built  long 
before  about  St.  George's  harbor  and  on  Castle  Island,  etc.,  were 
repaired  and  garrisoned  at  that  time.* 

Mr.  Silas  Deane,  a  member  of  Congress,  who  was  sent  as  a  secret 
agent  to  the  Court  of  France  in  1776,  stopped,  on  his  way,  at  Ber- 
muda and  there  purchased  a  fast  sloop  in  which  he  sailed  to  Bor- 
deaux, arriving  June,  1776.  In  a  letter  from  Bermuda,  April,  1776, 
he  described  the  destitute  condition  and  distress  of  the  inhabitants 
and  said  that  a  famine  was  inevitable  unless  they  could  live  entirely 
on  fish  or  get  food  from  America. f  He  also  described  the  harbors 
and  channels,  and  advised  the  Congress  to  take  possession  of  the 
islands  and  fortify  them  at  both  ends,  and  thus  make  a  safe  harbor 
for  the  building  and  fitting  out  of  vessels  to  destroy  the  British, 
commerce  with  the  AVest  Indies.  In  another  letter,  dated  Paris, 
Aug.  18,  177C,  he  referred  to  the  same  subject  and  said  that  the; 
English  government  intended  to  fortify  the  islands  during  the  fol-j 

*  See  The  Bermuda  Islands,  vol.  i,  pp.  449-463. 

f  See  above,  p.  51.     This  letter  was  apjiarently  the  one  there  referred  to,  andj 
acted  upon  by  Congress. 


American  Colonies  during  the  Revolutionary  War.  61 

lowing  winter  and  spring  and  tliat  France  would  take  possession  of 
them  "on  the  first  rupture," 

He  also-  stated  that  the  Bermudians  had  sent  a  petition  to  the 
English  government  declaring  the  necessity  of  getting  provisions 
from  America,  and  saying  that  if  not  permitted  to  do  so,  they  must 
ask  the  protection  of  the  Congress,* 

In  consequence  of  Mr,  Deane's  letters  and  other  information, 
Congress  immediatel}'  ordered  two  "  fast-sailing  vessels "  to  be 
loaded  with  provisions  and  sent  to  Bermuda,  June,  1776.  The  officers 
were  instructed  to  ascertain  "  the  disposition  of  the  people,"  and 
also  whether  two  armed  vessels  could  be  purchased  and  fitted  out 
there,  (See  above,  p,  51.)  Their  report  does  not  appear  to  have  been 
recorded, f  Doubtless  it  Avas  deemed  impracticable  to  take  the 
islands  at  that  time,  for  the  Americans  then  had  no  war  vessels  of 
any  importance  and  could  not  have  held  the  islands  against  the 
English  fleet,  even  with  the  assistance  of  the  French  fleet. 

But  plans  for  the  capture  of  Bermuda  were  not  entirely  abandoned 
until  long  afterwards,  for  references  are  repeatedly'  made  to  it  in  the 
official  letters  pi-eserved  in  the  archives,  both  in  Europe  and  America. 
In  the  letters  of  Mi-,  Hopkins  (Brigadier  in  the  French  Service)  to 
Compte  de  Vergennes,  Sept,  9  and  Sept,  14,  1776,  he  mentions  the 
capture  of  Bermuda  as  a  part  of  his  plans  J 

In  the  Treaties  of  Commerce  .and  Alliance  between  France  and 
America,  signed  Feb,  6,  1778,  it  was  stipulated  that  all  the  West 
Indies,  if  conquered,  should  belong  to  France,  but  that  Bermuda 
should  be  added  to  the  United  States, 

In  the  letters  of  Marquis  de  Lafayette  to  Compte  de  Vergennes, 
July  3,  and  July  18,  1779,  and  in  other  letters,  he  mentions  the 
capture  of  Bermuda  for  the  Americans  as  a  part  of  his  plans. 
Lafayette  contemplated  a  visit  to  Bermuda,  personally,  to  organize 
a  liberty  part}^,  as  stated  in  a  letter  to  Compte  de  Vergennes,  Feb. 
2,  1780.  He  said,  "Nous  pouvous  en  passant  toucher  a  la  Bermuda 
et  y  etablir  le  parti  de  la  liberte." 

*  See  also  New  Eng.  Historical  and  Geological  Eeg.,  vol.  1,  No.  4,  Oct.,  1896, 
p.  441. 

\  All  such  matters  were  at  that  time  referred  to  a  Secret  Committee  of  Marine 
and  Commerce,  and  very  little  is  on  record  as  to  its  doings. 

X  See  Stevens,  Benj.  Franklin  (editor).  Facsimiles  of  manuscripts  in  European 
Archives  relating  to  America,  17T3-1778,  Nov.,  1889-Fel3.,  1898,  folio.  See 
Abstracts  in  G.  Watson  Cole,  Bermuda  in  Periodical  Literature,  Bulletin  of 
Bibliography,  iii,  Nos.  8,  9,  Jan. -Feb..  1904,  of  these  and  several  other  letters 
regai'ding  the  capture  of  Bermuda  by  the  French. 


62  A.  E.  Verrill — lielations  heticeen  Bermuda  and  the 

One  of  the  means  of  communicating  with  friendly  Bermudians  is 
shown  in  a  letter  of  information  communicated  by  Lieut. -Col. 
Edward  Smith,  Oct.  22,  1777  :  "AH  American  ships  falling  in  with 
Bermuda  Islands  must  stand  tor  the  West  end,  and  by  their  hoisting 
a  jack  at  the  maintoi)mast  head,  a  Mr,  Tucker  would  send  off  a  boat, 
and  procuring  them,  as  required,  assistance,  would  give  them  orders 
or  satisfactory  information." 

Y,     Biofjraphical  Notes  on  some  of  the  persons  mentioned. 

St.  George  Tucker.*  He  was  born  at  Port  Royal,  Bermuda,  July 
10,  1752,  and  died  near  Warminster,  Va.,  Nov.  10,  1827.  His  parents 
were  Henry  and  Anne  (Butterfield)  Tucker.  He  was  a  descendant 
of  George  Tucker  of  Kent,  England,  who  was  a  prominent  member 
of  the  Warwick  party  in  the  Virginia  Company'  of  London,  and  of  his 
eldest  son,  George  Tucker,  who  emigrated  to  Bermuda  among  the 
earliest  settlers  and  became  a  land  owner  and  planter  of  tobacco 
there.  The  latter  was  a  nephew  of  Governor  Daniel  Tucker  (1615- 
1616),  famous  for  his  strenuous  government  of  his  unruly  subjects.} 

St.  George  Tucker  came  to  Virginia  in  1771,  to  complete  his 
education,  and  o^raduated  at  the  Colleofe  of  William  and  Marv  in 
1772.  He  afterwards  studied  and  practiced  law.  He  went  to  Ber- 
muda, June,  1775,  and  was  admitted  to  the  bar  there,  July,  1775. 
In  November,  1776,  he  returned  to  Virginia  with  a  cargo  of  salt. 
In  1777  he  engaged,  with  his  brother  Thomas,  in  importing  gun- 
powder and  other  munitions  of  war  from  the  W^est  Indies.  He  soon 
entered  the  army.  He  was  Aide-de-camp  to  General  Thos.  Nelson  in 
1779  ;  Major  in  1781,  He  served  with  General  Greene  in  the  south, 
and  was  wounded  in  the  battle  of  Guilford  Court  House,  March  15, 
1781.  He  became  Lieut. -Colonel,  Sept.  12,  1781,  and  was  sent  as 
a  delegate  with  Edward  Randolph  and  James  Madison  to  the 
Annapolis  Convention  in  1786.  It  is  said  that  he  was  the  person 
who  made  the  report  of  the  famous  speech  of  Patrick  Henry. 

After  the  war  he  resumed  the  practice  of  law,  and  became  a  judge 
in  1787.  He  was  appointed  Professor  of  Law  in  the  College  of 
William  and  Mary,  1789-90,  and  was  judge  of  the  II.  S.  District 
Court  of  Virginia,  1813-25.  He  also  held  other  important  offices. 
He  wrote  a  number  of  important  legal  works,  and  had  a  good  liter- 
ary reputation,  both  as  a  writer  of  prose  and  poetry. 

*  The  dates  here  given  are  mostly  from  Lamb's   Biog.    Diet.  United  StatesJ 

190-5,  vol.  vii,  p.  387.     Other  biographical  works  give  some  of  them -differentlyJ 

t  See  "The  Bei-muda  Islands,"  vol.  i,  pp.  447,  476,  551,  634,  630,  713,  719^ 

875. 


American  Colonies  during  the  Mevolutionari/  War.  03 

His  sons  and  several  of  liis  later  descendants  have  also  been 
eminent  in  law  and  other  professions. 

His  elder  brother,  Thomas  Tudor  Tucker,  who  was  born  in  Ber- 
muda, 1'745,  and  emigrated  to  South  Carolina,  was  a  surgeon  in  the 
army,  and  was  a  delegate  to  the  Continental  Congress,  1787-8,  and 
representative  in  the  United  States  Congress  subsequently,  1789- 
1793  ;  from  December,  1801,  to  his  death.  May,  1828,  '27  years,  he 
was  Treasurer  of  the  United  States. 

Capt.  George  Okd  was  born  in  England,  May  26,  1741,  He 
died  Oct.  13,  1806.  He  came  to  America  when  18  years  old.  He 
carried  on  a  ship  chandlery,  together  with  a  rope-walk  in  Phila- 
delphia, before  the  war,  and  had  already  acquired  considerable 
knowledge  of  naval  affairs  in  England.  These  occupations  and  his 
experience  made  him  useful  in  the  first  formation  of  the  Naval 
Board,  as  shown  by  letters  to  him,  still  preserved,  from  Thomas 
Wharton,  "  First  President  of  Council."* 

He  was  an  uncle  of  George  Ord,  Esq.,  a  well  known  naturalist 
of  Philadelphia,  and  for  many  years  an  active  member  of  the 
Academy  of  Natural  Sciences  and  American  Philosophical  Society. 
He  was  a  friend  and  patron  of  Wilson,  the  ornithologist,  and  edited 
his  Ornithology,  writing  the  last  volfime  himself.  He  was  also 
intimate  with  Audubon,  Lesueur,  and  other  notable  naturalists  of 
that  period.  It  was  through  him  that  the  papers  and  relics  of  Capt. 
Ord  were  transmitted  to  his  nephew,  DeLancey  Cleveland,  who  wrote 
the  article  on  the  capture  of  the  gunpowder,  referred  to  above. 
The  following  is  a  copy  of  the  commission  of  Capt.  George  Ord. 
The  original  is  preserved  by  Mr.  DeLancey  Cleveland  : 

IN  CONGEESS. 

The  Delegates  of  the  United  States,  of  New  Hampshire,  Massachusettes  Bay,  Rhode 
Island,  Connecticut,  New  York,  New  Jersey,  Pennsylvania,  the  Counties  of  New 
Castle,  Kenf  and  Sussex  on  Delaware,  Maryland,  Virginia,  North-Carolina, 
South-Carolina,  and  Georgia, 

To  all  unto  whom  these  Presents  shall  come,  send  Greeting :  Know  Ye, 

THAT  we  have  granted,  and  by  these  Presents  do  grant  Licence  and  Author- 
ity to  George  Ord  Esq"  Mariner,  Commander  of  the  Brig"  called  Retalia- 
tion of  the  Burthen  of  90-Tons,  or  thereabouts,  moimting  fourteen  Carriage 
Guns,  and  navigated  by   100  Men,  to  fit  out  and  set  forth  the  said  Brig"  in  a 

*  For  these  partictilars  I  am  indebted  to  Mrs.  DeLancey  Cleveland,  of  New 
York. 

Trans.  Conn.  Acad.,  Vol.  XIII.  5  July,  1907. 


64  A.  I^.   Verrill — lielationH  hetween  Bermuda,  etc. 


warlike  Manner,  and  by  and  witb  the  said  Brigantine  and  the  crew  thereof,  by 
force  of  Arms,  to  attack,  seize  and  take  the  Ships  and  other  Vessels  belonging 
to  the  Inhabitants  of  Great-Britain,  or  any  of  them,  with  the  Tackle,  Apparel, 
Furniture  and  Liulings,  on  the  High  Seas,  or  between  high-water  and  low-water 
Marks,  and  to  bring  the  same  to  some  convenient  Ports  in  the  said  Colonies,  in 
Order  that  the  Courts,  which  are  or  shall  be  there  appointed  to  hear  and  deter- 
mine Causes  civil  and  maritime,  may  proceed  in  due  Form  to  condemn  the  said 
Captures,  if  they  be  adjudged  lawful  Prize ;  the  said  George  Ord  having  given 
Bond,  with  sufficient  Sureties,  that  nothing  be  done  by  the  said  George  Ord  or 
any  of  the  Officers,  Mariners  or  Company  thereof  contrary  to,  or  inconsistant 
with  the  Usages  and  Customs  of  Nations,  and  the  Instructions,  a  Copy  of  which 
is  herewith  delivered  to  him.  And  we  will  and  require  all  our  Officers  whatso- 
ever to  give  Succour  and  Assistance  to  the  said  George  Ord  in  the  Premises. 
This  Commission  shall  continue  in  force  until  the  Congress  shall  issne  Orders  to 

the  Contrary. 

By  Order  of  the  Congress. 

JOHN  HANCOCK,  President 
Dated  at  Philadelphia 

the  4't' day  of  Decem*- 1776. 

That  the  Assembly  and  people  of  Bevniii(la  were  fuH}^  justified  in 
their  quarrels  with  Gov.  Geo.  James  Bruere  is  obvious  from  the  facts 
that  are  recorded  in  histor3'^,  showing  plainly  his  tyrannical  charac- 
ter and  merciless  disposition.  Doubtless  there  were  multitudes  of 
other  grievances  well  known  to  his  contemporaries.*  It  was  under 
his  regime  that  the  disgraceful  and  fatal  treatment  of  the  American 
prisoners  of  war.  took  place,  and  for  which  he  was,  no  doubt,  mainly 
responsible. 

The  privateers  took  large  numbers  of  prisoners.  They  were 
crowded  into  the  small  unsanitary  jail  at, St.  George's,  till  the  con- 
ditions became  too  horrible  to  relate. f  Consequently  a  malignant 
"jail  fever"  broke  out  in  the  jail,  exentualh'^  spreading,  in  lVVO-80, 
over  all  the  islands,  causing  untold  suffering  and  hundreds  of  deaths, 
both  among  the  natives  and  prisoners. 

*  Debates  of  the   Assembly  were  not  open  to  the  public  till  1784  ;  the  first 
newspaper.  The  Bermuda  Gazette,  was  started  Jan.,  1784,  under  Gov.  Brown. 
fSee  "The  Bermuda  Is.,"  ed.  I,  p.  104. 


4  ^^0 

TRANSACTIONS  OF  I  HE 
CONNECTICUT  ACADEMY  Of  ARTS  Ar>fD  SCIENCES 

Incoui'Okatru  a.  D.  ,17'J'J 

VOLUME  XIII.     PP.  65-87  AUGUST,  1907 

Publications  of  Yale  University 


MATURATION    OF    THE    EGG    OF    THE 

WHITE    MOUSE 


KY 


WILLIAM    B.    KIRKHAM 


NEW    HAVEN,    CONNECTICUT 
1907 

THE   TUTTLE,  MOREHOUSE   &   TAYLOR    PRESS 


III. — Maturation  of  the  Egg  of  the   White  Mouse. 
By  William  B.  Kirkham. 

Table  of  Contents.  , 

I. — Literature   relating  to  the  Mam-      II. — The  Egg,  etc. — Continued. 

malian  Ovum.  First  Polar  Body. 

II. — The  Egg  of  the  Mouse.  ^ Ovulation. 

Material  and  Method.  Fertilization. 

Breeding  Season.  Second  Polar  Body. 

Mature  Ovum.  III. — Summary. 

First  Polar  Spindle.  IV. — Bibliography. 

I. —  TAterature  relating  to  the  Mammalian  Ovum. 

So  far  as  known,  the  first  person  to  discover  the  cleavage  stages 
in  any  mammalian  egg  was  R,  de  Graaf  (i678),  and  subsequent  to 
his  researches  no  further  investigations  in  this  line  are  met  with 
until  1797,  when  an  Englishman,  William  Cruikshank,  published 
"Experiments  in  which,"  to  quote  the  quaint  title,  "on  the  third 
Day  after  Impregnation,  the  Ova  of  Rabbits  were  found  in  the  fal- 
lopian Tubes  ;  and  on  the  fourth  day  after  Impregnation,  in  the 
uterus  itself  ;  with  the  first  Appearances  of  the  Foetus."  Cruik- 
shank noted  some  rabbit's  eggs  before  cleavage,  a  few  at  the  two- 
celled  stage,  and  some  very  young  embryos. 

The  discovery  of  the  ovarian  eggs  of  mammals  was  made  by  K- 
E.  von  Baer  ('27,  '28),  who  also  observed  some  cleavage  stages  in 
eggs  of  the  rabbit,  dog,  and  pig.  However,  the  study  of  mammalian 
cytology,  as  such,  maj^  be  said  to  date  from  the  work  of  an  English 
doctor,  Martin  Bany,  who,  in  1838-39,  published  two  papers  in  the 
Philosophical  Transactions  of  the  Royal  Society  of  London,  the 
first  dealing  with  the  ovarian  eggs  of  rabbits,  and  the  second  with 
the  growth  and  discharge  of  these  eggs  from  the  ovar}^  Bany 
figures  ovarian  eggs  of  various  animals,  including  not  only  the 
rabbit,  but  the  hog,  sheep,  ox,  dog,  cat,  and  tiger,  having  been 
presented  with  some  ovaries  of  the  last-named  animal  by  the  com- 
parative anatomist,  Richard  Owen.  He  found  that  the  time  of  ovu- 
lation varied  in  the  rabbit,  but  is  commonly  from  9  to  10  hours  after 
copulation. 

Then  follows  a  series  of  investigations  on  the  eggs  of  the  rabbit, 
dog,  guinea-pig,  and  deer,  by  Bischoff  ('42,  '45,  '52,  '54).  This 
worker  was  the  first  to  announce  that  fertilization  consists  of  a  physi- 

Trans.  Conn.  Acad.,  Vol.  XIII.  6  August.  1907. 


66       TT''.  B.  K'h'khani — Maturation  of  the  Egg  of  the  While  Mouse. 

cal  inHuence  of  the  spermatozoon  upon  the  egg,  such  influence  being  at 
first  limited  to  tlie  germinal  vesicle.  In  the  rabbit  he  distinguished 
a  large  number  of  cleavage  stages,  while  in  the  dog  he  made  the 
fundamental  observation  that  the  Qo^'g  at  the  time  of  heat  lies  in  the 
Fallopian  tube,  ovulation  being  here  independent  of  copulation. 
His  studies  on  the  ^gg  of  the  guinea-pig  established  the  fact  that  in 
this  animal  the  eggs  mature  just  after  parturition.  Only  a  few 
stages  of  the  deer's  ^gg  were  seen  by  Bischoff,  but  he  found  that 
the  eggs  in  the  Fallopian  tube  have  their  development  arrested  dur- 
ing the  winter. 

Reichert  ('6l)  also  studied  the  ii<^g  of  the  guinea-pig,  and  found, 
as  Bischoff  ('52)  had  observed,  that  while  these  animals  are  in  heat 
immediately  after  parturition,  ovulation  takes  place  only  after  coitus, 

Weil  ('73)  worked  with  rabbit's  eggs,  and  found  that  these 
animals,  like  guine9.-pigs,  are  in  heat  immediately  after  parturition. 
This  observer  was  probably  the  first  to  perceive  both  the  male  and 
female  pronucleus  in  a  mammalian  o.^^. 

Van  Beneden  ('75)  was  the  first  investigator  to  undertake  histo- 
logical studies  by  systematically  examining  a  large  number  of 
mammalian  eggs.  In  the  %gg  of  the  rabbit  he  noted  the  disap- 
pearance of  the  germinal  vesicle  and  the  formation  of  two  polar 
bodies  as  essential  maturation  phenomena,  and  after  an  exhaustive 
investigation  of  fertilization  processes,  in  the  course  of  which  he 
saw  spermatozoa  with  their  heads  in  the  surface  of  the  Q^g.^  he 
came  to  the  conclusion  that  fertilization  consisted  of  the  minolincr 
of  the  substance  of  the  spermatozoon  with  the  outer  layer  of  cyto- 
plasm. This  statement  is  surprising  in  view  of  the  fact  that  van 
Beneden  observed  both  the  male  and  the  female  pronucleus,  their 
conjugation,  and  the  cleavage  nucleus,  as  well  as  numerous  cleavage 
stages. 

Hensen  ('76)  confirmed  Bischoff's  observation  that  in  rabbits  and 
guinea-pigs  the  animals  are  in  heat  immediately  after  parturition, 
but  he  found  that  ovulation  does  not  always  take  place  at  this  time. 
He  saw  living  spermatozoa,  and  witnessed  their  passage  through 
the  zona  pellucida. 

In  ISTO,  three  investigators,  Benecke,  Eimer  and  Fries,  published 
papers  on  the  eggs  of  bats.  They  each  found  living  spermatozoa 
in  the  uterus,  and  in  some  cases  also  in  the  Fallopian  tube,  while 
the  animals  were  hibernating  ;  but  Benecke  claimed  that  ovulation 
and  fertiliziition  take  place  in  the  S2)ring  of  the  year.  After  study- 
ing the  eggs  of  certain  bats,  however,  van  Beneden  and  Julin  ('80) 


I 
( 


TV.  B.  Kirkham — Maturation  of  the  Ecjg  of  the  White  Mouse.      67 

stated  that  the  eggs  leave  the  ovary  during  the  winter  (Decem- 
ber to  February)  and  are  at  once  fertilized,  but  onh^  begin  to  seg- 
ment in  March  or  April.  These  workers  further  found  that  each 
Q^&  commonly  formed  three  polar  bodies,  and  they  saw  both  pro- 
nuclei and  a  few  early  cleavage  stages.  Van  Beneden  ('99)  has 
since  continued  his  study  of  the  bat's  ^^^^  and  has  noted  all  the 
important  cleavage  stages. 

Van  Beneden  ('80)  described  some  late  stages  in  the  development 
of  the  rabbit's  Q^^.,  and  also  made  the  important  observations  that 
the  female  pronucleus  comes  from  the  germinal  vesicle  and  that  the 
chromatin  of  the  polar  bodies  has  the  same  origin. 

Rein  ('83),  working  with  the  eggs  of  rabbits  and  guinea-pigs, 
observed  in  the  latter  the  pronuclei  in  different  stages  of  develop- 
ment and  conjugation,  as  van  Beneden  ('75)  had  previously  described 
for  the  rabbit.  He  also  discovered  that  the  formation  of  both  polar 
bodies  takes  place  within  the  ovary,  and  mistakenly  considered  that 
the  female  pronucleus,  as  well,  was  formed  there. 

Flemming  ('85)  found  in  the  rabbit  some  ovarian  eggs  which  had 
extruded  the  first  polar  body, — an  observation  confirmed  the  same 
year  by  Bellonci. 

Selenka  ('86)  described  some  eggs  of  the  opossum,  ranging  from 
two-  to  eighteen-celled  stages.  They  were  found  in  the  upper  part 
of  the  uterus. 

Heape  ('86)  worked  on  the  Qg&  of  the  European  mole.  He  was 
unable  to  follow  the  formation  of  the  polar  bodies,  but  observed 
the  two  pronuclei,  two-  and  four-celled  stages,  and  the  later  cleavages 
up  to  the  formation  of  the  blastula. 

Keibel  ('88)  has  described  a  two-celled  stage  of  the  European 
hedgehog's  Q^Q,. 

The  investigations  which  have  yielded  the  most  conclusive  and 
extensive  results,  however,  have  been  conducted  upon  the  ^^^  of  the 
mouse, — an  qq^^  more  favorable  for  detailed  cytological  study  than 
that  of  almost  any  other  mammal.  The  names  connected  with  this 
work  are  those  of  Bellonci  ('85),  Tafani  ('88,  '89),  Sobotta  ('93, 
'94,  '95,  '99),  and  Gerlach  (:o6). 

Bellonci  states  that,  in  the  mouse,  the  first  polar  spindle  is  similar 
to  that  found  in  the  eggs  of  invertebrates,  and  that  it  is  formed 
from  the  germinal  vesicle.  He  also  saw  some  ovarian  eggs  accom- 
panied by  the  first  polar  body,  the  latter  possessing  a  distinct  mem- 
brane and  lying  under  the  zona. 

Tafani  observed  both  the  first  and  second  maturation  spindles, 
found  first  polar  bodies   associated  with   degenerating  ovarian  eggs, 


68       W.  JS.  Kirkham — Maturation  of  the  E(j(j  of  the  White  Mouse. 

and  witnessed  the  formation  of  the  second  polar  body  (he  found 
two  associated  with  only  one-fifth  of  the  eggs).  He  also  saw  sper- 
matozoa entering  the  substance  of  the  egg,  the  two  pronuclei,  the 
first  cleavage  s]iindle,  and  tlie  principal  later  cleavage  stages. 

Sobotta  studied  the  egg  of  the  mouse  in  great  detail,  from  the  end 
of  the  spireme  through  the  cleavage  stages.  He  found  two  polar 
bodies  accompanying  only  one-tenth  of  the  fertilized  eggs,  and 
assumed  the  suppression  of  the  first  polar  spindle  in  the  oth9r  nine- 
tenths  of  the  eggs  matured.  When  the  first  polar  body  did  occur, 
he  observed  that  it  was  extruded  within  the  ovary.  Further  refer- 
ences to  Sobotta's  valuable  work  will  be  given  in  connection  with 
the  discussion  of  the  results  of  the  writer's  personal  investigations, 

Gerlach  has  taken  some  preparations  made  at  least  as  early  as 
1890,  before  the  discovery  of  iron  haematoxylin,  and,  after  study- 
ing them  has  revived  Tafani's  theory  that  the  presence  of  the  single 
polar  body,  which  he  finds  with  three-quarters  of  the  fertilized  eggs, 
is  due  to  the  suppression  of  the  second  polar  body,  the  second  polar 
spindle  degenerating  within  those  eggs  which  are  fertilized  a  com- 
paratively long  time  after  leaving  the  ovary. 

Henneguy  ('94)  observed  in  the  rat  degenerating  ovarian  eggs 
which  had  extruded  the  first. polar  body,  — an  observation  confirmed 
by  the  writer, 

Assheton  ('94)  has  reinvestigated  the  early  stages  of  development 
of  the  rabbit,  and  seen  stages  extending  from  the  union  of  the 
pronuclei  through  cleavage. 

Hubrecht  ('96)  succeeded  in  getting  some  eggs  of  an  insectivore, 
Tupaja  javanica,  and  noted  the  two  pronuclei,  a  two-celled  stage, 
and  the  ijrincipal  later  cleavage  stages.  He  found  two  polar  bodies. 
This  same  investigator  (:02)  has  the  honor  of  being  the  only  man 
who  obtained  the  mature  eggs  of  any  primate.  He  both  describes 
and  figures  from  Tarsias  spectrum  an  egg  with  first  polar  body  and 
second  polar  spindle,  three  eggs  with  male  and  female  pronuclei, 
two  of  which  show  two  polar  bodies,  as  well  as  two-,  four-,  eight-, 
and  sixteen-celled  stages,  besides  the  principal  later  cleavages. 

Van  der  Stricht  (:0l)  finds  in  the  eggs  of  a  bat,  Vexperugo  noetula, 
that  the  first  polar  body  is  extruded  within  the  ovary,  while  the 
second  is  formed  only  after  the  ovum  has  been  discharged  into  the 
Fallopian  tube.  In  his  later  papers  (:05,  :o6)  he  notes  a  distinction 
in  the  form  of  chromosomes  in  the  first  and  second  polar  spindles, 
and  states  that  the  first  maturation  spindle  commonly  appears  in 
February  or  JNIarch,  sometimes  not  until  April,  depending  upon  the 
temperature.     Ovulation   occurs  some    days   or    weeks    later.     Two 


W.  B.  Kirkham — Maturation  of  the  Egg  of  the  White  Mouse.    -  69 

polar  bodies  are  always  formerl,  and  the  eggs  leave  the  ovary  with 
the  first  polar  body  and  the  second  polar  spindle  fully  formed. 

Marshall  and  Jolly  (:05)  have  determined  that  in  the  bitch  ovula- 
tion occurs  independent  of  copulation. 

Rubaschkin  (:05)  finds  that  in  the  guinea-pig  ovulation  takes 
place  a  short  time  after  pai'turition  (not  immediately  after,  as  stated 
by  both  Bischoff  ('52)  and  Reichert  ('61)  ),  and  is  independent  of 
coitus.  The  first  polar  body  and  the  second  polar  spindle  are 
formed  within  the  ovary.  The  second  polar  body  is  always  formed 
after  the  egg  is  fertilized,  the  spermatozoon  entering  the  egg  in  the 
lower  pavt  of  the  Fallopian  tube  or  in  the  upper  end  of  the  uterus. 
Eggs  which  fail  to  be  fertilized  degenerate  with  the  second  polar 
spindle. 

Heape  (:05)  has  worked  with  rabbits,  and  finds  that  ovulation 
occurs  about  10  hours  after  copulation,  as  stated  by  Barry  ('39), 
but  the  eggs  degenerate  within  the  ovary  if  there  is  an  insufticient 
supply  of  blood  to  that  organ,  or  if  the  male  is  withheld  during 
oestrus.  According  to  this  observer,  maturation  takes  place  about 
nine  hours  after  copulation,  two  polar  bodies  being  rapidly  formed 
within  the  ovary.  In  this  respect,  the  rabbit's  Qgg  is  different  from 
all  other  mammal  qq-qs,  thus  far  studied.  If  the  buck  is  withheld 
from  the  doe  during  several  consecutive  periods  of  oestrus,  most,  if 
not  all,  of  the  older,  and  many  of  the  younger,  follicles  undergo 
degeneration,  and  this  may  result  in  more  or  less  persistent  sterility. 

A  survey  of  the  literature  therefore  indicates  that,  while  there 
are  many  variations  as  to  the  details  of  the  process,  all  mammalian 
eggs  which  have  beep  carefully  studied  (with  the  exception  of  that 
of  the  mouse  alone)  agree  with  those  of  practically  all  invertebrates 
in  the  formation  of  two  polar  bodies.  As  a  result  of  the  foregoing 
studies,  the  Qg^^  of  the  mouse,  although  subjected  to  more  extensive 
examination  than  that  of  any  other  mammal,  seems  to  stand  out 
sharply  as  an  aberrant  type,  in  that  it  has  been  said  to  form  but  a 
single  polar  body  in  from  75  to  90  per  cent,  of  the  eggs  observed. 

With  a  view  of  determining  the  cytological  nature  of  these 
apparenth^  abeiTant  maturation  processes,  the  writer  has  recently 
made  further  investigations  on  the  egg  of  the  white  mouse,  the  results 
of  which  are  described  on  the  following  jiages. 


II. — The  Egg  of  the  Mouse. 

Material  and  Method. — To  obtain  the  material. for  this  series  of 
investigations,  the  method  used  was  as  follows  :  During  the  active 
breeding  season  when  the  adult  females,  as  a  rule,  are  in  heat  every 


70       W.  B.  Kirkham — Maturation  of  the  Eg(/  of  the  White  Mouse. 

21  days,  a  large  number  of  male  and  female  white  mice  were  placed 
together  in  a  suitable  cage,  and  the  females  then  examined  at  fre- 
quent intervals  for  signs  of  pregnancy.  As  soon  as  such  indications 
appeared,  those  females  were  mated,  and  close  watch  was  kept  for 
litters  of  young.  The  females  were  killed  at  various  stages  of 
pregnancy,  careful  records  being  kept  of  the  exact  time  of  parturi- 
tion. After  being  chloroformed  the  bodies  were  quickly  opened, 
and  the  ovaries  with  the  Fallopian  tubes  were  cut  out  ;  while  in 
some  instances  these  parts  were  used  for  the  examination  of  living 
eggs,  in  others  they  were  at  once  placed  in  a  killing  fluid.  The  kill- 
ing fluids  used  were  strong  and  weak  solutions  of  Flemniing,  cor- 
rosive acetic  acid,  picro-acetic  acid,  and  Zenker's  mixture. 

For  general  work  Zenker's  mixture  has  given  by  far  the  best 
results,  owing  largely  to  the  great  rapidity  with  which  it  penetrates, 
and  to  its  not  blackening  the  tissues  as  do  osmic  mixtures.  The 
strong  solution  of  Flemming,  and  picro-acetic  acid,  are  excellent 
for  spindle  fibers.  Corrosive  acetic  acid  gives  fairly  good  results, 
while  the  weak  solution  of  Flemming  is  decidedly  unsatisfactory, 
owing  to  its  poor  penetration. 

After  being  killed  and  dehydrated,  the  tissues  were  imbedded  in 
paraftine  and  sectioned  •008"'"'  thick.  The  sections  were  then  aftixed 
to  slides  with  Ma^'cr's  albumen,  and  stained,  for  preliminary  study, 
fifty  slides  at  a  time,  with  Delafield's  haematoxylin  and  orange  G. 
This  method  of  staining  is  a  simple  process,  but  is  all  that  is 
necessary  to  enable  one  to  examine  a  series  for  karyokinetic  figures  ; 
when  such  were  found  the  sections  were  decolorized  with  acid 
alcohol,  and  restained  with  Heidenhain's  iron  haematoxylin. 

The  technique  of  obtaining  living  eggs  is  very  simple,  and  the^^ 
were  seen  and  studied  by  Tafani  ('8o),  although  he  makes  no  mention 
of  the  method  used  to  obtain  them.  A  female  mouse  is  killed  at 
the  time  when  ovulation  is  thought  to  have  taken  place,  tiie  ovary 
and  Fallopian  tube  are  removed  from  the  body,  placed  upon  a  glass 
slide  on  the  stage  of  a  dissecting  microscope,  freed,  as  far  as  possi- 
ble, from  fat  and  connective  tissue,  and  then  gently  teased  up  with 
fine  needles  until  the  eggs  are  seen  to  drop  out.  When  found,  the 
eggs  can  be  transferred  on  the  slide  to  the  stage  of  a  compound 
microscope  for  more  detailed  examination  and  study.  Karyokinetic 
figures  and  nuclei  can  be  brought  out  by  the  use  of  acetic-carmine. 

The  results  obtained  have  been  briefly  stated  in  a  preliminar}^  paper 
(Kirkham  '.0^),  and  a  brief  summary  has  appeared  in  Science  (Coe 
and  Kirkham,  :07)-     The  ovaries  of  every  mouse  examined  during 


W.  B.  Kirkliatn — Maturation  of  the  Egg  of  the  White  Mouse.       71 

the  height  of  the  breeding  season  contained  some  eggs  in  which  the 
first  polar  body  had  been  ah'eady  extruded  and  in  which  the  spindle 
for  the  second  polar  mitosis  was  fully  formed.  A  majority  of  the 
same  ovaries  revealed  ovarian  eggs  at  the  end  of  the  spireme  or 
with  the  first  polar  spindle.  The  eggs  observed  in  the  Fallopian 
tube  fall  into  two  main  groups:  those  which  had  not  been  fertilized, 
and  which  therefore  retained  the  second  polar  spindle, — some  being 
accompanied  by  the  first  polar  body,  but  more  without  it — and  those 
which  had  been  fertilized.  The  latter  show  the  entering  sperma- 
tozoon and  the  cleavage  stages. 

Sreeding  Season. — Most  animals,  including  man,  which  live  in  an 
artificial  environment  where  there  is  an  abundant  supply  of  food  the 
year  round,  have  lost  the  habit,  so  common  among  wild  animals,  of 
being  in  heat  only  during  limited  periods  of  each  year,  and  are 
capable  of  coming  into  heat  at  any  season.  Among  domesticated 
animals,  the  white  mouse  is  a  good  example  of  this  characteristic, 
and  both  Tafani  ('89)  and  Sobotta  ('95)  have  found  that,  if  kept 
warm  during  the  cold  months,  it  breeds  more  or  less  freely  at  all 
times.  Sobotta  ('95),  however,  found  that  white  mice  breed  most 
actively  from  the  beginning  of  March  to  the  end  of  September,  and 
in  most  animals,  wild  as  well  as  domesticated,  the  sexual  season  or 
seasons  occur  during  the  warm  luonths.  Thus,  Rubasclikin  (:05) 
has  found  guinea-pigs  to  be  most  active  sexually  during  August, 
September,  and  the  beginning  of  October;  Keibel  ('99)  states  that 
deer  are  in  heat  at  the  end  of  July  and  the  beginning  of  August  : 
Rein  ('83)  finds  that  the  period  of  heat  for  rabbits  extends  (at  Strass- 
burg)  from  the  end  of  March  to  the  middle  of  Jul}^,  and  Eimer, 
Benecke,  and  Fries  ('79)  have  determined  that  in  bats  the  period  of 
heat  is  in  the  autumn. 

The  period  of  gestation  in  the  white  mouse  was  put  down  by 
Tafani  ('89)  as  about  20  days,  while  Sobotta  ('95)  has  determined 
that  it  is  just  21  days. 

During  the  active  breeding  season,  adult  female  white  mice,  as 
found  by  Sobotta  ('95),  are  in  heat  a  few  hours  after  parturition, 
and  the  same  is  true   of  the  guinea-pig,  according  to  Rubasclikin 

(:o5)- 

The  ovary  of  the  white  mouse  measures  about  2""°  in  diameter,  is 

more  or  less  spherical  in  shape,  and  is  chiefly  composed  of  large  and 

small  follicles,  a  mature  follicle  measuring  about  .35""  in  diameter, 

A  comparison  of  this  oi'gan   in   the   rat  and  the  cat  shows  that  the 

ovaries  of  these  animals  are  ovoid   in   shape,    and   measure    3x5""" 

and  4x8"'",  respectively. 


72       W.  B.  Kirkham — Maturation  of  the  Egg  of  the  White  Mouse. 

The  Mature  Ovicm. — The  e^^  of  tlie  mouse  is  as  small  as  any 
known  mammalian  egg.  A  living  ovarian  ovum,,  before  the  forma- 
tion of  the  first  maturation  spindle,  measures  .08"'"\,  or  a  little  less 
in  diameter,  and  it  contains  a  germinal  vesicle  with  a  diameter  of 
.025"'"\  while  this  germinal  vesicle  may  in  turn  possess  one  or  two 
nucleoli  with  diameters  of  .OOS'""".  Living  eggs  in  the  Fallopian 
tube,  before  cleavage,  measure  from  .073  to  078""™  in  diameter. 
Sobotta's  statement  that  the  egg  of  the  mouse  measures  .059™'"  in 
diameter  is  probably  based  upon  his  study  of  sections  after  the  eggs 
had  become  shrunken  through  the  action  of  the  reagents  used.  The 
human  egg,  for  comparison,  is  .165  to  .170"""  in  diameter,  that  of 
the  cat  measures  .2"'™,  or  a  little  less,  while  the  egg  of  the  rabbit 
is  .116™"*  in  diameter. 


Figure  1. — Camera  drawing  of  a  living  egg  soon  after  its  discharge  into  the 
Fallopian  tube  ;  showing  the  zona  pellucida  made  up  of  an  inner,  thinner, 
and  dense  layer,  and  an  outer,  thicker,  gelatinous  layer.  The  cytoplasm  of 
the  egg  is  coarsely  gi'anular  except  at  one  spot,  which  indicates  the  position 
of  the  second  polar  spindle.  This  egg  has  not  retained  the  first  polar  body. 
x880. 

The  zona  pellucida.  surrounding  a  tube  Qgg  in  the  mouse  usually 
has  a  thickness  of  about  .016"'™,  but  it  may  stretch  out  to  .036""". 
It  is  made  up  of  a  denser  inner  layer,  with  a  thickness  of  about 
.007™™,  which  is  all  ihat  appears  around  ovarian  eggs,  and  an  outer 
layer  of  less  dense  but  perfectly  homogeneous  substance  (Text-figs. 
1-3).  After  being  killed  and  dehydrated,  the  zona  appears  ver}- 
much  shrunken  (PI.  YIII,  fig.  16),  which  probably  accounts  for 
Sobotta's  statement  that  the  Qgg  of  the  mouse  is  envelo|)ed  in  the 
thinnest  known  mammalian  zona  pellucida,  which  has  a  thickness  of 
.0019  to  .0015™™.  In  the  mouse  this  membrane  lacks  the  radical 
striations  or  canals  which  have  given  it  the  name  of  zona  radiata. 


W.  B.  KirkJiam — Maturation  of  the  Egg  of  the  White  Mouse.      73 

When  the  egg  of  the  mouse  has  grown  to  full  size,  the  chromatin 
is  scattered  through  the  germinal  vesicle,  and  from  this  stage  to  the 
prophases  of  the  first  maturation  spindle  no  observations  have  been 
made  on  any  mammalian  egg  ;  hence  it  is  not  known  whether  there 
is  a  pairing  of  paternal  and  maternal  chromosomes,  such  as  occurs 
in  the  invertebrates. 

First  Polar  Spindle  (Pis.  I-Il,  fig^.  1-4,  Text-fig.  4). — The  observa- 
tion of  the  prophases  of  the  first  maturation  spindle  is  confined  to 
the  egg  of  the  mouse,  a  few  such  stages  having  been  seen  by  the 
writer  (PI.  I,  fig.  l).  A  small  number  of  cases  showed  faint  traces 
of  the  nuclear  membrane,  but   more   often  this  had  entirely  disap- 


Figiire  2. — Camera  drawing  of  a  living  egg  soon  after  its  discharge  into  the 
Fallopian  tube  ;  showing  the  two  layers  of  the  zona  pellucida.  The  position 
of  the  second  polar  spindle  within  the  egg  is  shown  by  the  clearer  area  in 
the  cytoplasm  near  the  polar  body.  This  egg  has  retained  the  first  polar 
body,  and  a  space  filled  with  fluid  appears  around  it.      x  ;j30. 

peared.  In  this  connection  it  is  important  to  note  that  no  asters 
such  as  are  seen  in  eggs  of  invertebrates  are  visible  at  this  time. 
The  chromosomes  at  this  stage  vary  greatly  in  size  and  shape,  and 
they  number  between  12  and  24,  which  is  probably  due  to  preco- 
cious division.  As  shown  in  the  figure,  the  germinal  vesicle  at  the 
end  of  the  spireme  is  eccentrically  placed. 

At  what  time  the  asters  and  centrioles  make  their  appearance  in 
the  mammalian  egg  is  not  known,  and  their  definite  origin  has  not 
become  well  established  even  in  the  eggs  of  invertebrates.  There 
is,  therefore,  a  considerable  gap  between  PI.  I,  fig.  1,  where  there  is 
no  indication  of  any  karyokinetic  figure,  and  PI.  I,  fig.  2,  where   a 


74       W.  JB.  Kirhham — Maturation  of  the  Egg  of  the  White  3fouse. 

fully  formed  spindle  with  the  chromosomes  in  the  equatorial  plate  is 
seen.  Bellonci  ('85)  describes  the  first  ])olar  spindle  in  the  eirgs  of 
mice  and  guinea-pigs  as  exactly  like  that  found  in  the  eggs  of  inver- 
tebrates, and  he  occasionally  saw  faint  traces  of  aster-fibers  at  the 
ends  of  the  spindle.  The  first  polar  spindle  is  formed  from  the 
germinal  vesicle,  which,  as  mentioned  above,  is  eccentrically  placed 
within  the  agg  at  the  end  of  the  spireme,  and,  as  described  by 
Sobotta  ('95)  in  the  egg,  of  the  mouse,  and  by  Rubaschkin  (105)  in  the 
Qgg  of  the  guinea-pig  ;  this  spindle  lies  at  first  in  a  position  at  right 


Figure  ■■). — Camera  drawing  of  a  living  egg  in  the  Fallopian  tube  soon  after  fer- 
tilization ;  showing  the  two  differentiated  layers  of  the  zona  pellucida. 
The  finely  granular  portion  of  the  egg  indicates  the  position  of  the  pro- 
nuclei. Both  polar  bodies  have  been  retained  by  the  egg,  the  larger  one  at 
the  right  being  the  first  polar  body  :  around  them  appears  a  space  filled 
with  fiuid.      X  3:^0. 

Figure  4.—  Ovarian  egg  ;  showing  first  jDolar  spindle  in  paratangential  position. 
The  chromosomes  are  in  most  instances  bivalent.  Note  centrioles  at  foci  of 
spindle,      x  675. 

angles  to  the  radius  of  the  egg,  and  near  the  surface.  The  chro- 
mosomes still  vary  greatly  in  size  and  shape,  but  are  never  filiform 
(Text-fig.  5),  and  generally  lie  with  their  long  axes  coincident  with 
that  of  the  spindle.  The  number  of  chromosomes  in  the  first  jjolar 
spindle  agrees  with  that  above  noted  at  the  end  of  the  spireme, 
being  between  12  and  24.  At  the  foci  of  the  first  maturation  spindle, 
centrioles  consisting  of  one  or  more  tinj'  eccentrically  placed  granules 
have  often  been  observed,  and  similar  bodies  have  been  seen  at  this 
stage  by  van  der  Stricht  (:o6)   in  the  eggs  of    Vesperugo  noctula. 


W.  B.  Kirkham — Maturation  of  the  Egg  of  the  White  Mouse.      75 

No  radiations  from  these,  however,  such  as  have  been  described  by 
Bellonci  ('85)  for  the  mouse  q^^  and  b}'-  van  der  Stricht  (:o6)  for 
a  bat's  egg,  have  been  seen  by  the  writer.  As  might  be  expected 
from  its  larger  chromatin  content,  this  spindle  is  usually  longer  and 
broader  than  the  second,  a  point  noticed  by  Gerlach  (:o6),  but  it 
varies  in  size  at  different  periods  of  development.  The  first  matura- 
tion spindle  is  also  larger  than  the  second  spindle  in  the  eggs  of  most 
of  the  invertebrates. 

After  remaining  for  a  time  in  the  paratangential  position,  one  pole 
of  the  first  maturation  spindle  moves  toward  the  center  of  the  qq^^ 
(PI.  II,  fig.  4),  as  seen  by  Sobotta  ('95),  while  the  other  presses 
against  the  outer  surface  of  the  Q^^.  These  movements  are  prepar- 
atory to  the  extrusion  of  the  first  polar  body. 

4/ 


^Vf 


Figure  5. — Diagram  of  chromosomes  in  first  polar  spindle  of  the  ovarian  egg 
shown  in  PI.  I,  fig.  2.  On  the  right  two  large  quadrivalent  chromosomes 
are  seen  before  splitting.  To  the  left  of  these  are  three  pairs  of  bivalent 
chromosomes,  which  have  completely  separated,  while  near  the  middle  of 
the  figure  occurs  another  quadrivalent  chromosome.  At  the  left  of  the 
diagram  are  seen  eight  additional  chromosomes  differing  greatly  in  size, 
while  four  more  similar  masses  of  chromatin  appear  in  adjacent  sections. 

First  Polar  Body  (PI.  Ill,  figs.  5-6).— The  first  polar  body  in 
the  %^g  of  the  mouse,  as  far  as  observed  by  the  writer,  is  always 
formed  within  the  ovary  in  every  ^^^,  which  matures.  A  large  num- 
ber of  eggs  in  different  ovaries  have  been  examined,  and  in  every 
instance  where  the  size  of  the  ^^^.,  its  slightly  denser  protoplasm, 
and  the  large  follicle  gave  evidence  of  ripeness,  the  Q^'g  was  found 
to  be  accompanied  by  the  first  polar  body.  This  agrees  with  the 
observations  of  Bellonci  ('85),  and  with  Sobotta's  idea  regarding 
ten  per  cent,  of  the  eggs,  which  he  believed  formed  two  polar  bodies; 
it  is  also  in  accord  with  the  work  of  van  der  Stricht  (:0I,  :o6)  on 
the  ^^^  of  Vesperugo  noctula,  and  that  of  Rubaschkin  (:05)  on  the 
egg  of  the  guinea-pig. 

In  the  mouse  the  first  polar  bod}'  is  oval  in  form  when  seen  in 
sections  which  have  been  killed  and  stained,  but  in  life  it  is  more  apt 


76       W.  B.  Klrkham — Maturation  of  the  Eyg  of  the  'White  Motise. 

to  be  spherical  (Text-figs.  2-3).  It  is  larger  than  the  second  polar 
body,  and  commonlj'  measures  from  .022  to  .028""°  in  diameter, 
although  the  limits  of  variation  are  sometimes  much  greater  than  these. 
Sobotta's  statement  that  the  first  polar  body  in  the  mouse  measures 
only  from  .002  to  .003"""  in  its  larger  diameter,  is  almost  cei'tainly 
based  upon  killed  and  stained  material,  while  the  figures  here  given 
are  the  average  of  a  large  number  of  measurements  of  living  eggs. 
According  to  Rubaschkin  (:o5),  the  guinea-pig  has  polar  bodies 
which  measure  from  .012  to  .01 7'""^  in  diameter,  and  the  egg  of  this 
animal  is  practically  of  the  same  size  as  that  of  the  mouse. 

The  chromatin  content  of  the  first  polar  body  consists  of  a  vary- 
ing number  of  masses,  most  of  which  are  undivided  dyads,  com- 
monly scattered  through  the  cytoplasm,  but  sometimes  in  a  spindle 
(PI.  VII,  fig.  15),  as  seen  by  Tafani  ('89)  and  Sobotta  ('95)  in  the 


Figure  6. — Ovarian  egg  ;  showing  abnormal  tri- polar  spindle,      x  675. 

Q^^  of  the  mouse,  by  van  der  Stricht  (104)  in  a  bat's  ^^^^  and  by 
Rubaschkin  (:05)  in  the  Q^g2,  of  the  guinea  pig.  Some  of  those 
polar  bodies  which  possess  fully  formed  spindles  would  probably 
have  divided  mitotically,  and  this  is  presumably  the  explanation  of 
the  three  polar  bodies  commonly  found  by  van  Beneden  and  Julin 
('80)  accompanying  bat's  eggs.  In  PI.  IV,  fig.  8,  an  q^^  is  shown 
whose  first  polar  body  exhibits  the  telophase  of  mitosis;  in  PI.  IV, 
fig.  9,  an  example  is  given  where  the  protoplasm  of  the  jDolar  body 
is  beginning  to  divide. 

The  first  polar  body  varies  considerably  in  size  in  different  eggs, 
and  in  one  series  of  ovarian  eggs  there  are  two  with  first  polar 
bodies  of  about  four  times  the  average  volume  (PI.  IV,  fig.  7). 

Two  abnormal  ovarian  eggs  have  been  seen  (Text-figs.  G-7)  bear- 
ing a  striking  resemblance  to  two  observed  by  Rubaschkin  (:05)  in 


W.  B.  Kirhham — Maturation  of  the  Eg  a  of  the  White  Mouse.      77 

the  guinea-pig  (figs.  5  and  7  of  his  paper).  In  one  there  is  a  tri- 
polar  spindle,  and  in  the  other  two  separate  spindles,  lying  at 
opposite  poles  of  the  egg.  The  latter  may  be  due  to  the  fact  that 
this  egg  possessed  two  nuclei.  Still  another  abnormality  is  an  egg 
(Text-fig.  8),  Avhich,  from  its  position  near  the  center  of  the  ovary, 
is  almost  surely  degenerating,  whose  first  polar  body  has  formed  a 
resting  nucleus.  In  all  probability  resting  nuclei  occur  normally  in 
the  first  polar  body  only  in  those  very  rare  cases  where  the  mitotic 
division  is  complete,  and  each  part  gathers  its  chromatin  into  such 
a  form. 


Figure  7. — Ovarian  egg  ;  showing  two  spindles, — an  abnormal  condition.  This 
egg  may  have  had  two  nuclei,      x  675. 

Figure  8. — Ovarian  egg  whose  position  in  the  interior  of  the  ovary  and  the 
presence  of  its  sister  eggs  in  the  Fallopian  tube  indicate  a  degenerate  condi- 
tion. Within  the  egg  appear  the  second  polar  spindle,  and  above  it  the 
first  polar  body,  with  an  abnormal  resting  nucleus,      x  675. 

Plate  V,  fig.  11,  shows  an  ovarian  egg  which  is  unusual  in  that  it 
has  no  zona  pellucida,  the  egg  and  first  polar  body  lying  free  in  the 
liquor  folliculi.  This  condition  is  probably  due  to  the  solvent  action 
of  the  killing  fluid,  as  mentioned  by  Rubaschkin  (:05),  since  all  the 
ovarian  eggs  in  this  series  are  likewise  naked, 

Second  Polar  Spindle  (Pis.  III-IV,  figs.  5-9). — Immediately  after 
the  constricting  off  of  the  first  polar  body,  the  12  dj^ads  left  in 
the  egg  are  drawn  into  the  equator  of  a  new  spindle,  and  split 
longitudinally.  The  second  polar  spindle  is  formed  in  a  position  at 
right  angles  to  the  radius  of  the  egg,  as  described  by  Tafani  ('89), 
and  usually  lies  near  the  first  polar  body.     It  is  smaller  than  the  first 


>        ir.   /;.  hukh>un—Matiir<nioti  of  the  Eyg  of  the  White  Jlouse. 

mat  unit  i..i.  spiiiill.'.  as  observed  by  Rubnsclikin  (:05)  in  the  egg  of 
tilt"  j;uiiu':i  |>i£r,  a.id  by  van  der  Striclit  (-.06)  in  the  egg  of  V.  noctula, 
but  tlie  di'tfrminini;  ( luiracteiistic  is  its  chromatin  content.  The 
24  uiiivak'iit  chromosomes  (Text-tig.  9)  resulting  from  the  split- 
ting Iciiglhcu  (Mil  int.)  lilaments  of  various  sizes,  the  form  of  which 
furnishes  a  certain  means  of  distinguishing  this  spindle  from  the 
first  i>olar  spin<llf.  These  chromosomes  sometimes  lie  with  their 
axes  par.dh'l.  but  are  generally  ju'rjtendicular  to  that  of  the  spindle, 
as  notrd  by  van  der  Stricht  (:06)  in  the  egg  of   V.  noctula. 

The  achntmalic  fibers  comjtosing  the  second  polar  spindle  usually 
come  to  a  more  or  less  sharj)  focus,  where  centrioles  have  commonly 
l.ft-n  oliscrvt  il,  niadi'  up  of  one  or  more  eccentrically  placed  granules, 
ill  a  lew  instances  radiating  fibers  have  been  seen  by  the  writer  at 
uiic.    viiy    rarely    at    both  jioles    of    this    s])indle    (PI.   V,   fig.   10). 


If 


o 

V    CD 

FiK'ire  9. — Diagram  of  the  twenty-four  univalent  chromosomes  in  the  second 
polar  spindle  of  the  ovarian  egg  shown  iu  PI.  IV,  fig.  7. 

Ilultrecht   (:02)  has  observed  centrioles  in   the  second   maturation 
spindle  of  Tarsius  npectrum,  and  van  der  Stricht  (:o6)  has  described 
both  centrioles  and   aster  fibers   in   both   the  maturation  spindles  of 
V.  noctula. 

A  few  ovarian  eggs  of  the  mouse  show  the  first  polar  body  at  the 
opj)osite  pole  of  egg  from  the  second  maturation  spindle,  as  observed 
by  Gerlacli  (:o6),  who  interprets  such  cases  by  assuming  that  the 
spindle  lias  moved  alxnit  in  the  egg.  This  hypothesis,  however, 
seems  loss  probable  than  that  the  polar  body  has  been  moved  around 
by  jiressure  upon  the  zona,  and  an  examination  of  a  number  of  eggs 
similar  to  those  siiown  by  (ierlach  (:o6)  in  his  fig.  18,  has  failed  to 
reveal  a  single  instance  where  the  spindle  does  not  lie  at  right  angles 
to  the  radius  of  the  egg  ;  which  fact  hardly  supports  the  migration 
theorv. 


W.  B.  Kirkhatn — Maluration  of  the  Egg  of  the  White  Mouse.       79 

When  the  egg  of  the  mouse  has  extruded  its  first  polar  body  and 
formed  the  second  polar  spindle,  it  normally  never  develops  further 
unless  it  is  fertilized,  but  degenerates  either  within  the  ovary  or  in 
the  Fallo})ian  tube,  as  stated  by  Sobotta  ('95).  According  to  Ru- 
baschkin  (:05),  this  is  also  the  case  in  the  guinea-pig's  Qgg.  These 
investigators  further  state  that  in  the  animals  studied  by  them  a 
considerable  number  of  eggs  reaching  this  stage  fail  to  be  discharged, 
owing  to  their  position  in  the  interior  of  the  ovary.  This  condition 
has  been  also  frequently  observed  in  the  mouse,  by  the  present 
writer. 

Ovulation. — It  is  an  exceedingly  rare  thing  to  obtain  a  mamma- 
lian egg  just  leaving  the  ovary,  but  such  have  been  figured  by 
Barry  ('39)  for  the  rabbit  ;  by  Sobotta  ('95)  for  the  mouse  ;  and  by 
van  der  Stricht  (:0l)  for  V.  noctnla.  Little  is  known  regarding  the 
factors  concerned  in  ovulation,  but  the  accumulation  of  fluid  within 
the  follicle  probably  plays  an  inportant  part  and,  judging  from  the 
observations  of  lieape  (:05)  on  rabbits,  the  presence  of  an  abundant 
blood  supply  to  the  ovary  is  essential.  In  the  mouse,  during  the 
active  breeding  period,  the  eggs  leave  both  ovaries  within  an  hour 
or  two  after  parturition,  independent  of  copulation  ;  while*  in  the 
rabbit,  Barry  ('39)  and  Heape  (105)  agree  that  ovulation  occurs  only 
after  coitus,  and  then  after  an  interval  of  from  9  to  10  hours. 
According  to  Reichert  ('61),  the  guinea-pig,  like  the  rabbit,  ovulates 
only  after  copulation,  and  the  interval  in  this  case  is  stated  by  Ru- 
baschkin  (:05)  to  be  about  17  hours. 

Fertilization. — According  to  Sobotta  ('95)  there  is  but  a  single 
copulation  in  the  mouse.  Normally  only  a  single  spermatozoon 
enters  an  egg.  The  tail  of  the  spermatozoon  usually  enters  the  egg 
at  least  in  part,  and  may  be  entirely  carried  in  (PI.  VII,  fig.  14), 
as  observed  by  van  der  Stricht  (:04)  in  the  egg  of  V.  noctula,  and 
by  Rubaschkin  (:05)  in  that  of  the  guinea-pig. 

Second  Polar  Body  (Pis.  VI-VII,  figs.  13-15  ;  Text-fig.  3).— 
In  the  mouse,  the  second  polar  body  is  formed  only  by  those  eggs 
which  are  fertilized,  as  found  by  Sobotta  ('95),  and  it  appears  very 
soon  after  the  entrance  of  the  spermatozoon.  A  similar  condition 
has  been  observed  in  the  guinea-pig  by  Rubaschkin  (:05),  except 
that  in  this  animal  the  second  polar  body  is  not  extruded  until  the 
sperm  nucleus  has  penetrated  deep  into  the  egg.  In  Plate  VII,  fig, 
14,  is  shown  an  egg  in  which  the  second  polar  body  has  been  so 
recently  extruded  that  the  12  univalent  chromosomes  are  still  visible. 
After  a  very  short  time  these  would  have  been  collected  into  a  moi'e 


I 


80       11 '.  H.  KirkhcDn — Maturation  of  the  Egg  of  the  White  Mouse. 

or  less  solid  mass  (PI.  Nil.  tiLC.  15),  and  would  have  finally  formed 
a  resting  nucleus  (PI.  VJII,  tigs.  16-17,  Text-fig.  10). 

This  second  polar  body  is  characterized  by  being  generally  spheri- 
cal in  form,  with  an  average  diameter  of  about  ,007  to  .012"'™,  and 
W\  containing  12  univalent  chromosomes,  which  are  usually  seen 
cither  lumped  together  or  as  a  resting  nucleus.  It  is  this  polar 
body,  furthermore,  which  is  commonly  found  associated  with  the 
early  cleavage  stages  (PI.  VIII,  figs.  16-17). 

The  important  question  concerning  the  fate  of  the  first  polar  bodk- 
in cases  where  it  has  disap])eared  (PI.  VI,  fig  12  ;  Text-fig.  1)  will 
now  be  considered.  That  this  disappearance  is  not  peculiar  to  the 
j)reparations  used  by  the  writer  is  established  by  the  fact  that  eggs 


Figure  10. — Egg  in  the  Fallopian  tube  soon  after  fertilization,  with  the  second 
jjolar  body,  the  chromatin  of  which  is  forming  a  resting  nucleus.  The  first 
polar  body  has  disajDpeared.  At  the  right  within  the  egg  is  seen  the  female 
pronucleus ;  at  the  left,  the  sperm  head.  The  zona  pelliicida  has  been 
dissolved  by  the  reagents  used.     (Somewhat  diagrammatic.)      x  675. 

which  ])ossessed  only  a  (second)  polar  spindle,  no  ])olar  bodj'  accom- 
]»anying  them,  were  seen  in  the  Fallopian  tube  by  Tafani  ('89), 
while  Sobotta  ('95)  saw  similar  eggs,  but  mistook  the  spindle  they 
contained  for  that  of  the  first  polar  mitosis.  Van  der  Stricht  (:04), 
furthermore,  has  described  and  figured  an  egg  of  F!  noctula  with 
both  polar  bodies  lying  outside  the  zona.  Finally,  the  writer  has 
seen  several  series  of  living  eggs  before  fertilization,  in  one  of  which 
only  one  egg  in  six  possessed  a  first  polar  bod}^,  while  in  another 
series  three  out  of  the  five  eggs  possessed  this  polar  body. 

The  zona  in  the  mou.se  may  persist  undiminished  through  the 
early  cleavage  stages  of  the  egg,  but  in  the  guinea-pig  Rubaschkin 
(:05)  has  found  that  at  the  time   of  ovulation  the  zona  is  soft,  and 


W.  B.  Kirkham— Maturation  of  the  Egg  of  the  White  Mouse.      81 

varies  considerably  in  thickness  in  different  eggs.  A  similar  con- 
dition prevails  in  the  mouse,  so  that  at  the  time  the  eggs  leave  the 
ovary  most  of  the  first  })olar  bodies  are  pressed  through  the  zona. 
In  fact,  in  a  living  Qg^  possessing  a  first  polar  body,  the  writer  has 
seen  this  polar  body,  while  the  ^gg  was  being  stained  and  dehydrated 
on  the  stage  of  the  microscope,  forced  through  the  zona  by  the  con- 
traction of  the  latter  under  the  influence  of  changing  osmotic  con- 
ditions. 

Pronuclei. — Immediately  after  the  extrusion  of  the  second  polar 
body,  the  12  univalent  chromosomes  remaining  in  the  agg  of  the 
mouse  assemble  to  form  the  female  pronucleus  (PI.  XIV),  and  the 
sperm  head  increases  in  size  and  approaches  it.  The  male  and  female 
pronuclei  now  come  to  lie  close  together  near  the  center  of  the  egg, 
but  somewhat  nearer  the  animal  than  the  vegetal  pole,  where  they 
form  the  so-called  cleavage  nucleus. 

Both  the  male  and  female  pronucleus  have  been  seen  in  the  ^gg 
of  the  mouse  by  Tafani  ('89),  Sobotta  ('95)  and  Gerlach  (:o6)  ;  in 
the  rabbit's  Qgg  by  Weil  ('73\  van  Beneden  ('75),  and  Rein  ('83)  ; 
in  the  guinea-pig  by  Rein  ('83)  and  Rubaschkin  (105)  ;  in  the  %gg 
of  the  bat  by  van  Beneden  and  Julin  ('80)  and  van  Beneden  ('99) ; 
in  the  mole's  Qgg  by  Heape  ('86)  ;  in  the  ^gg  of  Tupaja  javanica 
by  Hubrecht  ('96),  and  in  the  Qgg  of  Tarsius  spectrum  by  Hubrecht 
(:02). 

The  later  fertilization  stages  as  well  as  the  entire  process  of 
cleavage  and  implantation  have  been  described  for  the  egg  of  the 
mouse  by  Sobotta  ('93,  '94,  '95)  and  Burckhard  (:0l). 

The  writer  welcomes  this  opportunity  again  to  acknowledge  his 
gratitude  and  indebtedness  to  Prof.  Wesley  R.  Coe,  whose  encourage- 
ment and  critical  knowledge  have  been  of  the  very  greatest  assistance 
in  carrying  on  this  work. 

Sheffield  Scientific  School  of  Yale  University. 
May,  1907. 


Ill, — Summary. 

1.  Two  polar  bodies  are  apparently  formed  by  every  egg  which  is 
capable  of  development,  the  first  polar  body  appearing  within  the 
ovary,  the  second  after  the  entrance  of  the  spermatozoon  into  the 

2.  At  the  breaking  up  of  the  spireme  the  number  of  chromatin 
masses  is  between  twelve  and  twenty-four. 

Trans.  Conn.  Acad.,  Vol.  XIII.  7  August,  1907. 


82        ir.  ]>.  Kirkhitm — J/dturation  of  the  Egg  of  the  White  Mouse. 

3.  'J'wclve  masses  of  cliromatin  are  cast  out  willi  the  first  ])olar 
body,  and  a  like  iiiunber  remain  in  the  e^^g. 

4.  Tliere  is  a  sharp  distinction  in  form  between  tlie  cliromosomes 
of  the  first  and  those  of  the  second  polar  spindle. 

5.  Before  fertilization,  every  Qgg  in  the  Fallopian  tube  possesses  a 
second  polar  spindle. 

(i.  The  zona  ])ellucida,  which  is  (juite  distinct,  ma}'  persist,  undi- 
minished, through  tlie  early  cleavage  stages.  In  most  cases  the  first 
])olar  body  escapes- from  it  during  the  process  of  ovulation,  so  that 
tlie  majority  f>i  eggs  after  fertilization  possess  the  second  jiolar 
bod}'  only. 

7.  During  tlie  sjtriiig  months  ovulation  usuall}^  occurs  every  21 
days  within  a  few  hours  after  parturition,  and  independent  of  copu- 
lation. 

8.  The  numl)er  of  univalent  chromosomes  in  the  second  polar 
spindle  is  24. 

n.  The  second  polar  body  is  formed  only  after  the  ogg  has  been 
fertilized. 

10.  The  first  and  second  polar  bodies  differ  greatl}^  in  chromatin 
content,  so  that  they  are  easily  distinguishable.  The}'  also  differ  in 
size,  and  usually  in  shape. 

1 1.  At  least  the  greater  part  of  the  sperm  tail,  if  not  the  whole, 
enters  the  egg  at  the  time  of  fertilization. 

1 2.  Since  the  egg  of  the  mouse  forms  two  polar  bodies,  its 
maturation  processes  are  in  accord  with  those  of  the  majority  of 
metazoon  eggs. 


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EXPLANATION   OF    PLATES. 

Figures  1,  3,  3,  5,  8,  11  and  13  represent  single  sections,  while  the  others 
have  been  reconstructed  from  two  or  more  sections.  All  the  figures  have  been 
drawn  with  the  aid  of  an  Abbe-Zeiss  camera  lucida  and  a  Zeiss  apochromatic 
2-Qmm  apert  1"30  homog.  immers.  objective,  using  for  the  figures  magnified 
560  diam.  a  Zeiss  Compeois.  Ocular  4,  and  for  those  magnified  1450  diam.  a 
Zeiss  Compens.  Ocular  6. 

Plate  I. 

Figure  1. — Ovarian  egg  before  the  formation  of  the  first  polar  spindle.     Note 

difference  in  size  and  shape  of  the  chromosomes.     A  portion  of  the  nuclear 

membrane  is  still  visible,      x   1450. 
Figure  2. — Egg  in  Graafian   follicle,  somewhat  shrunken   away  from   the  zona 

pellucida,  showing  first  polar  spindle.     Note  difference  in  size  and  shape  of 

chromosomes,      x  560. 


8G       If;  B.  Kirkhmn— Maturation  of  the  Egg  of  the  White  3fouse. 

Plate  II. 

Figure  0. — Ovarian  egg  ;  showing  first  polar  sijindle  in  paratangential  position. 
A  minute  eentriole  appears  at  the  right-hand  pole  of  the  spindle,  while 
three  similar  bodies  are  visible  at  the  opposite  focus.  The  chromosomes 
are  t^^ijic.al  tetrads.      x   14o0. 

Figiire  4. — (Ovarian  egg  ;  showing  a  first  polar  spindle  in  a  positiuu  approach- 
ing radial,      x  1450. 

Plate  III. 

Figure  5.  —Egg  in  Graafian  follicle ;  showing  first  polar  body  and  second  polar 
spindle.      x  560. 

Figure  0. — Same  egg  at  greater  magnification.  Seventeen  masses  of  chromatin, 
some  of  which  are  iindivided  dyads,  are  scattered  through  the  first  polar 
body  among  traces  of  spindle  fibers ;  twenty-four  univalent  chromosomes 
appear  in  the  equatorial  plate  of  the  second  polar  spindle.  Certain  chro- 
mosomes have  been  added  from  adjacent  sections.  Minute  centrioles 
appear  at  each  pole  of  the  second  spindle,      x  1450. 

Plate   IV. 

Figure  7. — Ovarian  egg  ;  showing  second  polar  spindle  and  an  abnormally  large 
first  polar  body.  Note  spindle  in  polar  body,  and  twenty-four  filiform, 
imivalent  chromosomes  in  the  egg.      x   1450. 

Figure  8. — Ovarian  egg  ;  showing  first  polar  body  and  second  polar  spindle. 
Two  minute  centrioles  appear  at  each  pole  of  the  second  sjjindle.  The 
chromatin  in  the  polar  body  is  at  the  telophase  of  mitotic  division.      x  1450. 

Figure  9. — Portion  of  ovarian  egg  ;  showing  first  polar  body.  Note  constric- 
tion in  middle  of  polar  body,  the  beginning  of  the  final  step  in  mitotic 
division,      x  1450. 

Plate  V. 

Figure  10. — Ovarian  egg  ;  showing  second  polar  sjiindle.  First  polar  body 
omitted.  Note  radiating  fibers  at  inner  pole  of  spindle,  and  lateral  fibers 
at  outer  end.  (The  position  of  the  spindle  in  the  egg  is  slightly  diagram- 
matic.)     X  1450. 

Figure  11. — Egg  in  Graafian  follicle,  in  which  the  zona  has  disappeared,  proba- 
bly through  the  solvent  action  of  reagents.  Egg  and  polar  body  have 
separated  from  coronal  cells,  and  lie  free  in  liquor  folliculi.  Second  polar 
spindle  is  visible  near  the  perijihery  of  the  egg.      x  560. 

Plate    VI. 

Figure  13. — Egg  in  Fallopian  tube  ;  showing  second  polar  spindle.  First  polar 
body  has  disappeared.     Egg  has  not  yet  been  fertilized,      x  1450. 

Figure  13. — Two  eggs  in  Fallopian  tube,  surrounded  by  cells  of  the  membrana 
granulosa.  Note  the  nearness  of  the  eggs  to  each  other.  Upper  egg  shows 
the  female  pronucleus.  Lower  egg  shows  two  typical  polar  bodies.  The 
greater  part  of  the  chromatin  of  the  first  polar  body  is  in  adjacent  sections. 
But  it  all  appears  as  separate  chromosomes,  while  that  in  the  second  polar 
body  is  collected  into  a  fairly  solid  mass.  Note  the  ragged  and  imperfect 
zona  pellucida,  a  condition  due  in  part  to  the  solvent  action  of  reagents. 
X  560. 


W.  B.  Kirkham — Maturation  of  the  Egg  of  the  White  Mouse.      8Y 

Plate  VII. 

Figure  14. — Egg  in  Fallopian  tube  ;  showing  second  polar  body  before  its  twelve 
univalent  chromosomes  have  been  gathered  into  a  solid  mass.  First  polar 
body  has  disappeared.  At  left,  within  the  egg,  is  seen  the  sperm  nucleus, 
and  above  it  the  separated  tail  of  the  spermatozoon  ;  at  I'ight  appears  tlie  egg 
nucleus,  surrounded  by  delicate  radiating  fibers.  The  complete  absence  of 
the  zona  pellucida  is  in  part  accounted  for  by  tiie  solvent  action  of  the 
reagents.      x    1450. 

Figure  15. — Egg  in  Fallopian  tube  ;  showing  both  polar  bodies,  with  their  typical 
differences.  Note  oval  first  polar  body  with  its  twenty-foiir  vmivalent  chro- 
mosomes in  a  spindle,  and  the  round  second  polar  body  with  its  compact 
mass  of  chromatin.  The  sperm  head  appears  at  the  left,  the  female  pro- 
nucleus at  the  right  within  the  egg.  The  complete  absence  of  the  zona  pel  - 
lucida  is  in  part  attributable  to  the  solvent  action  of  the  reagents,      x  1450. 

Plate  VIII. 

Figure  16. — Egg  in  Fallopian  tube  ;  showing  first  cleavage  spindle  and  second 
polar  body  with  a  resting  nucleus.  First  polar  body  has  disappeared.  Note 
length,  and  bent  form  of  cleavage  chromosomes  •,  also  the  distinct  centriole 
^t  each  pole  of  the  cleavage  spindle,      x  1450, 

Figure  17. — Egg  in  Fallopian  tube  ;  showing  two-celled  stage.  First  polar 
body  has  disappeared;  the  second  appears  above  and  between  the  two  blas- 
tomeres.      x  1450. 


^^\b 


TRANSACTIONS  OF  THE 
CONNECTICUT  ACADEMY  OF  ARTS  AND  SCIENCES 


Incorporated  A.  D.  1799 


VOLUME  XIII.     PP.  89-U7 


SEPT..  1907 


Publications  of  Yale  University 


POESIES  DE    "  MAISTRE  ELOY  DU  MONT, 
DICT   COSTENTIN." 


BY 


DAVID   HOBART   CARNAHAN,  Ph.D. 


11 

^    NEW    H 


AVEN,    CONNECTICUT. 

1907 


THE  TUTTLE,  MOREHOUSE  &  TAYLOR'  PRESS 


IV. — Poesies  de    "  Maistre  Eloy  du   Mont,    dict    Oostentin." 
By  David  Hobart  Carnahax,  Ph.D. 

Table  of  Contents. 

Page 

Introduction 89 

I.     Dizain ,  envoye  au  Roy  par  Justice  et  Paix 97 

II.     Interpretation  de  ce  present  eiubleme  (Huitain) 97 

III.  Champ  Royal  du  champ  royal  de  France  (Chant  royal) 98 

IV.  Dizain  de  I'interpretation  des  armes  de  France 100 

V.     Dizain  sur  ' '  sicut  lilium  inter  spinas  " 100 

VI.     Rondeau  sur  la  louenge  et  memore  des  bons 100 

VII.     (A).  Latin  quatrain  in  description  of  miniature 101 

(B).  French  quatrain,  translation  of  Latin  quatrain..^ 101 

(C).  Dialogue  of  "  Le  Roy,  Charite,  Foy,  Le  Hereticque,  Le  Dyable"'  101 

VIII.     Dizain  de  foy,  nuiltipliee  en  ung  seul  homme  plus  qu'en  toiis  aultres  102 

IX.     Dizain  au  Roy  sur  Tabundance  de  I'or  qui  present  est  en  France..  102 

X.     (A).  Aenigma  de  lilio  (Latin) 102 

(B).  L'Enigme,  cy  devant  escript,  translate  de  latin  en  frangoys.  103 
XI.     ^ligii,  Montani  Coustantinatis,  ad  Franciam  suo  Francisco,  foe- 

licissimam  hexastichon 105 

XII.     In  Franciscum  monarcham  Gallorum,  omnibus  numeris  virum 

absolutissimum,  Guilielmi  Guernonii  dodecastichon 106 

XIII.  In  eundem  ejusdem  tetrastichon —  106 

XIV.  In  eiindem  Gado  Fredi  vallensis  carmen  Aelegiacum,  Cvijus  littere 

capitaliores  nomen  f austissimum  ostendunt —  106 

XV.     Au  treschrestien  Roy  des  Frangoys  (142  lines). 107 

XVI.     Distichs  of  Faust  Andrelin  (105  Latin  distichs,    + 105  French  dis- 

tichs,  +165  appendices) 111 

XVII.     Ballade  du  bon  Roy  Frangoys 142 

XVIII.     Fonde  sur  foy  (Rondeau) ..- 143 

XIX.     Jacobi  Galli,  in  eundem  hexastichon 143 

XX.     Franciscus  Bovillus  Montismarianus  in  translationem  disthicoinim 

Faustinoram  in  linguam  Franciscam,  ad  lectorem 143 

XXI.     Balade  du  Roy  des  Frangoys 144 

XXII.     Balade  du  concept  virginal 145 

XXIII.  Rondeau  joyeux  a  sa  dame 146 

XXIV.  Oraison,  convenable  quand  on  se  couche  au  soir 146 

XXV.     Dizain  de  France  et  Italie 147 

INTRODUCTION. 

The  above-mentioned  work,  which  is  contained  in  manuscript 
2237  f,  fr.,  of  the  National  Library  at  Paris,  was  called  to  my  atten- 
tion b}^  Monsieur  Emile  Picot  in  response  to  a  request  for  informa- 
tion concerning  Eloy  du  Mont,  the  author  of  a  short  mystery  of 

Trans.  Conn.  Acad.,  Vol.  XIII.  8  Sept.,  1907. 


!i(i 


1).  11.  Cariuilinii — MiiiHtvi'  Kloy  du  Moid,  diet  Costentin. 


"  La  Rt'surrcetioii."  The  contents  of  the  nianiiscrij)t  seemed  to 
nijike  it  worthy  of  attention,  as  it  contains  not  onl}'  various  forms  of 
poetrv  common  to  tlie  beginning  of  the  sixteenth  century  but  also 
one  hundred  of  the  Latin  distichs  of  Faust  Andrelin,  poet  laureate 
of  Louis  XIL  Each  of  these  Latin  distichs  is  translated  into  a 
French  distich  and  is  accompanied  by  from  one  to  four  French 
maxims,  or  so-called  "appendices,"  which  are  based  on  the   Latin 

distich. 

The  nianuscrii)t  is  described  as  follows  in  the  catalogue  of  the 
manuscripts  of  the  National  Library  :  "Manuscrit  2237,  Poesies  de 
"maistre  Eloy  du  Mont,  diet  Costentin"  commen9ant- par, 

"  Le  Redempteur,  Franyo^'s,  roy  tres  chrestien 
"  Vous  a  promis  au  ciel  saturite " 

et  finissant  par  : 

"  Par  mort  cruelle,  en  attendant  la  fin, 
"  Que  du  bon  roy  nature  soit  contente." 

Le  recueil  comprend  dizains,  chant  royal,  rondeau,  cent  distiques' 
de  "  Faust  Andrelin,"  traduits  par  "  Costentin,"  avec  dedicace, 
ballades  et  quelques  autres  petites  pieces  fran5aises  et  latines  .... 
Jacobi  Galli  hexasticbon,  (fol.  43)  "carmen"  in  translationem  dis- 
tichorum  faustinorum  in  linguam  franciscara."  Velin,  miniatures, 
lettres  ornees,  seizi^me  siecle.     (Anc.  8012.)" 

The  following  facts  should  be  added  to  this  description  :  The 
manuscript  contains  forty-nine  leaves  of  parchment  and  five  fly- 
leaves of  paper.  On  the  first  fly-leaf  are  found  the  words,  "  Z68 
Costentin  serf  du  R03'.  Faust  Andrelin."  The  first  two  leaves  of 
parchment  are  blank.  The  writing  begins  on  the  verse  of  the  third 
leaf  of  parchment.  On  the  recto  of  this  leaf  has  been  written  the 
following  date  mcccclxxxviii.  The  leaves  are  8fX64^  inches,  the 
lines  in  one  column,  with  twenty -two  lines  to  a  page.  Manuscript 
in  good  condition,  and  handwriting  clear.  The  rubrics  are  in  red, 
with  two  exceptions  which  are  in  blue.  Capitals  of  each  verse 
black  with  gold  shading  except  fol.  iv,  where  they  are  entirely  gold. 

'  Eloy  du  Mont  gives  this  nwmber  (fol.  10,  recto) ;  in  reality,  there  are  one 
hundred  and  six.  The  author,  in  three  places,  counts  two  Latin  distichs  written 
on  the  same  subject  as  one  distich.  We  find  six  pairs  thus  treated  ;  18-19, 
22-23,  28-29,  42-43,  60-61,  88-89.  If  we  count  each  of  these  pairs  as  a  single 
distich,  we  have  the  one  hundred  distichs  of  which  he  speaks. 


D.  H.  (Jarnahan — Malstre  Eloy  du  Mont,  diet  Costentin.        91 

Numerous  large  initials  with  flowered  tracing.  Three. miniatures  in 
colors.  Manuscript  written  entirely  in  the  same  handwriting.  The 
manuscript  of  the  National  Library  is  the  only  one  existing. 

We  have  little  exact  information  in  regard  to  Eloy  du  Mont,  the 
author  of  the  "  Poesies."  To  his  pen  is  also  due  the  mystery  of  the 
"  Resurrection,'"  which  is  an  abridgment  of  the  long  mystery  of 
the  same  name  attributed  by  M.  Petit  de  Julleville  to  Jean  Michel.^ 
M.  Petit  de  Julleville  gives  the  date  of  this  abridged  mystery  as 
towai'ds  the  year  1530,  on  account  of  the  references  in  the  dedica- 
tory epistle  to  the  rigors  employed  by  the  king  against  the  heretics.^ 
It  might  well  be  dated  any  time  from  1530  to  1536,  as  these  severe 
measures  were  practised  against  the  Protestants  continuously  during 
these  3'ears.^  The  references,  moreover,  are  quite  vague  in  respect 
to  date,  as  one  may  see  ;  f ol.  2,  recto,  line  5,  "  Si  de  par  vous  remede 
on  n'y  eust  mys,"  and  lines  10-11,  "la  bonne  justice  Qui  faict  en 
est  par  vous,  donne  notice."  A  probable  date  for  the  representation 
of  this  mystery  would  be  1532,  when  the  king  passed  through  Nor- 
mand}^  on  his  way  to  the  coronation  of  his  son  Francis,  as  Duke  of 
Brittany.  In  the  dedicatory  poem  of  his  "Poesies,"  Eloy  du  Mont 
speaks  of  a  present  made  to  him  at  Vasteville  in  the  name  of  the 
king  ;  there  may  be  confusion  in  the  manuscript  between  the  name 
of  this  town  and  Vatteville,  where  Francis  passed  the  fourth  and 
fifth  of  March,  1538.'' 

The  few  details  in  the  life  of  our  author  with  which  we  are 
acquainted  are  furnished  by  two  of  his  works,  which  have  come 
down  to  us.  In  "  La  Resurrection,"  he  styles  himself,  simply, 
"Costentin,  du  Roy  serf  loyal  (fol.  2,  verso),  Maistre  Eloy  du  Mont, 
diet  Costentin  (fol.  10,  recto.),  Aeligii  Montani  Constantinatis  (fol. 
10,  recto.),  Costentin,  vostre  humble  vallet  (fol.  11,  verso)."  The 
term  "  valet  du  Roy "  may  imply  nobility  of  rank  but  does  not 
necessarily  do  so,  as  there  are  instances  of  wiiters  who  are  not  of 
noble  birth  being  in  attendance  upon  royalty.  If  of  noble  rank, 
the  name  of  Costentin  would  point  to  the  house  of  Costentin-Tour- 
ville  in  Normandy,  but,  unfortunately,  a  study  of  the  genealogy  of 
this  family  reveals  no  one  who  may  answer  to  his  description.     The 

1  Manuscript  B.  N.,  2238,  f.  fr. 

-  See  "  Note  sur  le  Mystere  de  la  Resurrection  attribue  k  Jean  Michel."     G. 
Macon.     Paris,  1898. 

^  Les  Mysteres,  vol.  i,  p.  336. 

••  See  '•  Le  Journal  d'un  Bourgeois  de  Paris,"  p.  169  et  seq. 

'"  Catalogue  des  Actes  de  Frangois  1,  tome  II,  mars,  1538. 


92        IK  IT.  (''(Diiihdii — Maistre  Eloy  du  3fonl,  diet  Costeiitin. 

cxpri'ssioii  "  liunible  valet  "  wbicli  is  used  above  ma}' well  be  taken 
ill  tlie  sense  <>t'  "liumble  servant." 

In  searcbiiig  in  Normandy  for  writers  who  lived  in  the  i>eriod 
under  discussion,  one's  attention  is  at  once  drawn  to  Eloy  d'Amerval, 
the  author  of  "  La  Grande  Deablerie."  A  comparison  of  the  places 
of  residence  and  periods  of  activity,  however,  of  this  writer  and  of 
Eloy  du  Mont  shows  the  improbability  of  the  two  being  identical. 
"La  (Ti-aiide  Deablerie"  was  printed  in  1.508,  and  contains  a  "priv- 
ilege "  which  implies  that  the  author,  at  that  time,  was  advanced  in 
3'ears  :  "  De  Maitre  Eloy  d'Amerval,  sans  doubtance,  Venerable 
Prestre,  plein  de  prudence."  Both  the  known  productions  of  our 
author  are  in  the  third  decade  of  the  sixteenth  century.  We  know, 
from  the  authority  of  Du  Verdier,'  and  from  Parfaict'  that  Elo)'- 
d'Amerval  was  a  priest  in  the  village  church  at  Bethune  ;  Eloy  du 
Mont,  from  his  own  statement,  lived  in  Caen,  and  he  was  not  a  priest, 
because  in  the  dedication  of  "  La  Resurrection  "  (fol.  2,  verso,  line 
14),  he  mentions  his  wife. 

Eloy  du  Mont  was  a  teacher  in  Caen,  where  he  speaks  of  teaching 
his  "petitz  escoliers,"  and  in  his  poems,  announces  the  fact  that  the 
"Poesies"  are  "  Non  composez  de  jacobins  ou  carmes  Mais  d'escol- 
liers,  domesticques  arays."  The  term  "  petitz  escoliers "  leads  one 
to  believe  that  he  was  not  an  instructor  in  the  University  of  Caen 
but  in  a  school  of  lower  grade.  Furthermore,  an  examination  of 
the  de))artmental  archives  of  Calvados  does  not  show  his  name  on 
the  University  roll.^ 

Our  manuscript  is  not  dated,  but  from  evidence  furnished  by  the 
text  we  conclude  that  it  was  written  towards  the  end  of  the  third 
decade  of  the  sixteenth  century.  In  the  "Dizain  de  Fiance  et 
Italic"  (fol.  47,  recto),  we  find  the  following  personal  reference  : 

Italiens  ont  moult  France  eniioblie 
De  deux  grandz  biens,  de  la  langue  latine, 
D'un  aultre  bien  qui  vault  qu'on  ne  I'oublie, 
C'est  de  la  sage  et  tresnoble  daulphine. 

Catherine  de  Medicis  married  Henry  II  in  1533,  but  Henry  did  not 
become  "dauphin"  until  the  death  of  his  older  brother  P^rancis,  in 
1536.  Three  passages  which  we  find  imply  that  the  "Poesies" 
were  written  in  times  of  peace  ;  fol.  1,  verso  (I): 

1  Du  Verdier   Bibl.  fr.  II.  p.  325. 

-  Parfaict  Freres,  Hist,  du  th.  fr.,  II,  p.  219. 

•'*  Archives  d^partmentales,  Calvados.     S^rie  D,  University  de  Caen. 


D.  H.  Carnnhan — Mahtre  Eloy  dn  Mont,  diet  (Jonfe'iitin.        98 

Pavfaict  en  France  est  l'escrii)t  propheticque, 
Justice  et  Paix  se  baisent  au  diet  lieu. 
(II)  Justice,  Iniquite  corrompt, 
Et  Paix  a  Guerre  le  col  romp, 

fol.  10,  recto  (XI);  "  Franci,  Francisco,  felices  pace  fruuntur."  The 
third  war  between  Francis  I  and  Charles  V  lasted  from  153G  until 
the  truce  of  Nice  in  15.38,  after  which  ensued  a  peace  of  four  years 
duration.  If  we  give  weight  to  the  above  rather  uncertain  refer- 
ences, the  present  work  was  written  between  the  years  1538  and  1542. 

By  way  of  summary,  and  with  the  addition  of  a  few  facts  obtained 
from  the  text,  we  may  say  that  the  work  under  consideration  was 
written  about  1538  by  Eloy  du  Mont,  a  layman  living  in  the  city  of 
Caen.  He  was  a  teacher  in  a  boys'  school,  and  was  assisted  in  the 
production  of  his  text  by  several  of  his  pupils.  The  work  was 
dedicated  to  the  king  Francis  I,  in  recognition  of  a  gift  made  to  the 
author,  possibly  as  a  reward  for  the  production  of  the  mystery  of 
"  La  Resurrection,"  represented  during  one  of  the  king's  trips  to 
Normandy.  The  poet  was  skilled  in  Latin,  but  if  we  may  judge 
from  his  own  statements,  he  preferred  writing  in  Fi'ench,  a  language 
in  whose  poetical  forms  he  was  well  versed,  and  which  was  more 
popular  at  court  than  the  Latin.' 

Much  more  accessible  is  information  as  to  the  life  of  Faust  Andre- 
lin,  whose  Latin  distichs,  together  with  their  translations  and  appen- 
dices, occupy  twenty-seven  folios  of  the  manuscript.  In  the  "  Dic- 
tionaire  historique"  of  Moreri  is  found  the  following  biography, 
to  which  I  have  joined,  in  the  form  of  notes,  a  few  additional  facts 
obtained  from  the  "  Bibliotheque  f ran9oise "  of  Du  Yerdier  : — 
Andrelinus  (Publius  Faustus),  natif  de  Forli  en  Italic,  excella  dans 
la  poesie  des  sa  jeunesse,  et  merita  a  I'age  de  vingt-deux  ans  la 
couronne  de  laurier,  que  I'academie  de  Rome  donnoit  a  ceux  qui 
avoient  reussi.  Ce  f  ut  sa  piece  poetique,  intitulee  "  Livia  "  qui 
remporta  ce  prix.  II  vint  a  Paris,  oil  il  fut  long-temps  professeur  en 
poesie,  en  rhetorique,  et  en  sphere  dans  I'universite,  sous  les 
regnes  de  Charles  VIII  et   de  Louis  XII."     II  y  publia  en  1490  son 

'  See  "Les  Poesies,"  fol.  12,  verso,  and  "La  Resurrection,"  folios  1,  recto 
and  2,  verso). 

-  Du  Verdier,  I,  p.  567  ;  Le  Roi.  Louis  XII,  en  consequence  d'un  voeu  qu'il 
fit  h.  la  sainte  Hostie  de  Dijon,  pendant  une  lualadie  qu'il  eut,  en  1505,  ayant 
recoixvre  sa  sante,  envoya,  en  reconnoissance,  k  la  Chapelle  Royale,  ou  cette 
Hostie  est  conservee,  la  propre  Couronne,  qu'il  avoit  portee  a  Reims,  le  jour  de 
son  Sacre  ;  sur  quoi  Fauste  ayant  fait  douze  vers  Elegiaques,  le  Roi  lui  donna, 
pour  recompense,  un  Canonicat  k  Bayeux.     (M.  de  la  Monnoye.) 


ii  1        />.  //.  Carnahan — Maistre  JEloy  du  Mont,  diet  Costent'nt. 

poi'nif  (livise  en  quatre  livres,  intitule  Livia,  clu  iiom  de  sa  maitresse, 
et  fiistiite  trois  livres  d'elegies.  Apres  avoir  pris  la  qualite  de  ))oete 
coiiroiiiu',  il  prit  celle  de  "  po6ta  regius  et  reginaeus,"  poete  du  roi 
Louis  XII,  et  de  la  reine  Anne  de  Bretagne.  II  y  a  encore  douze 
eglognes  de  lui,  imprimees  en  1546.  II  ne  s'est  pas  contente  de  faire 
des  vers,  il  :i  iiussi  ecrit  en  prose  des  lettres  morales  et  proverbiales, 
doiit  on  a  fait  line  edition  a  Strasbourg  en  1517  ;  Beatus  Rlienanus 
y  a  joint  une  preface,  dans  laquelle  il  les  loue  excessivement.  Ces 
lettres  ont  ete  augnientees  par  Jean  Arboreus,  theologien  de  Paris. 

Quelques-unes  des  poesies  d'Andrelinus  ont  ete  traduites  en  fran- 
9ois  )>ar  nn  ]>oete  de  Paris,  qui  s'appelloit  Estienne  Prive.  Cette 
traduction  (pii  parut  Tan  1004,  n'est  propre  qu'a  faire  niepriser 
I'original.  Jean  Paradin'  avoit  deju  mis  en  fraM9ois  une  centaine 
des  distiques  qu'Andrelinus  avoit  dedies  h,  Jean  Ruze,  tresorier  des 
finances  de  Charles  VIII.°  Les  poesies  d'Andrelinus  ont  ete  inserees 
dans  le  premier  tome  des  "  Delices  des  poetes  Italiens."  On  a  juge 
assez  diflFeremment.  II  faisoit  des  vers  avec  beaucoup  de  facilite  ;  les 
termes  en  sont  magnifiques,  mais  ils  sont  vuides  de  sens.  II  mourut 
pendant  I'liiver  de  1519,  avaut  paque,  c'est-a-dire  1519,  suivant  le 
ealcul  romain. 

Eloy  du  ]Mont  is  a  careful  writer  in  comparison  to  the  Dther  poets 
of  his  time  ;  his  ballads,  rondeaus  and  other  poetical  compositions 
are  all  regular  in  construction  and  his  versification  is  correct.  The 
examples  of  verse  which  are  found  in  this  collection  are  valuable  in 
the  stud}'  of  the  poetry  of  the  sixteenth  centur}^  on  account  of  the 
evident  exactness  of  his  views  in  regard  to  the  rules  of  composition, 
and  the  consistency  with  which  he  adheres  to  them.  The  following 
kinds  of  French  poetry  are  found  in  the  manuscript  : 

1.  Six  dizains,  10-syll.  Four  have  the  rime-order  (ababccdede), 
and  two  (ababbccdcd). 

2.  Three  ballads,  S-sj'll.,  8-8-8-4,  (ababbcbc),  (abab).  In  two  of 
the  ballads,  the  initial  letters  of  the  lines  form  the  words,  "  Fran5ois 
de  Valois." 

'  Du  Yerdier,  II,  p.  487  ;  Jean  Paraditi,  de  Lonhans,  a  eci-it  en  rime,  nn  Livre 
intitule  Micropedie,  contenant  cent  Quatrains,  qui  font  les  cent  distiques  de 
Fauste ;  Dialogues,  etc. — le  tout  imprime  k  Lyon,  in-8°,  par  .Jean  de  Tournes, 
1546,  et  k  Paris,  in-16°,  par  Estienne  Groulleau,  1547. 

■  Du  Verdier,  I.  p.  567  : — La  tradiiction  de  Paradin,  est  plutot  une  Para- 
phrase, qii'iine  Traduction  ....  Ecienue  Prive  s'est  assujetti  a  rendre  les 
Distiques  vers  pour  vers,  au  lieu  que  Paradin  les  a  rendus  par  Quatrains.  La 
Traduction  d'Estienne  Prive,  qnoique  plus  precise,  n'est  pas  plus  estimee  que 
celle  de  Paradin.  Voy.  la  Bibliotheque  Franyoise  de  M.  L'Abbe  Goujet,  tome 
VIII,  p.  15  et  la  Bibliotheque  Curieuse  de  Climent,  tome  I,  p.  3'^2. 


D.  II.  Carnahan — Maistre  Eloy  dn  Mont,  diet  Costentiu.        95 

3.  Three  rondeaus,  10-syll.,  5-3-5  (aabba),  (aab),  (aabba).  The 
words  which  begin  line  one  are  repeated  after  lines  eight  and 
thirteen. 

4.  One  huitain,  8-s)^ll.     "  Rimes  plates." 

5.  One  chant  royal  ("Champ  Royal"),  10-syll.  Five  stanzas,  of 
eleven  lines  each,  with  an  envoy  of  six  lines  (ababbccdede),  (aababa). 
Refrain,  "  Le  Champ  Royal  en  troys  liz  d'or  plante." 

6.  One  "  oraison,"  8-syll.  Eight  stanzas  (abab),  except  stanza 
IV  (aabb). 

7.  Two  quatrains,  8-syll.  (aabb). 

3Iiscellaneous  French  poetry : 

1.  Translation  of  the  Latin  poem,  "  Aenigma  de  lilio."  Forty 
lines,  10-syll.     "  Rimes  plates." 

2.  Dedication  to  the  king.  One  hundred  and  forty-two  lines, 
10-syll.     "  Rimes  plates." 

3.  Dialogue,  "Roy,  Charite,  Foy,  Heretique,  Dyable.  Each 
speaker  has  two  lines.     "  Rimes  plates,"  8-syll. 

4.  Appendices  to  the  Latin  distichs.  One  hundred  and  sixty-five 
French  distichs,  10-syll.' 

"  Rime  riche "  is  used  almost  entirely  by  the  poet,  and  the 
examples  of  leonine  rime  are  very  abundant.  There  are  many  cases 
of  overflow  verse.  From  the  large  number  of  "  rimes  equivoques," 
lit  is  evident  that  the  author  endeavored  to  use  them  as  frequently  as 
possible.  Some  of  the  most  striking  of  these  rimes  are  :  (1,  verso), 
maintient  :  la  main  tietit,  prophetic  davidique  :  david  diH  que., 
corronipt  :  le  colrompt ;  (7,  verso),  je  devaloys  :  Fran9ois  de  Valoys, 
soubz  France  :  sou  f ranee,  via  part  tient  :  xn!appartient  ;  (11,  verso), 
bumb/(?  vallet  :  le  valloit,  aidx  dieux  :  odieux,  lesqueilz  avez  :  scavez, 
(14,  vei'so),  amys  :  a  mys,  avant  age  :  dCavantacje,  rondeaulx  :  rondz 
d''eaulz ;  (18,  verso),  amer  :  Vamer  ;  (-23,  recto),  (Venvie  :  en  vie  ;  (36, 
recto),  le  corbeaii  :  le  corps  beau ;  (45,  verso),  parler  -.par  Vair. 

The  following  rimes  are  of  interest  from  the  point  of  view  of 
pronunciation  :  (3,  recto),  ateste :  texte,  dextre  :  croistre  ;  (3,  verso), 
droicte  :  extraicte  ;  (3,  recto),  congnoistre  :  dextre;  (5,  verso),  estre  : 
paroestre  ;  (7,  verso),  monde  :  habunde,  regne  :  Royne  ;  (9,  recto), 
vouloir :  voller  ;  (11,  verso),  memoire  :  encore,  parler  :  vouloir  ;  (42, 
verso),  ce)>tre  :  dextre  ;   (45,  verso),  parler:  par  I'air,  valletz  :  valoys. 

(Syllabification.)  Our  author,  the  same  as  the  other  writers  of 
his  time,  employs  various  forms  of  hiatus  which  are  forbidden  by 
modern  rules.     He  differs  from  many  of  his  contemporaries,  however, 

^  For  the  titles  of  the  Latin  selections,  see  the  table  of  contents,  p.  89. 


96        JK  II.  Curnahan — Maistre  Eloy  du  Mont,  diet  Costentin. 

ill  tlie  fact  that  when  lie  accepts  a  ceitain  syllable-value  for  a  com- 
bination of  vowels,  he  does  not  change  this  value  to  meet  the  exi- 
gencies of  the  verse.  As  a  consequence  of  this  exactness  of  usage, 
the  definite  syllable-value  of  certain  groups  of  vowels  is  clear.  In 
his  lines  of  ten  syllables,  he  uses  the  "  cesure  ordinaire,'"  and  in  the 
forty  cases  in  which  we  find  tlie  feminine  cesura,  with  the  fourth 
syllable  of  the  line  accented,  the  following  word  begins  with  a 
vowel.     No  examples  of  lyi'ic  cesura  are  found. 

A  few  of  the  questions  to  be  considered  in  a  study  of  the  manner 
of  counting  syllables  at  this  epoch,  may  be  illustrated  by  examples 
from  tlie.se  poems  : 

1.  Hiatus.  Frequent,  with  no  cdses  of  sjMialepha  :  planta  en  (2, 
verso),  ordonne  a  (2,  verso),  clerge  et  (4,  recto).  Flora  et  (1),  verso), 
beaulte  admirable  (9,  verso),  macquereau  est  (19,  verso),  volupte 
est  (21,  recto),  volupte  incline  (25,  verso),  norame  en  (12,  recto),  a  en 
(10,  verso),  a  on  (18,  recto). 

2.  Final  mute  e,  followed  by  a  word  which  begins  with  a  vowel, 
never  counts  as  a  s^dlable,  although,  in  a  few  cases,  the  elision  is  not 
indicated,  as  :  Que  a  (11,  verso),  Je  iinploreray  (13,  verso),  que  ung 
(14,  recto).  Sometimes  the  elision  is  graphically  represented  by 
raising  the  "e"  above  the  line  and  closing  the  gap. 

3.  Final  "es,"  followed  by  a  word  which  begins  with  a  vowel, 
counts  as  a  separate  syllable  ;  estes  en,  3-syll.  (13,  recto).  Princes  et, 
3-syll.  (14,  recto),  fleuves  y,  3-syll.  (18,  recto),  tumbes  au,  3-s\-ll.  (21, 
recto),  lignes  et,  3-syll.  (42,  recto). 

4.  The  verbal  ending  "  oient  "  counts  as  one  syllable  ;  auroient 
(4,  recto),  croiroient  (V,  recto),  excedoient  (9,  recto),  soient  (13,  verso). 

5.  The  ending  "  ier,"  in  verbs,  counts  as  two  syllables  ;  other- 
wise, as  one  syllable.  Ex.:  two  syllables,  attedier  (12,  verso), 
dedier  (12,  verso),  marier  (29,  recto);  one  syllable,  ouvrier  (3,  recto), 
familiers  (12,  recto),  louvrier  (13,  verso),  descolliers  (14,  verso), 
entier  (16,  verso),  mestier  (16,  verso). 

6.  Final  "  ieux  "  counts  as  one  syllable  in  the  stem  of  a  Avord, 
but  as  two  syllables  in  the  ending.  Ex.:  one  syllable  in  inieulx 
(1,  verso),  lieu  (2,  verso),  Dieu  (2,  verso)  ;  two  syllables  in  spacieux 
(2,  verso),  gratieuse  (9,  verso),  furieux  (38,  recto).  In  rime-words, 
we  find:  trespreciei/a;  (2-syll.) :  cieulx  (1-syll.);  jyieu  (1  syll.): 
oA\eiix  (2-  85^1.). 

V.  Final  "  ion  "  counts  as  two  syllables  ;  nation  (3,  recto),  dona- 
tion (3,  recto),  region  (44,  verso). 

'  See  A.  Tobler,  "  Le  Vers  fran^ais,  ancien  et  moderue,"  p.  112. 


D.  H.  Carnahan — 3/aistre  Eloy  da  Mont,  diet  Costentin.        97 

8.  The  group  "  ien  "  counts. as  one  syllable  in:  treschretien  (1, 
verso),  convjent  (4,  recto),  conribien  (9,  recto),  entretiendra  (SY,  verso), 
tient  (41,  recto),  souvienne  (4*7,  recto)  ;  as  two  syllables  in  chresti- 
ente  (3,  verso),  anciens  (15,  verso),  Venitiens  (25,  recto),  science  (33, 
verso),  Italiens  (47,  verso),,  terriens  (38,  verso),  I'inipatient  (24,  verso). 

9.  The  word  "  je,"  as  enclitic,  counts  as  a  separate  syllable  unless 
followed  by  a  word  beginning  with  a  vowel,  in  which  case  it  is 
elided.  Ex.:  prendray  je  (13,  verso),  Dis  je  (13,  verso),  doy  je 
estre  (5,  verso),  ay  je  encore  (11,  verso). 

10.  The  group  "  ou  "  +  "i"  or  "e"  counts  as  two  syllables; 
"u"  +  "i"  counts  as  one.  Ex.:  ouyr  (33,  verso), louenge  (5,  verso), 
nuyr  (9,  recto),  fu3n-ont  (23,  verso). 

11.  The  following  count  as  one  syllable  :  cie\,  dyable,  requ/ert, 
vi'ellesse,  v^'eil,  superfluite,  amitie,  paroestre,  oesivete,  lum^^ere,  man- 
s?<etude  (4,  recto),  but  mans«etude,  2-syll.  (38,  verso). 

12.  The  following  count  as  two  s^Mlables  :  lil/«l,  insat/able, 
trouvee,  obvmnt,  hero/cques,  poete,  c\^ue,  mari'age,  pays. 


(1,  verso) 


I. 

DlZAIN^    ENVOYE    AU    RoY    PAR    JuSTIOE    ET    PaIX. 

Le  Redempteur,  (Fran9oys,  Roy  treschretien), 
Vous  a  proniis  au  ciel  saturite. 


beati  qui  Tousjours  avez  desire  1  entretien 

esuriunt  ^^^  -_       .  ,  ,,  .  .    , 

et  sitiimt.  ^'^  ™oy?  Justice,  et  nors  lobscunte 

Mathei  5.  De  guerre,  France  est  en  securite. 

cf  quomam.       Pource  que  VOUS  estez  Roy  pacifique, 

Proniis  vous  est,  par  loy  evangelicque, 

Que  vous  serez  appelle  filz  de  Dieu  ; 

Justicia  et  Pax  Parfaict  en  France  est  I'escript  pi'opheticque, 
osculate  sunt.      ^       .  _,.  ,.  ,.,. 

ps.  84.  Justice  et  Paix  se  baisent  au  diet  lieu. 

II. 

Interpretation  de  ce  present  embleme.' 

Avecques  paix  le  Roy  man  tient 
Justice,  et  es  deux  la  main  tient ; 
La  prophetic  davidique 
Est  accomplie,  ou  david  diet  que 

'  This  poem  refers  to  the  miniature  on  the  following  page,  in  which  Francis 
I  is  seen  joining  the  hands  of  two  female  figures  which  represent  Justice  and 
Peace.     The  three  are  standing  within  a  columned  portico  which  has  for  a  back- 


98        I).  II.  ('nrnahan — Maistre  .Eloy  du  Mont,  diet  Costentin. 

Justice  et  Paix  ont  fait  accordz 

Jnsticia  et  Pax  En  baisant,  mieulx  (jiu-  corps  a  corps  ; 
osculfttf  sunt.      ^       .        -    .      .    , 

i)s.  M4.         Justice,  Iniquitu  corrompt, 

Et  Paix  a  Guerre  le  col  romi)t. 

iii. — costkntin,  du  roy  serf  loyal, 

Ce  Champ  Royal  du  champ  royal.' 
(2,  verso)  De  France  presente  a  pRANgois, 

MONARCQUE  ILLUSTRE  DES  FRANgOIS. 

Le  maistre  ouvrier,  qui  paradis  terrestre 

Fist  et  planta  en  fi-uictz  clelicieux, 

Elent  en  France  un  tresbeau  lieu  champestre, 

Commode,  assez  fertile  et  spacieux, 

Pour  y  dresser  un  champ  solacieux  ; 

Ce  qui  fut  faict  et,  par  un  don  celeste, 

Ce  noble  champ,  divin,  riche  et  honneste,. 

Fut  ordonne  a  roys  de  grand  renom, 

Par  lesquelz  Dieu  vouloit  que  supplante 

Fust  maint  payen  ;  le  champ  porte  ce  nora, 

Le  champ  royal,  en  troys  liz  d'or  plante. 

Couleur  d'azur  au  champ  donna  ce  maistre, 

Couleur  semblable  au  saphir  et  aulx  cieulx. 

Troys  fleurs  de  liz  sur  le  champ  voulut  mettre, 

Fleurs  de  liz  d'or,  metal  tresprecieux. 

Qui  sont  en  champ  comme  astres  specieux 

Sont  en  liault  ciel  ;  ce  noble  champ  ateste, 

Ainsi  qu'on  peult  congnoistre  par  mainct  texte 

(D'hystoriens),  combien  la  nation 

Des  roys  est  noble,  ausquelz  fut  presente, 

Divinement  et  par  donation, 

Le  champ  royal,  en  troys  liz  d'or  plante. 

ground  the  royal  dais,  with  a  light  blue  canopy,  marked  with  fleurs-de-lis. 
Justice  holds  the  sword  and  scales  in  her  left  hand,  while  Peace  is  bearing 
the  olive  branch.  The  two  are  about  to  kiss.  Justice  is  trampling  under  foot 
a  woman  with  flowing  yellow  hair  and  of  evil  appearance  (Iniquity).  Peace  is 
likewise  treading  upon  a  man  in  armor  who  has  a  broken  sword  in  his  hand 
(Guerre).     Near  this  man  is  lying  a  diminutive  cannon. 

^  This  so-called  "  Champ  Royal  "  is  the  ordinary  type  of  the  "  chant  roj^al  " 
of  the  sixteenth  century. 


D.  II.  Camahan — Maistre  Eloy  du  Mont,  diet  Costentin.        99 

Ce  maistre  ouvrier  les  troj's  fleurs  de  liz  estre 

D'or  a  voulu,  du  soleil  lumineux 

Ont  la  couleur,  ([ui  uous  donne  a  congnoistre 

Le  Roy  de  France,  en  oeuvre  fructueux, 

Estre  des  roys  le  soleil  vertneux 

Dont  la  clarte  deffend  qu'obscure  secte 

Du  faulx  Luther  son  royaulme  n'infecvte  ; 

Par  sa  splendeiir  et  illustration, 

Tresaraplement,  a  la  foy  augraente, 

De  ses  vertus  nous  faict  ostension 

Le  champ  Royal,  en  troys  liz  d'or  plante. 

1 

Le  liz  est  droict,  non  tendant  a  la  dextre 
Plus  qu'a  senestre,  et  en  espinuz  lieux 
Hault  eleve,  souvent  on  le  voit  croistre, 
Plus  qu'aultres  fleurs  en  beaulto  gratieux, 
Contre  venin,  fort  et  substantieux, 
Cela  figure  haulteur,  justice,  droicte, 
Toutes  vertus,  en  la  lignee  extraicte 
D'Hector,  Troyen,  et  son  filz,  Francion  ;' 
Mieulx  qu'aultres  roys  de  la  chrestiente, 
Les  Fran9oys  out  en  leur  possession 
Le  champ  Royal,  en  troys  liz  d'or  plante. 

On  ne  sgavroit  dire  en  |)rose  ne  metre 
Les  dignitez,  graces,  droictz  copieux. 
Que  Dieu  monstroit  aux  roys  fran9o_ys  promettre, 
Quand  a  Clovis,  par  faict  miraculeux, 
Envoya  dons,  divins  et  merveilleux, 
Signifiant  que  le  Fran903's  excede 
Tout  aultre  ro}^,  il  n'a  qui  le  precede. 
Plus  qu'empereur  a  de  perfection, 
Par  son  toucher  est  veu  donner  sante, 
De  luy  nous  est  vray  attestation 
Le  champ  Royal,  en  troys  liz  d'or  plante. 
(4,  recto)  Envoy, 

Prince  Frangoys,  d'or  la  propriete, 
D'azur,  du  ciel,  jjropre  vous  a  este 

'  See  "La  Franciade,"  the  unfinished  poem  of  Ronsard.     The  legend  is  also 
related  by  Fredegaire,  Jean  Le  Maire,  Jean  Bouchet. 


100      1>.  //.  ('arnahan — JLdstre  Eloy  da  Jfont,  diet  Costentin. 

YjI  toii>sjours  est  ;  vostre  peuple  oraison 
Faict  que  soyez  de  tout  nial  exempte, 
A  vous,  Roy,  seul  convient,  selon  raison, 
Le  cliamp  royal,  en  troys  liz  d'or  plante. 

IV.  — DizAix  op:  t/intekpretation    des  armes  de  France. 

Des  rieui's  de  liz,  auz  roys  fran5oys  donnez, 
Le  liault  floron  du  melieu  re])resente 
La  fo}',  les  deulx,  es  costez  ordonnez, 
Sont  le  clerge  et  noblesse,  excellente, 
Qu'ont'  iceulx  roj's  j^our  la  foy  soustenir, 
Ce  que  tousjours  ont  voulu  maintenir  ; 
Troys  fleurs  de  liz  nous  donneut  a  congnoistre 
Que  verite,  mansuetude  et  justice, 
Auroient  vigueur  en  France  par  la  dextre 
Du  Roy  Fran9oys,  dont  vraye  avons  notice. 

V. — Dizain  sue  "  sicut  lilium  inter  spinas.'" 
(4,  verso) 

Coinme  le  liz,  entre  espines  croyssant 

Hault  eleve,  les  espines  excede, 

Ainsi  le  Roy  lilial,  accroyssant 

Son  bruyt  et  nom,  les  aultres  roys  precede. 

L'asperite  des  espines  iie  blesse 

En  rien  le  liz  ;  tout  ainsi  la  noblesse 

Et  vray  vouloir  du  Roy  (qui  le  liz  porte), 

Blessez  ne  sont  de  poingnantz  hereticques, 

Maiz  contre  iceulx  la  foy  garde  et  supporte 

En  obviant  a  leurs  fainctes  practicques.' 

VL — Rondeau  sur  la   louenge  et  memore  des  bons, 

(6,  recto) 

Avec  louenge,  en  niemore  doibt  estre 

Memoria  jnsti   Le  juste  et  droict  (ainsy  qu'on  peult  congnoistre 
cum  landibus,    t-,  •    ^  •    ^\       •    '•      ^         ^  • 

Plover  X  "^^'  "i^i'it  escript);  si  juste  est  mon  seigneur, 

Mon  Prince  ou  Roy,  avec  plus  grand  honneur 
De  luy,  par  moy,  la  louenge  doibt  croistre. 

^  The  elision  in  this  word  as  well  as  elsewhere  in  the  manuscript,  is  indicated 
by  a  small  letter  "  e  "  raised  just  above  the  line. 

•  Canticum  Canticorum  Solomonis,  Cantio  I,  Cap.  II,  2  ;  "  Sicnt  lilium  inter 
spinas,  sic  aniioa  mea  inter  filias." 

•'  This  dizain  is  illustrated,  on  the  following  page,  by  a  miniature  of  a  lily- 
plant,  with  three  full-blown  lilies  and  two  buds,  interwoven  sjTnmetrically  with 
a  thorn-bush.  Tlie  plant  and  bush  are  framed  in  a  gold-pillared  arch,  with  a 
light  blue  background,  dotted  with  gold. 


D.  H.  Carnahan — Maistre  Eloy  du  Mont,  diet  Costentin.      101 

Nomen  impio-  Le  juste  on  doibt  louer,  le  raaulvais  mettre 

rum  putrescat,   -,       '  ,  ,  ■    •      .         ^  z 

pruerbiorum      ^'^■i  ^^  oubly  ;  Si  juste  est  done  mon  maistre 

X.  Plus  I'aymer  doy,  desirant  son  hon  heur, 


Rectos  decet 
coUaiidatio, 
psalmo, 
XXXII.' 


(6,  verso) 


(7,  recto) 


Avec  louenge. 

Si  exhortez  sommes  par  saincte  lettre 
Louer  le  juste,  et  justice  a  son  estre 
Prins  en  mon  Roy,  doy  je  estre  diet  flateur 
Pour  le  louer?  non,  puys  tout  serviteur 
Au  maistre  doibt  loyal  tousjours  paroestre, 
Avec  louenge. 

VII.   (A). 

Rex  pins  in  fixo  Franciscus  cardine  pistim 
Sustinet  :  liuie  vitam  suppeditabit  Eros. 
Magni  sub  pedibus  Regis  cognosce  Luterum 
Stratum  ;  cui  demon  praeparat  insidias.^ 

(B.) 

Le  Roy  Fran9oys  la  foy  soustient, 
D'oeuvres  charite  I'entretient, 
Le  Roy  marche  sur  I'heretieque, 
Pour  I'avoir,  le  dyable  practique. 

(c.) 

Le  Roy. 

Au  Luther  le  parler  deffens 
Et  la  foy  crestienne  defens. 

Charite. 
Je  tiens  le  coeur  du  grand  Frangoys 
Avec  les  coeurs  des  bons  Fran^oys. 

Foy. 
De  mon  estat  je  devaloys 
Sans  le  bon  Fran9oys  de  Valoys. 


1  Psalms  XXXn,  1,  ''Exultate,  justi,  in  Domino;  rectos  decet  collaudatio." 
-  This  quatrain  refers  to  a  half-page  miniature  of  Francis  I,  scepter  in  hand, 
trampling  under  foot  a  writhing  figure  which  represents  Luther.  To  the  right 
and  left  of  the  king  are  two  female  figures  representing  Faith  and  Charity. 
Charity  is  holding  out  a  platter  on  which  is  seen  one  large  red  heart  and  three 
smaller  ones  ;  she  is  pointing  with  her  finger  at  the  large  heart.  A  small  devil 
is  crouching  at  one  side  of  the  group,  and  is  stretching  out  towards  Luther  an 
iron  rod  with  two  hooks  at  the  end.  This  miniature  occupies  the  upper  half  of 
folio  6,  verso.  . 


102      />.  jr.  <'<irn<ihnu  —  M^fistrr  Eloy  du  Mont^  diet  (^^ostentin. 

Le  llereticque. 
Maiiitz  me  croiroient  vivaiitz  soubz  France, 
Mais  leur  Roy  me  tieiit  en  souffrance. 

Le  Dyable. 
Le  Roy  soul)s  Ic  jik'  ma  part  tient, 
C'est  ung  Luthei-  (jui  in'appartient. 

vttl dlzaix  de  foy,  multipliee  en  ung  seul  homme  plus 

qu'en  tous   aultres. 
(7,  verso) 

Diivant  ce  regne,  en  France  on  peult  congnoistre 

Foy  de  cbrestien,  foy  de  prince,  et  foy  d'horame, 

Foy  de  viay  Roy,  foy  de  trescrestien  estre, 

En  ung  suppost,  et  foy  de  gentilhomme, 

C'est  en  Fran9oys,  que  treschrestien  on  nomme  ; 

Les  roys  fran9oys  tiltre  de  treschrestien 

Ont  obtenu  pour  le  constant  soustien 

Qu'ilz  out  donne  a  la  foy  Jesuscbrist  ; 

Sans  vaciler  ont  tenu  ce  maintien 

Depuys  Clovis,  comme  on  voit  par  escript. 

IX. — DizAix  Au  Roy  sur  l'abundan<.'e  de  l'or  qui  present 

EST  EN  France. 

Vray  or  leans  en  France  vous  avez, 
(Roy  treschrestien),  excellent  et  despreuve, 
Les  mines  d'or  sercber  vous  ne  debvez 
D'aultres  paiz,  si  bon  or  on  n'y  treuve, 
Vous  mesme  avez  la  vraye  mine  ouverte 
Ou  il  fut  prins,  laquelle  fut  couverte, 
II  a  long  temps,  au  grand  regret  du  nionde  ; 
Aultre  richesse  en  France  avez,  l'or  regne 
En  di(!t  payz,  aultre  bien  y  habunde, 
Liee  en  or  est  de  France  la  Royne. 


(8,  recto) 


X  (a). — Aenigma  de  lilio. 

Nupserat  auspicio  divum,  et  Junone  socunda 
Flora  deeus  niundi  Zepbiro  jucunda  marito 
Conjugibus  pax  alma  fuit,  concordia  major  • 
Carmine,  certatim  pugnabat  mutuus  ardor 
Jusque  dies.     Zephiri  tandem  de  semine  Flora 
Lactea  protulerat  foelici  lilia  foetu. 


I).  H.  Carnahan — Mai&tre  Eloy  du  Mont,  diet  Costentin.      ]03 

C>.'everat  hinc  praedulcis  amor,  foelicia  saecla 
Ridebant,  variis  vernantes  floribus  borti 
Liligeri,  Ilesperiduin  i)omaria  conteranebant 
Ecce  autem  stridens  Aquilo  foelicibus  aiiiiis 
Invidit,  Florara  que  petens,  quae  libera  dulci 
Oscula  praebebaL  sponso,  pernicibus  alls 
Advolat  hostis  atrox  subito,  cupidus  que  nocendi 
Lilia  que  et  florum  genitricem  tiatibus  urget 
Horrificis,  ciet  ille  minas  male  percitus  ira, 
Eumenides  que  vocat.     Sed  enini  constanlia  Divae 
Hac  rabiem  perpessa  ten  us,  nil  fracta  furore  est 
Aeolio  quanquam  occultum -epirantia  virus 
(8,  verso)  Flarama  concuterent  pulclira  cum  prole  parentem 

Hinc  stimulos  odio  pudor  admovet  acrius  inde 
Percitus  invidia  divara  conjurat  in  ipsam 
Lilia  que  insequitur  clarissima  pignora  matri 
At  furit  incassum,  nam  lilia  perpetuum  ver 
Lactea  semper  alit  blandoque  Favonius  ore 
Aeternum  aspirans  florentes  educat  hortos. 

(b). — L'Enigme,    cy    devant    escript,    translate    de    latin   en 
frangoys  par  le  dict  dlt  mont,  aultrement,  costentin". 

Flora  la  belle,  (aspirans  les  haultz  dieux, 
Juno  present),  avec  le  gracieux 
Et  doulx  Zephire,  bonnestement  ornee, 
Conjoincte  fut  ;  O  I'beureuge  journee  ! 
Plusgrande  paix  que  I'on  ne  pourrot  dire 
Fut  entre  eulx  deux  ;  doulce  amitie,  sans  ire, 
Tousjours  croissoit ;  Flora,  moult  amoureuse, 
Beaulx  liz  produict  de  la  semence  heureuse 
Du  doulx  Zepbyre,  et  a  ceste  raison 
Creut  leur  amour  ;  lors  heureuse  saison 
(9,  recto)  S'esjouyssoit,  les  jardins  tous  couvertz 

De  belles  fleui-s  et  de  beaulx  liz  ouvertz, 
Reraplis  d'oudeur,  et  de  puanteur  vides  ;  * 

Trop  excedoient  des  riches  Hesperides 
Les  beaulx  jardins.     A  ceste  doulce  vie 
Et  temps  heureux  Aquilo  porte  envye, 
Serchant  Flora,  qui  franchement  s'aisoit 
En  son  espoux  et  souvent  le  baisoit. 


1U4      ]J.  II.  ('(trnafuin — JMuistre  Kloy  du  Mont,  diet  Costentin. 

C'est  ennyeux  de  miyre  avant  vouloir  ; 
Vers  cMilx  oil  voyt  horriblement  A^oller 
Par  Koufttementz,  poulsez  de  grand  aspresse  ; 
Les  liz,  avec  Flora  leur  mere,  presse 
En  niennssant  ;  ])Our  plus  les  esbausser 
A  convoquu  les  Furies  d'enfer. 
Mais  de  Flora  la  Constance  et  courage 
Virilenient  a  soustenu  la  rage 
De  I'ennemy,  sans  quelque  estonneraent 
De  sa  fureur  :  conibien  qu'occultement 
Cest  Aquilo,  portant  venin  nuysible, 
Moult  s'effor9ast,  par  souffleraent  hoiTible, 
Aneantir  la  mere  et  les  enffans, 
(9,  verso)  C'estoit  Flora  et  les  liz  triumphans  ; 

Pour  ceste  cause  augmentee  est  la  hainne, 
Et  I'ennemy,  que  triste  envj^e  raainne, 
Contre  Flora  gratieuse,  conjure, 
Serchant  les  liz  pour  leur  porter  injure  ; 
Maiz  il  perd  temps,  car  printemps  pardurable 
Contient  les  liz  en  beaulte  admirable, 
Le  doulx  Zephire,  aspirant  doulcement, 
Aux  beaulx  jardins  donne  nourrissement. 


D.  H.  Carnahan — Maistre  Eloy  du  Mont,  diet  Costentin.      105 

(10,  recto) 

Cent  disticques'  de  Faust  Andrelin,  poete  du  Roy  et  de  la 

RoYNE/  TRADUICTZ    EN    DISTIQUES    FRAN^OYS  ;    AvEOQUES  UNG  OU 
PLUSIEURS    APPENDICES,    EXTRAIOTZ    SUK    UNG    CHASCUN    DISTICQUE, 

PAR  Maistre  Eloy  du  Mont,  diot  Costentin/ 

XI. — Aeligii  Montani  Constantinatis  ad  Franciam  suo  Fran- 
cisco   FOELICISSIMAM    HEXASTICHON. 

Foelix  Francorum  Franciscum  Francia  regem 
Tu  colis,  en  vobis  nomina  conveniunt 
Moribus  ingennis  Francisci  Francia  mores 
Conformes  teneas  ;  mutuus  insit  amor 
Franci  Francisco  felices  pace  fruuntur 
Franciscum  Franci  suspiciunt  et  amant. 

^  See  footnote,  page  90. 

-  Faust  Andrelin  was  poet  laureate  to  Loviis  XII  and  Anne  de  Bretagne. 

^  We  have  the  testimony  of  a  contemporary  of  Faust  Andrelin,  Beatus  Rhe- 
nanus,  as  to  the  high  esteem  in  which  the  productions  of  the  poet  were  held. 
This  testimony  is  found  in  the  preface  to  the  following  edition  of  Andrelin's 
works  :  P.  Fausti  i^ndrelini,  Foroliviensis  Poetae  atque  Oratoris  clarissimi 
Epistolae  proverbiales,  et  morales  longe  lepidissimae,  nee  minus  sententiosae. 
In  Sylva  ducis  Brabantiae,  anno  incai-nationis  verbi.  M.D.  XXXI.  Mense 
Aprili.     Gerardus  Hatart  typis  has  epistolas  emittebat. 

The  preface  to  this  collection  is  as  follows  :  Beatus  Rhenanus,  Hieronymo. 
Gebuilero  Selestati  bonas  literas  profitenti  S. — Morales  P.  Fausti  epistolae,  mi 
Hieronynle  iccirco  ad  Germanicae  juventutis  usum,  impressioni  mandandas 
duxi,  quod  viderem  eas  minime  protritam,  trivialemque  in  se  continere  erudi- 
tiouem.  Nam  habent  eximiam  in  primis  verbornm  elegantiam,  nee  minorem 
sententiarum  (quibus  affatim  scatent)  venustatem.  Inveniet  hie  ingenuus  adole- 
scens,  non  pauca  ad  bene,  beateque  vivendum  hortamenta.  Discet  hie  amorem 
mulierum  esse  fugiendum,  et  voluptatum  fugam,  ad  sanctiorum  vitam  quern 
maxime  conducere,  ut  Graecanico  quodem  versiculo  praecipitur  : — raerrpos  ixkv 
irpd}Ti(TTd  kclI  inrvov  Kal  (piXdraTos,  quem  hunc  in  modum  Hermolaus  Barbaras 
paraphrasi  expressit, — Venter  pluma,  Venus,  laudem  fugienda  sequenti.  Discet 
praeterea  tempus  (cujus  siimptu  nihil  praeciosius  est)  per  inertiam  non  esse 
transmittendam.  Ocium  innumerorum  malorum  feminarium,  impensissime 
evitandum,  et  id  genus  plnrima,  quae  omnia  Foroliviensis  Faustus  in  his  episto- 
lis  proverbialibus  ac  protrepticis,  cum  lepide,  tum  gravitem  complexus  est,  qui 
et  si  in  nonnuUis  opusculis  genuino  poetarum  more  lasciviusculus  sit,  hie  tamen 
integrum  ac  modestum  oratorem  agit.  Gaeterum  norit  candidus  lector  adagia  : 
rds  -rrapoi/jLias  (ut  Graecia  diciint),  quadrauter  coudimentorum  rationem  subire. 
His  nempe  immoderatius  in  concinnandis  eduliis,  popinatores  utantur,  gustu* 
aut  grata  incundaque  reddent.  Illis  simili  pacto  (si  modus  absit)  non  tarn  splen- 
dorem,  ac  ornatum  quam  obscuritatem  sermoni  tuo  afferes.  Mediocritas  vero 
omnia  saluat,  ubique  optima,  ut  inquit  Aristoteles,  summus  (Pliniano  Eulogio) 
in  omni  scientia  vir.  Bene  vale,  Selestadi  pridie  Caleudas  Septembres.  Anno, 
MDVIII. 

Trans.  Conn.  Acad.,  Vol.  XIII.  9  Sept.,  1907. 


lOfi      D.  n.  Carnahan — 3Iaistre  Eloy  du  Mont,. diet  Costentin. 

XII. —  I.N      l'"liA.\»lS(USI     MONAKCIIAM     (tALLOHUM     OMN'IBUS    NUMERIS 
VIRUM  ABSOLUTISSIMTM  GuiLIELMI  GUERNONII  DODECASTICHON. 

(10.  verso)  Classis  it  ad  portiis  diras  sprctura  procellas 

Regis  ad  invidiam  qui  timet,  auspicia 
Nil  Mecenatem  nam  secula  nostra  requirunt, 
Rex  niveis  ilium  preterit  altus  equis. 
Quom  noil  obtundant  toties  monumenta  dicata 
Humanum  summe  quid  superare  queat 
Adde,  quod  est  author  foeture  temporis  huju.s, 
Galle,  es  quo  Hebreus,  Grecus  et  Ausonius 
Quum  peregrina  fovet,  parmi  ipsa  domestica  pendit 
Abnuit  Eligius  facta  pericla  citan.s 
Primas  quapropter  Franciscus  primus  habeto, 
Hunc  unum  observet  Candida  posteritas. 

XIII. — In  eundem  ejusdem  tetrastichon. 

Si  soplios  est  princeps,  sophiam  vel  pectora  docta 
Diligit,  est  illi  patria  fausta  soplio 
Ter  foelix  igitur  vocitetur  Gallia  jure 
Franciscus  sophos  est,  ac  amat  ipse  sophos. 

XIV. — In  eundem  Gado  Fredo  vallensis  carmen    Aelegiacum 

CUJUS  LITTERE  CAPITA LIORES  NOMEN  FAUSTISSIMUM  OSTENDUNT. 

(11,  recto)  Funditus  evertit  summo  de  vertice  Troiam 

Rex  Danaus,  sato  Teucria  capta  f  uit 
'  Abstulit  (heu  miserum)  Troiae  vestigia  Grecus 

Nobilis,  Ixe  penitus  mansit  adusta  focis. 
Capta  licet  fuerint  assurgunt  moenia  Troiae. 
Illustrem  Francum  diruta  Troia  tulit. 
Sic  superi  Teucris  pensant  incendia  tanta, 
Concipit  huic  Phrigium  Martia  Troia  virum. 
Ut  nova  progenies  surgit  monimenta  decoris 
Surguiit,  et  Galiis  aurea  secla  vigent. 
Vivit  Priamides  nunc  regia  Pergama  restant, 
Amplaque  Dardanie  nomina,  Galle,  tenes. 
Lucida  prefulgens  Franciscus  nomina  Franci 
Exhibit,  hie  primus  stemmata  clara  refert. 
Nunc  quis  Franciscum  Troiano  a  sanguine  ductum 
Summum  non  referat  ?  quis  nisi  mentis  Mops  ?  (sic)' 
Ista  igitur  letus  perpendas  carmina  que  nunc 
Seminat  Eligii  Gallica  musa  tui. 

1  The  word  "  Mops  "  is  probably  an  abbreviated  form  of  the  name    "  Mopstis," 
and  refers  to  the  soothsayer  Mopsns. 


D.  H.  Carnahan — Maistre  Eloy  du  Mont^  diet  Costentin.      10 

(11,  verso) 

XV. — Au  TRESCHRESTIEN  RoY  DES  FrAN^OYS, 

Premier  roy  de  ce  nom  FRANgoYS, 
Costentin,  vostre  humble  vallet, 
Prest  vous  servir,  s'il  le  valloit 

Comme  ainsi  soit  (Prince  tresmagnaniiue), 
Roy  tveschrestien,  en  majeste  sublime, 
Qu'ingratitude  aulx  humains  et  aulx  dieux 
Soit  ung  peche  grandement  odieiix 
Et  desplaisant,  pour  sa  grant  turpitude, 
Je  ne  vouldrois  en  rien  d'ingratitude 
Estre  notte,  mais  je  n'ay  la  puissance 
Que,  par  etfect,  face  recongnoissance 
Aulx  biensfaicteurs,  entre  lesqueilz  avez 
Le  premier  lieu  (Sire),  car  vous  sgavez 
Qu'a  Vasteville  il  me  fut  ung  present 
Faict  de  par  vous,  leqnel  sera  present 
Tant  que  vivray,  en  fons  de  ma  memoire. 
Je  n'avoies  pas  (Sire),  non  ay  je  encore, 
Mery  qu'a  moy  vous  voulissez  parler  ; 
Tant  soeullement,  le  liberal  vouloir    • 
(13,  recto)  Estant  en  vous  m'a  faict  ce  benefice, 

Estre  n'en  peult  la  cause  mon  service, 
De  rien  servir  ne  vous  peult  mon  s9avoir, 
Mais,  neantmoins,  je  doy  monstrer  avoir 
Ung  bon  vouloir,  soit  par  parole  ou  lectre  ; 
Quand  aultrement  ne  le  puis  recongnoistre 
Ung  bon  vouloir,  qu'on  veult  mectre  en  effect, 
Ille  convient  reputer  pour  le  faict. 
Depuis  le  temps  que  f  uz  a  vasteville, 
(Roy  treschrestien),  dedens  Caen,  vostre  ville, 
En  instruisant  mes  petitz  escoliers, 
Cent  elegans  disticques  familiers 
Que  composa  le  poete  royal 
Faust  norame,  en  vray  sens  litteral 
Traduictz  avons,  et  d'un  cliacun  disticque 
Prins  et  extraict  (qui  n'est  pas  grand  praticque), 
Ung  ou  plusieurs  aultres  disticques,  dictz 
Et  appellez  appendices,  reduictz 
Et  appliquez  en  quelque  sens  moral  ; 
II  ne  convient  au  langaige  rural 


H 


108      J).  JI.  Carnahan — Maistre  Eloy  du  Mont,  diet  Costentiii. 

Avoir  refrard,  niais  an  sens  de  la  lectre, 
(1~*.  verso)  Ce  qui  m'a  duict  icculx  disticques  mectre 

En  traii9oys,  Sire,  est  que  j'ay  congnoissance 
Que  le  fran^oys  a  plus  grande  puissance 
(^iic  le  latin  ;'  le  bon  Fran9oys  qui  regne, 
Nous  a  cause  depuis  le  vostre  regne 
Le  bon  latin  ;  difficile  est,  de  faict. 
Que  de  maulvais  fran903'^s  puisse  estre  faict 
TJng  bon  latin,  mais  aussi,  du  contraire, 
De  bon  fran5oys  bon  latin  fault  extraire. 
Si  ne  craingnoies  de  vous  attedier 
Je  vouldiois  bien  mon  oeuvre  dedier 
A  vostre  nom,  qu'est  ce  que  je  vueil  dire, 
A  vostre  nom  ?  ce  mot  convient  desdire, 
L'oeuvre  est  petit,  de  rudesse  ydropicque, 
(Quaud  de  mon  faict),  et  d'elegance  ethicque, 
Indigne  d'estre  offert  au  moindre  prince. 
Voire  seigneur  qui  soit  en  la  province  ; 
Et  j'entreprens,  par  folle  oultrecuidance, 
Le  presenter  au  monarque  de  France, 
Des  roys  humains  I'excellence  et  la  fleur. 
Qui  vous  vouldroit  faire  dons  en  valleur 
(13,  recto)  Equipollens  a  la  vostre  noblesse, 

II  conviendroit  visiter  la  richesse 
Et  grandz  tresors  de  celeste  cite,  . 
Plaine  de  joye  et  dc  felicite  ; 
Vostre  noblesse  en  dignite  excede 
Tons  biens  que  Dieu  en  terre  nous  concede, 
Tant  habundant  vous  estes  en  tout  bien 
Qu'on  ne  pourroit  vous  augmenter  en  rien, 
Mais  nous  voyons  qu'en  la  mer,  tant  diffuse, 
Habundent  eauz,  encore  el  ne  refuse 

^  The  same  idea  is  expressed  by  our  author  in  his  "Resurrection,"  fol.  1. 

recto,  line  14 — De  composer  la  Resurrection. 

De  Jesus  Christ,  en  langaige  fraugoys 

Non  en  latin,  voyant  que  le  frauQoys 

Trop  mieulx  ayme  est,  pour  le  temps  qui  court 

Que  le  latin  ;  ceulx  qui  hantent  la  court 

Et  aultres  lieux,  ont  vraye  congnoissance 

Combien  ayme  est  le  frangoys  en  France. — 

Likewise,  we  find  on  fol.  3,  verso,  line  11,  the  following  statement  :  "Costentin, 

Trop  myeulx  aymant  fran§oys  que  le  latin." 


D.  H.  Camahan — Mcnstre  Eloy  du  Mont,  diet  Costentin.      109 

Petitz  ruisseaiilx.     En  grands  biens  et  syavoir 

Vous  habnndez,  neantmoins  recepvoir 

Vous  pourres  bien  mon  petit  opixscule 

Et  I'inipvimer  dedens  une  cellule 

De  la  nieniore.     En  I'evangile  on  treuve 

Conime  une  povre  et  simple  femme  veufve 

Pour  avoir  mis  dens  le  ga'/.ophilace/ 

Ung  seul  quadrin  remporta  plus  de  grace 

Du  createur  et  fut  son  don  tiH)uve 

Plus  aggreable  et  plus  grand  approuve 

Qu'aultres  plusieurs  de  plus  grande  importance  ; 

(13,  verso)  Dieu  regardoit  son  coeur  et  sa  puissance. 

Oultre,  je  voy  que  petitz  aymez  bien, 
Car  des  petitz  comme  des  grandz  le  bien 
Vous  deffendez,  voullant  que  de  justice 
Ait  le  petit  comrae  le  grand,  notice. 
Pour  cez  raisons  si  I'ouvrier  et  I'ouvraige 
Soient  bien  petitz,  si  prendray  je  couraige 
De  vous  I'offrir  ;  ne  regardez,  Seigneur, 
Le  don  du  tout  mais  le  coeur  du  donneur. 
En  recepvant  de  moy  don  si  petit, 
Enbraserez  en  moy  ung  appetit 
De  composer  oeuvre  de  plus  hault  stille, 
Dis  je  plushault  ?  selon  qu'il  soy  distille 
Par  I'alembic  de  raon  engin  debile, 
Mais  pour  le  rendre  aulcun  peu  plushabile 
J'imploreray  I'aide  de  quelque  muse 
Pour  impetrer  de  sa  science  infuse, 
C'est  de  Clio,  doulce  muse  historicque, 
Laquelle  escript  en  belle  rhetoricque 
Des  nobles  coeurs  heroicques  effectz, 
Comme  par  roys  fran9oys  conduictz  et  faictz. 

(14,  recto)  De  ce  qu'ung  roy  a  son  vouloir  estime 

Tons  ses  subjectz,  en  voirrez  faire  estime  ; 
Princes  et  roys,  les  petitz  font  voler 
En  hault  honneur,  et  les  grandz  devaler  ; 
Quand  il  leur  plaist,  des  subjectz  font  autant 
Comme  ung  jecteur  d'un  jecton  en  jectant, 

'  Mark  12,  41  :  "  Et  sedens  Jesus  contra  gazophylacium,  aspiciebat  quomodo 
turba  jactaret  aes  in  gazophylacium,"  etc. 


110      D.  11.  Carnahan — Maistre  Eloy  du  Mont,  diet  Costentin. 

Car  ung  jecteur  ung  jecton  faict  valoir 
Cent  mille  escus,  ot  puis  a  son  vouloir 
Le  faict  valoir  une  petite  maillc, 
Ce  que  ne  vault  I'oeuvre  que  je  vous  bailie. 
Ce  nonobstant  tant  petit  qu'il  puisse  estre, 
S'il  est  loue  par  le  grand  prince  et  maistre, 
Le  Roy  Fran9oys,  grand  estime  sera 
De  toutes  gens,  et  son  bruit  haulsera, 
Ce  neantnioins  eii  ce  cas  ne  calenge, 
(Roy  trescbrestien),  du  monde  la  louenge, 
Mais  me  suffist  que  puisse  trouver  place 
Dedens  le  cbamp  de  vostre  bonne  grace, 
Et  que  prenez  en  grey  mon  petit  oeuvre  ; 
Suppliant  Dieu  (O  Prince),  qu'il  vous  oeuvre 
Ses  beaulx  tresors,  lesqueilx  il  a  promis 
(14,  verso)  A  ceulx  qui  sont  ses  bons  Qt  vrays  amys, 

Apprez  qu'aures  en  ce  monde  vescu 
Bien  longuement,  et  le  dyable  vaincu 

Vous  trouverez  dedens  ce  petit  livre, 

(Que  de  bon  coeur  humblement  je  vous  livre), 

Une  elegie  avecques  aultres  carmes, 

Non  composez  de  jacobins  ou  carmes, 

Mais  d'escolliers,  domesticques  amys, 

Avecques  nous  ung  cbascun  d'eulx  a  mys. 

Voire,  et  veult  mectre  en  tout  temps,  pleuve  ou  vente, 

Tout  son  esprit,  non  pas  pour  mectre  en  vente 

Mais  pour  louer  en  latin  le  Fran9oys 

Qui  de  present  regne  sur  les  Fran90vs, 

Et  ne  mourra  (aiudant  Dieu),  avant  aage. 

Vous  trouverez  balades  davantage 

Et  cbamps  Royaulx,'  dizains  avec  rondeaulx, 

Non  cojnposez  par  poetes  rondz  d'eauz 

Maiz  par  vostre  Inunble  et  infime  vallet, 

Prest  vous  servir  s'il  povoit  ou  valoit. 

'  Although  the  plural  form  is  .used  here,  we  find  bat  one  "  chant  royal  "  in 
the  collection. 


D.  H.  Carnahan — Maistre  Eloy  du  Mont,  diet  Costentm.      Ill 

XVI. 

(15,  recto) 

1. —  Certum  Fausti  2)romissum.^ 

En  promissa  patent  grati  monuraenta  poete, 
Certum  est  Faustino  quod  semel  ore  fluit. 

La  certaine  promesse  de  Fauste. 
Voicy  les  vers  du  poete  acceptable 
Par  luy  promis,  car  Fauste  est  veritable. 

Appendix. 
Bien  recongnoist,  qui  pour  don  transitoire 
Rend  aultre  don  d'eternelle  memoire. 

2. — Ad  librum  ne  invidiam  extimescat. 

Jam  liber  invidie  secure  latrantis  abito, 
Baubantera  est  timidi  pertimuisse  canera. 
Au  livre  qi;'il  n'ayt  crainte  d'envj'^e. 
Livre  va  t'en  sans  craindre  envye  en  rien, 
Trop  est  craintif,  qui  craint  I'abay  d'un  chien. 

Appendix. 
Moins  mordantz  sont  les  chiens  qui  tant  font  bruit, 
Triste  enuyeux  beaucoup  parle  et  peu  nuyst. 

(composuit)       3. —  Quod  disticha  casta  morata  que  cotnposuerit. 

Disticha  composui  matura  digna  senecta 
Nam  decet  annosum  pagina  casta  senem. 
(15,  verso)  Qu'il  a  compose  disticques,  chastes  et  moraulx. 

Mes  carmes  sont  aulx  anciens  lecture, 
A  vieilles  gens  convient  chaste  escripture. 

Appendix. 
Paresseux  jeune  et  vieil  luxurieux, 
Pource  superbe,  a  tons  sont  odieux. 

'  I  have  collated  the  Latin  distlchs,  as  reproduced  by  Eloy  dii  Mont,  with  an 
edition  printed  in  Lyons,  in  1539.  Tlie  important  variants  found  in  the  edition 
of  Lyons  I  have  put  in  marginal  references.  Small  diflferences,  snch  as  punctu- 
ation and  the  common  use  of  "  ae  ''  and  "  oe  "  for  "  e  "  in  Latin  words,  etc.,  I 
have  not  indicated.  The  following  is  the  title  of  the  edition  of  Lyons  : — 
Disticha  Publii  Fausti  Andreliui  Foroliviensis  poetae  laureati,  cum  Joannis  Mauri 
Constantiani  enan-ationibns.  Que  ab  Joanne  Raenerio  optima  tide,  parique 
diligentia  recognita  sunt  omnia.  Theobaldiis  Paganus  excudebat,  Lugduni. 
1539. 


112      T>.  If.  ('anidlidu — Mdistre  Eloy  dn  Mont,  diet  Costentin. 

(Disticha)  4. — J)icta  salibus  respersa. 

Dislicha  sepe  leges,  salilnis  suffusa  jocisque 
Diet  trahunt  diilces  ad  graviora  joci. 
Distiches  mesles  de  motz  joyeux. 
Souveiit  liras  vers  plains  d'urbaiiite, 
De  motz  joyeiilx  on  vient  a  gravite. 

Appendix. 
Grave  oraison,  ung  peu  entrelardee 
De  motz  joye\ilx,  n'en  est  nioins  commandee. 

o. — Ad iiraestantem  virum  Joannem  Rvseum,  generalem  quuestorum 

meridssimiim.^ 

Quam  fausta  dedit  missum  priraordia  nuraus 
Faustior  incepta  sit  quoque  finis  ope. 
An  general  Ruse. 
(16,  recto)  L'argent  receu,  bien  conimencer  m'a  faict, 

La  fin  prodnise  encor  meilleur  effaict. 

Appendix. 
Ung  bon  lover,  en  livrant,  proposer. 
Rend  les  facteurs  plus  promptz  a  com2)oser. 

6. — Pri?icipium. 

Principium  ex  alto  nascens  ardore  probatur 
Justa  sed  in  solo  fine  corona  datur. 

Le  commencement. 
INIoult  approuve  est  bon  commencement, 
Mais  le  lover  est  a  I'achevement. 

Appendix. 
Qui  bien  commence,  et  qui  bien  ne  parfaict, 
On  diet  qu'a  rien  n'est  a  compter  son  faict. 

7. — Ad  disticha. 

Crescite  cum  largo  mea  disticha  crescite  censu, 
De|)0scunt  tute  fertile  carmen  opes. 

Aulx  distiches. 
Crescez  mes  vers,  avec  argent  utile, 
Ung  argent  seur  requiert  carme  fertile. 
Yel. 
(16,  verso)  Quand  a  I'ouvrier  on  augmente  les  gaiges, 

C'est  la  raison  qu'il  augmente  d'ouvraiges. 


^  See  page  94  of  the  introduction. 


D.  H.  Carnahan — Maistre  Eloy  du  Mont,  diet  Costentin.      113 

8. — Nulla  dies  sine  tinea. 

Nulla  dies  abeat  quin  linea  ducta  supersit 
Non  decet  ignavura  preteriisse  diem. 

Nulle  journee  sans  traict. 
Homme  ne  doit  passer  i;ng  jour  eiitier 
Sans  quelqne  traict  faire  de  son  mestier. 

Appendix. 
Qui  vcult  parfaict  estre  en  quelque  artifice 
Souvent  s'exerce  a  en  faire  I'office. 

9. — Ad  lector  em. 

Quid  me  tarn  miris  sublimen  laudibus  effers 
Divinum  ingenium  plena  crumena  facit. 

Au  lecleur. 
Pourquoy  prens  tu  de  tant  me  louer  painne, 
L'engin  divin  vient  de  la  bource  plainne. 

Appendix. 
Povre  poete  et  nourry  d'eau  sans  vin, 
D'engin  languit  en  carme  non  divin.  • 

10. — ILnid  bene  cantatur  exhausta  crumena. 
(17,  recto)  Legitimus  tacto  concentus  manat  ab  aere 

Non  bene  cum  vacua  est  ulla  crumena  sonat. 

On  chante  mal,  la  bourse  vuyde. 
L'argent  touclie,  son  legitime  donne, 
Malilvaisement  bourse  vuyde  resonne. 

Appendix. 
L'argent  touche  rend  doulx  son  a  merveilles, 
La  bourse  vuide,  aigre  son  aulx  oreilles, 

Vel. 
La  bourse  vuyde  ung  son  rend  pytoyable, 
Povre  poete,  ung  carme  miserable. 

11. —  CecKS  cantat  oh  habitani  stipem.' 

Ipse  habita  sacram  cecus  stipe  cantat  ad  aedem 
Mutus  abit  nudam  cum  trahit  ille  manum. 
L'aveugle  chante  quand  on  luy  donne. 
Apprez  argent  receu  l'aveugle  sonne, 
Mais  il  s'en  va  muet,  s'on  ne  luy  donne. 

Appendix. 
Bien  premie,  poete  bien  compose, 
Maiz  sans  loyer  sa  plume  soy  repose. 


114      1).  JI.  Carndhdti — Maistre  Eloy  du  Mont,  diet  Costentin. 

1 2. — Pecunia  rerum  rer/ina. 

(17,  verso)  (Pe-  Unica  cunctaniiii  icgiiia  i)e'ciinia  reriini 

cnnia)  (Jove)     t>       •  "      •  i    i     . 

Frecipuum  magno  pro  jove  numen  liabet. 

Pecune,  roj'ne  des  clioses. 

De  toule  chose  est  pecune  la  royne, 

An  lion  «le  Dieu  en  ce  monde  a  le  resne. 

Appendix. 

Pour  la  })ecune  on  faict  et  mal  et  bien, 

Mais  quand  an  mal  pour  dieu  on  ne  faict  rien. 

13. — Aiiritm  sole  sjilendidius. 

Clara  quidem  profert  pliebeus  luraina  fulgor 
Purius  est  aurum  splendidiusque  naicat. 

L'or  )ilus  cler  que  le  soleil. 
Le  clair  soleil  grande  clarte  produict, 
Plus  pur  est  l'or  et  plus  clairement  luyt. 

Appendix. 
Argent,  procez  rend  plus  clair  a  mynuict 
Que  sans  argent  quand  le  soleil  reluyst. 

1 4. — Pimper. 

Durius  abjecto  nihil  est  quod  paupei'e  vivat 
Indignus  est  pauper  nil  nisi  triste  malum. 

Le  povre. 
(18,  recto)  Pien  n'est  plus  dur  qu'estre  povre  indigent, 

Ung  triste  mal,  laisse  de  toute  gent. 

Api^endix. 
S'ung  foul  est  riche,  il  est  sage  estime, 
Se  sage  est  povre,  il  sera  foul  nomme. 

(Pauperi)  15. — Dlviti  omnin  pauperis  aut  parnm  aut  nichil. 

(nihil) 

Quilibet  equoreas  semper  fluit  amnis  in  undas 

Pauperiora  culex  tecta  rotundus  adit. 

Au  riche  tout,  au  povre  peu  ou  rien. 

Dedens  la  mer  tous  fleuves  y  ai'rivent, 

Chez  povres  gens,  petitz  bibetz  y  vivent. 

Ap])endix. 

En  la  maison  du  riche  on  porte  tout, 

Du  povre  rien,  ce  qu'il  a  on  luy  tonld. 

Vel. 

Combien  profitte  a  ung  fol  grand  richesse. 

Quand  par  icelle  avoir  ne  peult  sagesse. 


D.  H.  Carnahan — ■■3Iautre  Eloy  du  Mont,  diet  Costentin.      115 


'  10. — Assentator. 

(gnatoni)  Qui  blando  patulas  parasito'  commodat  aures, 

Insanmn  ex  stulto  pectore  pectus  habet. 
(18,  verso)  L'assentateur, 

Si  les  flateurs  escouter  te  conseiis 
De  levite,  devieudras  bors  du  sens. 

Appendix. 
L'assentateur  est  veu,  doulx  et  bcnin. 
Done  la  doulceur  tourne  en  amer  venin. 

17. — Debitor. 
Semper  et  infelix  alieni  debitor  aeris 
Duraque  servili  vincula  mente  gerit. 

Debteur. 
Malbeureux  est  du  bien  d'aultruy  debteur 
Et  n'est  pas  sien,  mais  11  est  serviteur. 

Appendix, 
Soy  obliger  est  chose  voluntaire, 
Mais  le  contract  tenir  est  necessaire. 

18. — Amor. 

Non  amor  antiquo  fuerat  sed  amaror  ab  aevo 
Dicendus,  quum  sit  semper  amarus  amor, 

Amour. 
En  lieu  d'aymer  convenoit  dire  amer, 
Car  d'amertume  va  plus  qu'en  la  mer. 
Appendix. 
(19,  recto)  Amour  disoient  estre  ung  dieu,  mais  ung  dyable, 

Dieu  est  tout  bon,  amour  faulx  et  dampnable. 

19. — Idem. 

Cura  placens,  i^redulce  malum,  tristisque  voluptas 
Heu  vesana  furens  pectora  cecat  amor. 

Icelluj^  amour. 
Folle  amour  est  volupte,  triste  et  brefve, 
Et  ung  doulx  mal  qui  du  sens  les  yeulx  creve. 

Appendix. 
D'ung  pen  de  miel  amour  mondainne  apispe, 
Mais  donne  apprez  de  fiel  plus  d'une  pipe. 

'  Maurus  employs  the  word  "  gnatoni,"  taken  in  its  general  sense  ; — Terence, 
Eunuchus,  3,  2,  33. 


110      D.  IT.  Carnahon — Malstre  Eloy  cln  Mont,  diet  Costentin. 

Vcl. 
De  volnpte  amour  doiinc  une  estrainne, 
Qui  de  douleurs  trop  longue  queue  trainne. 

20. — N'on  amans  sed  amens. 

Si  sapis  amentem  dicas  non  lector  amantem, 
Nam  nihil  insanus  mentis  amator  habet. 

Non  amans  mais  amens. 
Amens  c'est  foul,  dire  on  doit,  non  amans, 
Car  rien  prudent  n'est  en  ces  foulz  amans. 
Appendix. 
(19,  verso)  Le  fol  amant  en  peril  se  va  metre 

Que  bien  il  voit,  mais  de  soy  n'est  pas  maistre. 

2 1 . — Leno. 

Communis  stulte  ])estis  damnosa  juvente, 
Surripit  incantas  leno  dolosus  opes. 

Le  macquereau. 
Le  macquereau  est  peste  de  jeunesse, 
D'imprudens  foulz  consomme  la  richesse. 

Appendix. 
La  lille  on  voit  par  la  mere,  et  la  femrae 
Par  le  maiy,  vendus,  c'est  cas  infame. 

Vel. 
On  doibveroit,  plustot  que  larrons,  pendre 
Houilliers  qu'on  voit  la  chair  humaine  veudre. 

22. — Scortum. 

Non  scortum  est  aliud  nisi  blanda  et  subdola  syren 
Que  trahit  humanum  sub  vada  ceca  genus. 

La  paillarde. 
Une  paillarde,  ainsi  qu'une  serainne. 
Pour  submerger,  attraict  jeunesse  humainne. 
Appendix. 
(20,  recto)  Passer  convient  avec  sourdes  oreilles 

Paillardes,  qui  de  parler  font  merveilles. 

23.— Idem. 
Ad  vivam  scortum  suggens  ut  hyrudo  medullam 
(Paphiam  ex-    Li  paphiam  exharuit  pectora  prona  deam. 

Une  paillarde,  ainsi  qu'ung  sansuc, 
Tire  le  sang  de  jeunesse  deceue. 


D.  H.  CurNahan — Maistre  Eloy  da  Moitt,  diet  Costentin.      117 

Appendix. 
En  faict  d'amonrs  on  ayme  qui  apporte, 
S'il  n'a  plus  rien  on  lay  clorra  la  porte. 

24. — Foemina. 

Cuncta  sub  astrigero  regnantia  crimina  celo, 
Nutrit  in  eternos  femina  nata  dolos. 

La  femme. 
La  femme  nee,  a  fraude  et  a  traison, 
En  ce  raonde  est  de  tons  pechez  poyson. 

Apologie. 
La  femme  aussi  (c'est  la  Vierge  benigne), 
En  ce  monde  est  de  tons  biens  origine. 

Vel. 
(20,  verso)  La  femme  nee  a,  bien  sage  et  docile, 

En  ce  monde  est  de  tons  biens  domicile. 

25. —  Ccqnit  focmineiim. 

Non  si  femineum  crebro  caput  igne  refundas, 
Ingenii  mutes  prima  metalla  sui. 

La  teste  de  femme. 
De  femme  soit  la  teste  refundue, 
El  ne  sera  pas  plus  molle  rendue. 

Apologie. 
Teste  de  femme  a  bonte  si  parfaicte 
Que  pour  refondre  el  n'est  meilleure  faicte. 

20,.— Coitus. 

Turpis  et  est  morbi  species  liorrenda  caduci, 
(Venus)  Cum  jacet  exanimis  post  sua  furta  venus. 

Acte  charnel. 
Acte  charnel  de  nial  caducque  espece, 
Appres  le  faict  I'homme  rend  en  tristesse. 

Appendix. 
L'abbus  est  sot  de  volupte  mondainne, 
Qui  I'homme  rend  en  tristesse  soudainne. 

27. —  Vinum. 

(21,  recto)  Immodicus  ledit  seu  dira  cicuta  lieus,' 

Xon  facit  ad  longam  crapula  multa  diem. 
Le  vin. 

'  The  reading  "  lyaeus,"  given  by  Maurus,   is  preferable  here  and  is  to  be 
taken  in  the  sense  of  "  wine." 


118      D.  IT.  Carnahan — Maistre  Eloy  du  Mont,  diet  Costentin. 

Vin  sujiertiu  comme  eigne  blesso, 
Moult  iiiiyst  exces  a  veiiir  en  viellesse. 

Appendix. 
Exces  de  vin  de  I'homnie  corrompt  I'aago, 
Truble  le  sens,  foul  en  devient  le  saige. 

28. — Ad  blbacem. 

Aebria  ne  titubent  dubio  vestigia  gressu, 
Temperet  apposituni  linipha  refusa  raerum. 

A  I'ivroingne. 
Yvroingne,  affin  que  ne  tumbes  au  vent, 
Ton  vin  convient  d'eau  moderer  souvent. 

Appendix. 
Exces  de  vin  nostre  esprit  faict  changer, 
S'il  est  truble  le  corps  est  en  danger. 

29. — Ad  eundem. 

Non  imos  aepota  pedes  sed  bacchica  snmraum 
(Parcius)  Vis  caput  invadit  parcius  ergo  bibe. 

A  icclluv  vvroingne. 
(21,  verso)  Le  vin  aux  piedz  ne  va  mais  au  cerveau, 

Boy  done  petit  ou  le  modere  d'eau. 

Appendix, 
Le  gouvei'nail  nous  est  sobriete, 
De  gouvernail  n'eut  one  ebriete. 

30. — De  venere  et  baccho. 

Semper  juncta  venit  bibulo  cytherea  lyeo, 
Res  est  inflanians  luxuriosa  merum. 

De  paillardise  et  yvrongnise. 
Avec  le  vin  paillardise  repose, 
Car  le  viji  est  luxurieuse  chose. 

Appendix. 
Luxure  et  vin  rend  riiorame  en  tel  estat 
Que  le  plus  saige  en  devient  apostat. 

Sl.—  Gula. 
(Croesi)  Sint  ignota  licet  niagni  patrimonia  croesi, 

Immensae  absuniunt  alta  barathra  gulae. 

D'un  glouton, 
D'un  ort  ijlouton  le  ventre  insatiable 
Devoreroit  ung  bien  inestimable. 


D.  H.  Carnahan — Maistre  JEloy  da  Mont,  diet  Costetitin.      119 

Appendix. 
(23,  recto)  Gulosite,  excessive  et  infame, 

Consomme  biens  et  destruict  corps  et  ame. 

Vel. 
Estre  subject  a  gourmandise  vile 
Et  volupte  est  chose  trop  servile. 

Vel. 
Superttiiite,  de  grand  povrete  mere, 
Est  en  la  lin  aulx  jioin'mans  tresamere. 


32. —  Otium. 

(forti  celsas)       Corrumpumt  celsas  forti  cum  pectore  mentes 
Otia  plumoso  desidiosa  thoro. 

Oesivette. 
Oesivete  et  long  dormir  en  lict 
Le  corps  puissant  et  coeur  noble  amollist. 

Appendix. 
Oesivete  nous  engendre  peche, 
Les  membres  las  et  I'esprit  empesche. 

33. — Sommcs. 

Quam  vigil  ignavo  demit  solertia  somno, 
Additur  hec  vite  longior  hora  tue. 
Dormir. 
(22,  verso)  L'heure  et  le  temps,  de  long  dormir'ostez, 

Seront  pluslongz  a  la  vie  adjouxtez. 

Appendix. 
Par  trop  dormir  chet  I'homme  en  indigence, 
Biens  on  acquiert  par  bonne  diligence. 

M.—Fama. 

(cleonaeo)  Alta  cleoneo  querenda  est  fama  labore, 

Non  venit  ex  molli  vivida  fama  thoro.. 

Renommee. 
Par  grand  labeur  fault  acquerir  bon  nom, 
De  long  dormir  ne  vient  pas  bon  renom. 

Appendix. 
Sans  batailler  on  n'a  pas  la  victoire, 
Et  sans  labeur  n'auvons  parfaicte  gloire. 

Vel. 
Qui  vault  avoir  bon  nom  et  bonne  grace, 
Parle  tresbien  et  chose  utile  face. 


120      D.  n.  Carna/ian — JLdstrc  Eloy  du  Mont,  diet  Costentin, 

•'55. — Ai'iirns. 

(se  Tautalus)      Semper  eget  sitiens  mediis  ceu  tantalus  uiulis 
Inter  anlielatas  panper  avarus  o^^es. 
L'avaricieux. 
(23,  recto)  Tantalus  est  dedens  I'eau,  sitibunde, 

L'avare  est  povre  en  bien  qui  luy  habunde. 

Appendix, 
Si  content  est  povre  en  biens,  il  est  riche, 
Le  riche  en  biens  est. povre  s'il  est  siche. 

36. — Iiiridus. 

Invida  perpetuis  iirit  praecordia  ilammis 
Incedens  fausto  sors  aliena  pede. 

L'envieux. 
Le  bien  d'aultruy,  i)rosperenient  croissant, 
Brule  le  coeur  d'enuyeux  languissant. 

Appendix. 
Detraction  vient  du  peche  d'envie, 
Qui  la  cause  est  que  mainct  n'est  plus  en  vie. 


(23,  verso) 


37. — Fortuna. 

Vitrea  dum  splendet  vultu  fortuna  sereno, 
Protinus  in  vili  fracta  recumbit  humo. 

Fortune, 
Fortune,  apprez  belle  face  exibee, 
Incontinent  diet  aplat  succumbee. 

Appendix, 
Souvent  fortune  extolle  I'homme  en  hault, 
C'est  pour  apprez  lu}'^  donner  plus  grand  sault. 


(Fonmae)  38. — Amici  fortune. 

Agmina  que  nitido  credis  tidissinia  caelo. 
Nnbe  sub  obscura  terga  fugata  dabunt, 

Amys  de  fortune. 
Aniys  assez  en  ta  felicite 
Qui  te  fu\'ront  en  temps  d'adversite. 

Yel, 
Si  tu  es  riche  auras  assez  d'amis ; 
Si  tu  es  povre  ilz  seront  ennemys. 


D.  H.  Carnahan — Maistre  Eloy  du  Mont,  diet  Costentin,      121 

Appendix. 
Dedens  le  feu  on  faict  de  I'or  espreuve, 
All  grand  besoing  son  amy  on  espreuve. 

39. — Servandus  modusi  in  utraque  fortuna. 

(fractumve)       Ne  dextra  elatum  videat  fractumque  sinistra 
Adsit  fortune  certus  utrique  modus. 

Mesure  est  a  avoir  en  bonne  et  maulvaise  fortune. 
Sans  orgueil  soys  en  fortune  prospere, 
En  malle  aussi  pas  ne  te  desespere, 

Appendix. 
(24,  recto)  C'est  plus  que  tout,  que  tenir  le  moyen, 

Estre  constant  et  en  mal  et  en  bien. 


40. — Adversa  fortuna  tolleranda. 

(Ulisseo)  Perfer  ulisseo  sortem  de  more  sinistram, 

Haec  bene  duranti  sub  pede  victa  jacet. 

Fortune  adverse  porter  convient. 
Comme  Ulisses  pren  la  fortune  triste, 
Vaincre  la  peult  celuy  qui  bien  persists. 

Appendix. 
Prenons  le  temps  ainsi  comme  il  nous  vient, 
En  maulvais  temps  bon  coeur  avoir  convient. 

Vel. 
Pourvoir  convient  a  fortune  future, 
II  n'aura  rien  lequel  ne  s'adventure. 

Vel. 
Effeminez,  de  coeur  lache  et  remys, 
S'il  vient  fortune  ilz  sont  tost  au  bas  mys. 

41. — Advei'sis  succuynhens. 

Casibus  adversis  fracta  qui  mente  recumbit, 
Fortuna  ignorat  dexteriore  frui. 

Qui  succumbe  en  adversitez. 
(24,  verso)  L'irapatient  de  raal  et  d'infortune 

User  ne  peult  de  la  bonne  fortune. 

Appendix. 
Qui  veult  doulceur  congnoistre,  il  fault  qu'il  hume 
Et  qu'il  avail  e  ung  petit  d'amertume. 
Trans.  Conn.  Acad.,  Vol.  XIII.  10  Sept.,  1907. 


122 


D.  II.  Carnahan — Maiatre  Eloy  da  Mont^  diet  Costentin. 


(Hypocrita)  42. —  Ypocrita. 

Ne  pura  explicite  credas  sub  ymagine  froiiti,     . 
Raptorem  occultat  pellis  ovina  lupum. 

L'ypocrite. 
Trop  ne  te  tie  aux  faces  tant  affables, 
Brebis  a  voir,  dessoubz  loupz  ravissables. 

Appendix. 
N'aj'ons  du  tout  aux  vesteraens  credit, 
L'habit  ne  faict  le  moyne,  ainsi  qu'on  diet. 

43. — Idem. 

Exteriora  gerit  qui  simplicis  ora  columbae, 
Interiora  vafrae  pectora  vulpis  habet, 

Icelluy. 
Tel  est  columbe  en  face  exteriore, 
Et  faulx  regnard  en  coeur  interiore. 
Appendix. 
(25,  recto)  Dessoubz  le  miel  est  cache  le  venin, 

Ung  coeur  cruel  soub  visaige  benin. 

44. — Sxiperhia. 

Turgida  ventosos  imitata  superbia  folles 
Pascitur  aerio  corpus  inane  noto 

Orgueil. 
Comment  souffletz  de  leger  vent  grossissent, 
De  vent  de  gloire  orguilleux  soy  nourrissent. 

Appendix. 
Hault  edifice  est  fort  subject  au  vent, 
Des  orgueilleux  I'orgueil  tumbe  souvent. 

Vel. 
L'umbre  est  plus  court  quand  le  soleil  hault  court, 
Par  hault  orgueil  est  faict  I'honneur  plus  court. 

45. —  Venetxis. 

Plumosa  inspiceres  nudatum  corpora  corvum, 
(Veneto)  Reddita  si  veneto  preda  latrone  f oret. 

Le  venitien. 
Venitiens  aussi  nudz  que  le  ver 
Voja-as,  s'ilz  font  de  rendre  leur  debvoir. 
Appendix. 
(25,  verso)  Mainct  faict  le  pan  se  vantant  de  son  bien, 

S'il  estoit  quicLe  il  auroit  moins  que  rien. 


D.  II.  Carnahan — Maistre  Eloy  die  Mont,  diet  Costentin.      123 

(Caesarem  46. — Ad   caescireni  horgia'ni.^ 

Borgiam) 

Ant  nihil,  ant  caesar  vexillo  pingis  inaiii 
(Caesare)  Pro  magno  fies  caesare  stulte  nihil. 

A  Cesar  Bourgias. 
Estre  Cesar  on  rien  te  paingnois  bien, 
Car  pour  Cesar  tu  es  devenu  rien. 

Appendix. 
Qui  par  orgueil  plus  hault  que  ne  doibt  raonte, 
II  doibt  descendre  en  confusible  honte. 

47. — Jnventa. 

Accensa  exardens  flaramata  libidine  pectus, 
Labitur  in  cunctem  prona  juventa  nephas. 

Jeunesse. 
Jeunesse  ardante,  a  volupte  incline, 
Facillement  en  tous  pechez  decline. 

Appendix. 
Cheval  trop  aspre  on  arreste  o  la  bride, 
Jeunesse  ardante  en  luy  baillant  bon  guyde. 
Vel. 
(26,  recto)  A  ung  dure  asne  aguillon  dur  convient, 

Par  corriger  le  foul  saige  devient. 

'  Manrus,  page  65,  gives  the  following  note  upon  this  distich  :  Taxat  arro- 
gantiam  ac  stultitiam  Caesaris  Borgiae  Hispani.  Hie  Alexandri  sexti  tilius  erat 
nihilo  patri  dissimilis,  sive  vitam,  sive  exitum  utriusque ;  aestimes.  Relicto 
cardinalitio  galero  uxorem  duxit,  et  dux  Valentinensis  f actus  est.  Ilium  Italiam 
bello  tentantem  scommatis  Itali  lancinabant :  iste  (inquiunt)  armis  caelum  ter- 
ritat  :  Qnod  admodum  magniloquus,  velet  alter  Thraso,  praetei'ea  minacissimus, 
ac  ferocissimus  esset.  Item  iste  (inquiunt)  arrogantia  gigantum  laborat,  quod 
scilicet  nuUis  viribus,  nullo  concilio,  sed  temerarie  stulteque  ;  rem  tantam  id 
est,  imperium  orbis  aperte  moliretur.  Et  alius  hoc  distichon  ejusdem  sententiae 
in  eundem  sci'ipsit : 

Aut  nihil,  aut  votis  optabas  omnia  Caesar, 

Omnia  deficiunt,  incipis  esse  nihil. 

Ist3  igitur  magnificiis  Thraso,  haec  verba  (aut  nihil,  aut  Caesar)  in  sno  vexillo 
pingi  jusserat,  quorum  sensus  est,  aut  nihil  ero  scilicet :  aut  Caesar,  id  est, 
orbis  debellator,  et  monarcha.     Verum  tandem  miserime  vitam  finivet. 

Ordo.  O.  Borgia  scilicet  ''Pingis,"  id  est :  pingi  facis  "in  vexillo"  id  est,  in 
signo  militari,  "inani"  id  est,  frivolo  et  veri  Caesaris  nomen  non  habenti. 
"  Aut  nihil  aut  Caesar''  id  est,  nihil  memoria  dignum  gerens,  aut  ero  Caesar,  id 
est,  rebus  gestis  clarissimus.  et  imperator  triumphantissimus  "stulte"  id  est, 
o  demens ;  "fies,"  id  est,  eris.  "Nihil,"  id  est,  homo  nuUius  praetii,  ac 
gloriae  ;  "  pro  caesare,"  id  est,  pro  imperatore  ;  "magno,"  id  est  claro. 


124      J).  II.  Carnahan — Maistre  Eloy  dxi  Mont^  diet  Costentin. 

48. — Senecta'. 

(defertt)  Prudentem  exhausto  mentem  pro  robore  defe'rt, 

JMatura  et  lone^a  eocta  senecta  die. 

Vicillesse. 
En  vieilles  gens  pour  force  corporelle 
Sont  bon  conseil,  sens,  raison  naturelle. 

Appendix. 
L'artillerye  est  rien  sans  bonne  amorse, 
Sans  bon  conseil  ne  sert  beaucoup  la  force. 

Vel. 
Force  de  corps  ne  conduict,  mais  sagesse, 
Les  faictz  arduz  en  quoy  reluist  vieillesse. 

49. — Ficiis  gallica  ad  Jo.  Huseum. 

(Gallia)  Fertilis  at  rai*as   gignit  quas  gallia  ficus 

Accipe,  nam  raros  non  nisi  rara  decent. 

Figues  gallicques  a  Jehan  Rusey. 
Fignes  re9oy  qui  peu  en  France  viennent, 
A  gens  de  prix  precieux  dons  con  viennent. 
Appendix, 
(26,  verso)  On  ne  doit  pas  extoller  en  honneur 

Du  tout  le  don,  mais  le  coeur  du  donneur. 

50. —  Garrxdxis. 

Extremum  ad  malum  primo  quae  obtundit  ab  ovo 
Vitanda  est  mense  garrula  pica  tuae. 

Le  garrule. 
Homme  importun,  a  parler  sans  raison. 
Ne  i^ermectras  menger  en  ta  maison. 

Appendix. 
Langue  est  a  craindre,  en  bouche  d'envieux, 
Plus  que  le  glaive  en  main  de  furieux, 

51. — Denies, 

Natura  omniparens  dentes  formavit  acutos 
Ne  vaga  sed  claustris  lingua  sit  arcta  suis. 

Les  dentz. 
Les  dentz  agus  nous  a  forme  nature 
Pour  contenir  la  langue  en  sa  closture. 


D.  JL  Carnahan — Maistre  Eloy  du  Mont^  diet  Costentin.      125 

Appendix. 
Huys  et  seiTeure  a  la  bouche  ordonnez, 
Long  et  balance  aux  parolles  donnez.  • 

Vel. 
(27,  recto)  De  la  parolle  ayns  que  parler  suys  maistre, 

Quand  el  est  hors  servant  m'en  suis  faictestre. 

Vel. 
Ayns  que  parler  ayons  le  souvenir 
Que  parler  va  et  ne  peult  revenir. 

52.— Li7igiia. 

Quid  melius  lingua?  lingua  quid  pejus  eadem  ? 
Tristis  cum  dulci  toxica  melle  gerit. 

La  langue. 
Qu'est  il  plus  bon  et  plus  maulvais  que  langue  ? 
Miel  et  venin  el  porte  en  sa  harengue. 

Appendix. 
Le  gouvernail  la  net"  garde  ou  destruict, 
La  langue  I'homme  a  bien  ou  mal  instruict. 

Vel. 
Le  gouvernail  et  la  langue  conduysent 
Navire  et  bomme,  ou  du  tout  les  destruysent. 

oS.— Fides. 

Aurea  quam  sancto  coluerunt  secula  ritu 
Aut  nulla  aut  nostro  est  tempore  rara  fides. 
La  foy. 
(27,  verso)  Des  anciens  la  foy  si  bien  gardee, 

Au  temps  present  n'est  plus  que  foy  fardee. 

Appendix. 
Qui  pert  sa  foy  a  perdre  n'a  plus  rien, 
La  foy  en  I'homme  est  ung  excellent  bien. 

54. — Homo. 

Quid  genus  aifectas  vitam  mortale  perennem 
(brevi)  Cum  sis  momento  bulla  caduca  (         ) 

L'homme. 
Pourquoy  tousjours  veult  vivre  au  monde  I'homme, 
C'est  ung  bouillon  qui  sur  I'eau  tost  consomme. 


126      D.  II.  f'arnahan — Maistre  Eloy  du  Mont^  diet  Costeniin. 

■  ,  Appendix. 

En  nasquissant  commen§ons  a  mourir, 
Et  vers  la  mort  ne  cessons  de  courir. 

Vel. 
Convient  il  tant  ce  povre  corps  nourrir 
Lequel  sera  demain  mis  a  pourrir. 

55. — 3fors. 

Clam  venit  orta  metens  aequa  mors  omnis  falce 
Hinc  habet  incertam  nescia  vita  diem. 

La  mort. 
(28,  recto)  En  secret  vient  la  mort  tout  devoraute, 

Parquoy  la  vie  est  son  terme  ignorante. 

Appendix. 
Tous  quand  an  naistre  et  mourir  sont  semblables. 
En  vivre  sont  sqeullement  dissemblables. 

Vel. 
Le  serviteur  qui  ne  s9oit  quand  son  maistre 
Doibt  revenir,  tousjours  veillant  doit  est  re. 

56. — Mors  hand  timenda. 

Tensa  quid  horrescis  missuram  spicula  mortem  ? 
(est)  Non  mors,  sed  passi  (     )  nieta  suprema  mali. 

Mort  non  a  craindre. 
Pourquoy  de  mort  crains  tu  le  gleve  extreme  ? 
Mort  n'est  pas  mort  mais  de  mal  fin  supreme. 

Appendix. 
Qui  parvenir  veult  a  vie  parfaicte, 
Passer  convient  la  mort  palle  et  infaicte. 

Vel. 
Qui  soeullement  ton  corps  poui'roit  occire 
Ne  crain,  mais  qui  ton  ame  peult  destruire. 

57. — Servvs. 

(28,  verso)  Quis  non  servili  dominus  fraudatur  ab  arte  • 

Prodigium  servus  grande  fidelis  erit. 

Le  serviteur. 
Qui  ji'est  trompe  des  servans  cautelleux  ? 
Servant  XojdA  est  cas  miraculeux. 


D.  H.  Carnahan — Mcdstre  Eloy  du  Mont,  diet  Costentin.      127 

Appendix. 
A  tart  on  treuve  amytie,  si  non  faincte, 
En  cestuyla  qui  ne  sert  que  j^ar  crainte. 

58. —  Uxor  dignitatis  nomen  non  voluptatis. 

Nomina  seposita  veneranda  libidine  gestat 
Quam  junxit  casto  copula  sancta  thoro. 

Uxor  nom  de  dignite  non  point  de  volupte. 
Ce  nom  de  femme  est  de  grand  dignite 
En  mariage,  hors  toute  volupt6. 

Appendix. 
C'est  I'orneraent  de  I'homme  que  la  femme, 
La  concubine  au  contraire  diffame. 

Vel. 
Par  mariage  ung  enffant  en  bas  aage 
Est  faict  sage  et  estime  plus  saige. 

Vel. 
(39,  recto)  Diet  paradis  mariage  peult  estre, 

Car  dieu  le  fist  en  paradis  terrestre. 

Vel. 
Priser  sa  femme,  aymer  et  craindre,  reste, 
Et  estimer,  ainsi  qu'un  don  celeste. 

59. —  Uxor  oh  soholem  ducenda. 

Uxor  habenda  venit,  non  ut  saturata  libido 
(si)  Sed  sit  in  aeternos  aucta  propago  dies. 

La  femme  pour  avoir  lignie. 
Pour  volupte  marie  ne  fault  estre, 
Mais  pour  lignee  et  gerre  bumain  acroistre. 

Appendix. 
Sans  volupte  de  femme  fault  user, 
De  mariage  on  peult  bien  abusei", 

"  Vel. 
Qui  maintenir  ne  soy  peult  en  honneur, 
Soy  marier  fault,  en  nostre  Seigneur. 

60. —  Curia. 

Larga  quidem  magnos  promittit  curia  montes 
L'rita  sed  rapidis  verba  feruntur  aquis. 
La  court. 
(29,  verso)  Ce  sont  baultz  montz,  que  promesses  de  court, 

Mais  aval  I'eau  bien  tost  cela  s'en  court. 


128      JJ.  II.  Carnahan — JMaist^'e  Eloy  da  Mont,  diet  Costentin. 

Appendix. 
Grand  promecteur  est  souvent  grand  menteur, 
De  petit  faict  on  voit  nng  grand  vanteur. 

Vel. 
Nil!  escondire  au  prince  est  moult  louable, 
Mais  la  requeste  estre  doit  raisonnable. 

01. — Eadem  curia. 

Quam  bene  conveniens  sortita  est  curia  nomen 
A  gravibus  ciiris  curia  dicta  venit. 

Icelle  court. 
La  court,  on  diet,  en  latin  curia, 
Car  en  la  court  grand  soing  et  cure  y  a. 

Appendix. 
A  voir,  en  court,  niaistres  et  varletz  faire. 
On  ne  congnoist  lesquelz  out  pludaffaire. 

Q^.—Pax. 

Securus  placida  mundus  sub  pace  quiescit 
(alta)  Tranquillum  est  sumnii  opus  alma  dei. 

La  paix. 
(30,  recto)  Soubz  paix  on  vit  en  repos  pacificque, 

Tranquille  paix  vient  du  hault  dieu  celicque. 

Appendix. 
Le  petit  bien  est  faict  grand  par  concorde, 
Le  grand,  petit,  ou  sont  guerre  et  discorde. 

63. — Bdlam. 

Persurit,  et  totum  miscet  mars  impius  orbem 
(est)  (Jove)         Heu  diro  inventa  (     )  sub  jove  tanta  lues. 

La  guerre. 
Guerre  et  descord  troublont  toute  la  terre, 
Soubz  Jupiter  trouvee  f ut  la  guerre. 

Appendix. 
Guerre  on  ne  doit  en  ce  monde  mouvoir. 
Si  non  pour  paix  plus  grande  appres  avoir. 

64. — Incletnentia  bellica. 

Nulla  est  ardenti  miserans  dementia  bello 
Impetuosa  pium  dextera  nescit  opus. 
Inclemence  bellicqne. 


D.  H.  Carnahan — Maistre  Eloy  da  3Iont,  diet  Costentin.      129 


Fureur  bellicqiie  est  sans  raisericorde, 
Bras  furieux  a  mercy  ne  s'accorde. 
Appendix. 
(30,  verso)  Contendre  a  force  est  aux  bestes  cruelles, 

L'homme  en  parler  doit  mener  ses  querelles. 

65. — Ilaud  esse  post  victoriani  seviendam. 
(triumpho)         Bellica  quaesito  frenanda  est  ira  thriurapho. 
Hand  sevit  doraito  nobilis  hoste  manus. 

Cruel  ne  convient  estre  apres  la  victoire. 
Ne  soys  cruel,  I'ennemy  desconffit, 
A  noble  coeur  d'avoir  vaincu  suffist. 

Appendix. 
Vaincre  est  assez  sans  faire  cruaulte, 
Le  noble  coeur  de  vaincre  est  contente. 

Vel. 
Le  dl'oict  garder,  I'ennemy  prins,  conseille, 
Si  ce  n'estoit  en  rendant  la  pareille. 

Vel. 
Par  obayr,  le  lion  on  modere, 
L'homme  raison  estre  en  soy  considere. 

Vel. 
Celuy  qui  prins  est  en  captivite, 
Que  peult  il  plus  faire  d'hostilite. 

66.— Int.    ^ 
(31,  recto)  Sanguine  scintillans  ferventi  nascitur  ira 

Quae  semper  domina  mente  domanda  venit. 

Ire. 
Du  sang  fervent  embrasee  ire  vient, 
Mais  par  raison  refroyder  la  convient. 

Appendix. 
Par  ire  vient  au  vys  deformite, 
Et  meet  I'esprit  hors  de  tranquillite. 

Vel. 
Qui  ne  modere  ire  par  patience, 
II  pert  raison  et  si  n'a  pas  science. 

67. — Bomharda . 

Si  celsum  quateret  moles  bombardica  caelum. 
Tota  foret  capto  machina  strata  jove. 
La  bombarde. 


180      T).  II.  (%iniahan — Maistre  Eloy  da  Mont,  diet  Costentin. 


Si  la  bombarde  au  ciel  pouvoit  toucher, 
(Jupiter  prins),  feroit  tout  trebucher. 

Appendix. 
L'artillerie  est  argument  fecunde, 
Que  bien  pres  est,  par  feu,  la  fin  du  monde. 
Vel. 
(31,  verso)  L'artillerie  erapesche  en  bataillant 

Que  congneu  soit  lequel  est  plus  vaillaiit. 

(Justitia)  08. — Jiisticia. 

(librataque)       Aequa  gerit  rectam  librat  quae  pondera  lancem 
(Justitia)  Justicia  immota  firma  tenaxque  manu. 

Justice. 
Juste  ballance  en  sa  main  tient  justice, 
Done  justeraent  de  peser  faict  I'ofiice. 

Appendix. 
Ung  prince  avoir  doit  I'espee  ou  la  lance 
En  une  main,  en  I'autre  la  ballance. 

69. — Prudens. 

Quisquis  es  o  prudens  janum'  sectare  bifrontem 
(videnda)  Sunt  ora  atque  oculis  terga  vidend  tuis. 

Le  prudent. 
Toy  qui  prudent  veulx  estre  en  la  maniere 
Du  bon  Janus,  voy  devant  et  desriere. 

Appendix. 
Nostre  esprit  soit  a  troys  temps  dispence, 
Au  temps  present,  preterit,  et  passe. 
Vel. 
(32,  recto)  H  est  brutal  et  de  prudence  exempt, 

Qui  seullement  regarde  au  temps  present. 

Vel. 
En  tons  lieux  est  le  present  estime. 
Pour  le  present  on  en  est  myeulx  ayme. 

"■^O.—Fortis. 

Instanti  veniunt  subeunda  pericula  casu, 
(angustis)  Rebus  in  adversis  fortia  corda  patent. 

Le  fort. 


^  The  old  Italian  deilj'.  represented  with  a  face  on  the  front  and  another  on 
the  back  of  his  head. 


D.  H.  Carnahan — Maistre  Eloy  du  3Iont,  diet  Costentin.      131 


Contre  fortune  il  convient  qu'on  resiste, 
En  faictz  ardus,  coeur  vertueux  consiste. 

Appendix. 
Force' et  vertn  sont  Lien  raanifestc'Z 
En  ceulx  qui  sont  de  fortune  infestez. 

'71. — Modestus. 

Servanda  in  rebus  praefixa  est  meta  gerendis, 
Non  excessa  pudens  facta  modestus  amat. 

Le  modeste. 
Mesure  on  doit  garder  en  tout  eifect, 
L'lionime  attrenipe  rien  excessif  ne  faict. 
Appendix. 
(32,  verso)  Ne  fay  rien  trop,  ta  puissance  mesure, 

Toute  vertu  pert  son  nom  sans  mesure, 

72. — Lex. 

Lex  sancta  humanae  ducta  est  qua  regula  vite 
Deraissum  aetliereo  munus  ab  orbe  venit. 

La  loy. 
La  saincte  loy,  qui  regist  vie  humaine. 
Est  don  venant  de  celeste  dommainne. 

Appendix. 
Ou  loy  n'est  pas,  aussi  non  est  justice, 
Sans  ce,  n'avons  de  bien  vivre  notice. 

Vel. 
D'administrer  les  loix  n'est  suffisant, 
Lequel  veult  estre  aulx  loix  contredisant. 

73. — Juris  decreta. 

Si  sublata  forent  Juris  decreta  verenda, 
Vinceret  immanes  barbara  vita  feras. 

Les  decretz  de  droict. 
Si  droictz  estoient  cassez  et  abbatus, 
Humains  vivroient  brutaulx  et  sans  vertus. 
Appendix. 
(33,  recto)  Craincte  des  droictz,  de  mal  faire  retarde, 

Et  le  pais  bien  vivant  en  paix  garde. 

(voluminum)      74. —  Comburenda  in  leges  volumina  massa. 

Emissa  in  sacras  numerosa  volumina  leges 
(Phetontea)        Sunt  phaetontea  tedia  digna  face. 

La  masse  des  volumes  sur  les  loix  est  bonne  a  brusler. 


132      D.  II.  Carnahan — Maistre  Kloy  du  Mont,  did  Costentin. 

Tant  sur  Ics  loix,  comnientz  accumulez, 
Sont  longs  ennuys  dignes  d'estre  brulez. 

Appendix. 
Texte  de  droict  est  trop  plus  nianifeste 
Que  vieulx  commentz  faictz  sus  icelluy  texte. 

Vel. 
Deesus  le  texte  est  chose  trop  confuse, 
Que  tant  commentz  (jui  les  espritz  abuse. 


I   T. 


(33,  verso) 


Imperitus  legum  doctor. 
Icturus  nullam  centeno  verbere  legem 
Non  legem  es  doctor  (vane)  quid  ergo  '?  dolor, 

Le  non  expert  docteur  de  loix. 
Qui  d'alleguer  une  loy  n'a  pas  I'heur, 
En  loix  docteur,  il  n'est  quoy  done  ?  douleur. 

Appendix. 
Maint  grassement  de  la  science  vit, 
Qui  le  dedens  du  livre  onques  ne  vit. 


76. — Sorhoniciis. 

Sorbonica  invictus  lucta  quicunque  redisti, 
(Herculeas)         Tu  potes  herculeas  spernere  tutus  opes. 

Le  Sorbonicque. 
Qui  peult  sortir  de  Serbonne  vainqueur 
Craindre  ne  doibt  Heurcules  belliqueur. 

Appendix. 
D'icelluy  est  la  victoire  louable. 
Qui  vaincre  peult  Sathan,  monde  et  le  dyable. 

Vel. 
Quiconque  est  roy  de  soy  mesmes  et  maistre, 
C'est  plus  grand  cas  que  roy  des  aultres  estre. 


H.  —  ISopJiista. 

Caprinae  nugas  lanae'  si  poscis  inanes 
Steutorea  exclamans  voce  sojjbista  dabit. 

Le  sophiste. 
Si  disputer  veulz  de  lainne  caprine, 
Ou}^'  convient  sophisticque  doctrine. 


'  Horace,  Ep.,  1,  18,  15; — "  Alter  rixatiir  de  lana  saepe  caprina,  propiignat 
nugisarmatus." 


D.  H.  Carnahan — Maistre  Eloy  du  Mont,  diet  Costentin,      133 


Appendix. 
(34,  recto)  Mainct  par  crier  s'esforce  d'apparoistre 

Estre  s§avant  quand  S9avant  ne  peult  estre. 

78. — Medicus  illustris. 

(Apolinea)         Clarus  apolinea  medicus  qui  fulgeat  arte 
Extat  adoranda  ceu  deus  alter  ope. 

Medecin  illustre. 
Bon  medecin  de  s9avoir  decore, 
Ainsi  que  Dieu  il  doit  estre  adore. 

Appendix. 
De  I'ame  et  corps,  la  sante  Dieu  nous  donne, 
Le  medecin  de  nostre  corps  ordonne. 

79. — Medicus  indoctus. 
(ducam)  Cum  dicam  culo  merdam  egrotantem  cacatam, 

Non  ementito  merdicus  ore  vocor. 

Medecin  mdocte. 
Si  tirer  puis  raerde  du  cul  de  I'homme, 
Sans  en  mentir  merdecin  on  me  nomme. 

Appendix. 
Mainct  abuseur  entreprent  faire  bien 
line  besoingne  ou  il  ne  congnoist  rien. 
Vel. 
(34,  verso)  Mainct  imprudent  entreprent  faire  tout, 

Lequel  jamais  de  rien  ne  vient  a  bout. 

80. — Philosojihus  naturalis. 

Foelix  cui  nota  est  naturae  caussa  latentis, 
At  sua  qui  noscat  pectora  rarus  adest. 

Le  philosophe  naturel. 
Qui  bien  congnoist  les  causes  heureux  est, 
Mais  rare  il  est  lequel  bien  se  congnoist. 

Appendix. 
Faulte  de  sens  et  de  bien  se  congnoistre, 
L'bomme  couard  et  sujjerbe  faict  estre. 

81. — Socrates. 

(Olympo)  Morigeram  ex  alto  sophiam  qui  traxit  olimpo, 

(Actaeum)  Sustulit  acteuni  sorpta  cicuta  senem. 

Socrate. 


134      D.  H.  Carnahan — Maistre  Eloy  du  Mont^  diet  Coslentin. 

Par  Socrate  viut  morale  science, 
Boyre  on  luy  list  cicue  en  recompense. 

Appendix. 
Ingratitude  en  vers  hommes  et  dieux 
Siir  tons  pechez  est  le  plus  odieux. 

Sfi. — Astrologus. 

(35,  recto)  Mirum  quum  toto  noscat  stata  sidera  celo, 

(an)  Nesciat  in  patria  mecha  sit  uxor  humo. 

L'astrologue. 
Au  ciel  congnoist  l'astrologue  et  regarde, 
Et  ne  congnoist  si  sa  femme  est  paillarde. 

Appendix. 
Pas  n'est  certain  cestuy  la  qui  devine, 
Car  deviner  n'est  science  divine. 

83, —  Furor  poeticus. 

Vatibus  aeternis  caelo  descendit  ab  alto, 
Ad  nova  divinus  tacta  canenda  furor, 

Fureur  poeticque. 
Fureur  divin  aulx  poetes  descend 
Pour  composer  nouveaulx  gestes  decent. 

Appendix. 
Nominer  I'en  peult  divins  et  sainctz  poetes, 
Ceulx  qui  de  dieu  ont  este  vray's  prophettes. 


84, —  Orator. 

(fulmen)  Intonat  aetherea  ceu  missum  mimem  ab  arce, 

Concita  fulgurei  lingua  diserta  viri. 
L'orateur. 
(35,  verso)  De  l'orateur  la  langue  est  vehemente, 

Ainsi  qu'en  I'air  la  fouldre  qui  tourmente. 

Appendix. 
Ung  orateur  acoraplit  mainct  Taff'aire 
Qu'on  ne  s9auroit  par  force  d'armes  faire. 

Vel, 
Ung  orateur  rompt  la  fureur  des  princes, 
Amys  les  faict  au  grand  bien  des  provinces. 
Vel. 


D.  H.  (kirnahau — MaUtre  Eloy  da  Mont,  diet  Costentin.      135 

Doulce  parolle,  ire  et  couroux  supprirae, 
Rude  parolle,  ire  et  couroux  aniine. 

Vel. 
Le  doulx  parler,  diet  on^  n'escorche  langue, 
Et  beaucoup  peult  une  doulce  harangue. 

85. — Poete  presentis  seculi. 

Delphica  non  redolens  aftiantia  numina  carmen, 
Secula  sed  faetens  nostra  cacamen  habent. 

Les  poetes  du  temps  present. 
Dire  ne  fault  le  carme  redolent, 
Du  temps  present,  mais  le  carme  dolent. 
Appendix. 
(36,  recto)  Humains  sont  linx  a  voir  d'aultruy  le  faict, 

Mais  taulpes  sont  en  I'oevre  qu'ilz  ont  faict. 

Vel. 
Sur  tous  oyseaulx  bien  pense  le  corbeau 
Avoir  ung  chant  fort  doulx  et  le  coi'ps  beau. 

86. —  Oratores  ejusdem  aetatis. 

Creditur  orator  nostrum  quicumque  per  evura. 
Si  verum  excutias  nomen  arator  erit. 
Les  orateurs  de  ce  temps. 
Celuy  qu'on  croit  en  ce  temps  orateur, 
S'on  cherche  bien  son  nom  est  arateur. 

Appendix. 
Qui  bien  syait  Part  de  bien  dire,  il  congnoist 
Quand  de  parler  le  temps  oportun  est. 

87. — Pontifex  maximus. 

Praeficitur  pastor  baculo  munitus  adunco, 
Ut  vigili  errantes  lumine  servet  oves. 

Le  tresgrand  pontife. 
Pasteur  avons  de  houlette  muny 
Pour  son  troupeau  garder  ensemble  uny. 
Appendix. 
(36,  verso)  Dieu  pour  pasteur  le  pape  a  mis  au  monde 

Pour  conserver  I'ouaille  pure  et  munde. 

Vel. 
Le  bon  pasteur  doit  corps  et  ame  mectre 
En  deffendant  I'ouaille,  done  est  maistre. 


136      D.  H.  Carnahan — 3Iaistre  Eloy  du  Mont,  diet  Costentin. 

88. —  Cardinalis. 

Hie  habet  a  fixo  deductum  cardine  nonien, 
Debeat  ut  firniam  sustinuisse  fidem. 

Le  cardinal. 
De  cardo,  gout,  cardinal  peult  venir, 
Car  gout  doit  estre  a  la  foy  soustenir. 

Appendix, 
Ainsi  que  I'huys  au  gond  ferme  soy  tient, 
Ung  cardinal  la  foy  ferme  soustient. 

89. — Ad  eundem. 
(purpura)  Monstrat  sanguineam  fundes  tua  purpurea  vitam, 

Clavigerum  invadunt  cum  fera  bella  thronum. 

A  icelluy. 
Aulx  cardinaulx  le  rouge  donne  entendre 
Que  jusqu'  au  sang  la  foy  doibvent  deffendre. 
Appendix. 
(37,  recto)  Pas  u'est  crestien  qui  refuse  raourir, 

Quand  besoing  est,  pour  la  foy  secourir, 
Vel. 
.  Tous  roys  fran9oys  pour  leur  ferme  soustien 
Envers  la  foy,  ont  nom  de  treschrestien. 

n  0 . — Ep  iscop  us. 

Caetera  quo  superet  meditanti  pectora  sensu, 
Imposita  ex  ipsis  nomina  rebus  habet. 

L'evesque. 
Des  siens  a  soing  l'evesque  en  diligence, 
Si  du  nom  suyt  la  vraye  intelligence. 

Appendix, 
Evesque  est  nom  digne  d'homme  prudent, 
Qui  vault  autant  que  superintendent. 

Vel. 
Pasteurs  rendront  de  leurs  brebis  le  compte, 
S'ilz  perdent  rien  le  rendront  a  grand  lioute. 

9-1.— Lis. 
(misero  fiet)       Hie  brevi  fiet  misero  mendicior  iro,' 
Tristia  qui  litis  bella  forensis  amat. 
Proces. 


'  The  name  of  the  beggar  in  the  house  of  Ulysses  at  Ithaca.     Maurus  writes 
this  word  with  a  capital  letter. 


D.  11.  Carnahan — Maistre  Eloy  (hi  Mont,  diet  Costentin.      137 

(37,  verso)  Povre  et  meschant,  plus  qu'Irus,  cleviendra 

Qui  de  procez  la  guei-re  enti'etiendra. 

Appendix. 
Proces  ingrat  servez  et  aymez  bien, 
II  vous  fera  perdre  tout  vostre  bien. 

Vel. 
Proces  est  lac  et  gouffre  si  pi'ofund 
Que  tout  le  bien  qu'on  peult  avoir  y  fond. 

Vel. 
Tant  plus  aymez  faulx  et  traistre  procez, 
Et  d'autant  plus  vous  fei-a  de  I'excez. 

Vel. 
A  faulx  procez  tant  plus  on  bailie  et  tend, 
Tant  plus  en  veult,  jamais  il  n'est  content. 

92. — Poeta  alienus  a  lite. 

Litigiosa  fugit  studiosus  jurgia  vates, 
Non  amat  insanum  musa  quieta  forum. 

Le  poete  doibt  estre  aliene  de  proces. 
Triste  proces  soingneux  poete  fuyt, 
Muse  transquille  hayt  de  plaider  le  bruit. 
(38,  recto)  Appendix. 

Qui  veult  latin  ou  fran9oys  composer, 
Toute  aultre  affaire  il  convien  deposer. 

93. — Mercator  perficlus. 

Perjurata  suo  postponit  numina  luci'o, 
(Stygiis)  Mercator  stigiis  non  nisi  dignus  aquis. 

Le  marchant  desloyal. 
Marchant  prepose  an  bault  Dieu  qu'il  blaspheme, 
Son  gaing  mondain  digne  d'enfer  extreme. 

Appendix. 
Quel  proffict  estre  a  I'homme  ou  a  la  femme 
De  gaingner  tout  le  monde  et  perdre  I'ame. 

94. — Re:e,  aculeo  carens. 

Quid  metuis  princeps  diro  caret  inclitus  oestro, 
Non  facit  ad  magnos  ultio  seva  duces. 

Le  roy  est  sans  aguillon. 
Crains  tu  le  roy  sans  aguillon  de  hayne, 
Aulx  grandz  seigneurs  est  vengeance  inhumainne. 
Trans.  Conn.  Acad.,  Vol.  XIII.  11  Sept.,  1907. 


138     D.  H.  Carnahtin — 3Iaistre  Eloy  du  Mont,  diet  Costentin. 

Ap})ondix. 
En  graiulz  seigneurs,  coleres  et  credules, 
Ne  A^ous  tiez  ])lus  qu'en  derriere  de  mules, 
Vel. 
(38,  verso)         Mansietude  en  prince  avec  justice 

Joincte  doit  estre,  aultrement  seroit  vice. 

Vel. 
Ung  prince  user  de  benevole  face 
Aulx  humbles  doibt,  aux  superbss  d'audace. 

95. — Promissum  regium. 

(stent)  Stant  fixa  aeternum  regalia  sponsa  per  aevum, 

Servanda  exposcunt  regia  verba  fidem. 

Promesse  de  roy. 
Ferme  a  jamais  soit  promesse  de  roy, 
II  est  requis  aux  roys  garder  leur  foy. 

Appendix. 
Dieux  terriens,  sont  dictz  princes  et  roys,. 
Tout  U'ur  parler  sont  oracles  ou  loix. 

Vel. 
Quiconque  accorde  une  requeste  injuste 
Rien  ne  promect  quand  la  chose  n'est  juste. 

Vel. 
Qui  promect  cas  que  I'on  doibt  escondire 
Ne  promect  rien,  il  ne  faict  que  le  dire 

96. —  l^oluj^tas  et  virtus. 

(39,  recto)  It  male  praestanti  dispar  virtute  voluptas, 

Hinc  dolor  aeternus  inde  perennis  honor. 

Volupte  et  vertu. 
Volupte  vile  a  vertu  moult  differe, 
L'une  doulleur  et  I'autre  honneur  confere. 

Appendix. 
Volupte  gist  en  plaisir  transitore, 
Vertu  en  bien  d'eternelle  memoii'e. 

Vel. 
A  nobles  coeurs  le  vivre  en  liberte 
Est  trop  plus  doulx  que  vivre  en  volupte. 

Vel. 
Volupte  mainne  apres  so}'  villennie, 
Noble  vertu,  honneur,  glore  infinie, 

Vel. 


D.  II.  (Jarnahan — Maistre  Eloy  da  Mont.,  diet  (Jostentin.      139 

Ainsi  qu'a  lain  on  voit  le  poisson  prins, 
En  volupte  on  voit  niondains  surprins. 

,  97. —  2\irpis  et  formosiis. 

Turpis  ut  est  pulchra  facies  virtuie  nitenda, 
Sic  nitida  labes  fronte  linenda  venit. 
Le  laid  et  le  bean. 
(39,  verso)  De  corps  deforme  estainct  vertu  I'injure, 

D'elegant  viz  convient  purger  I'ordiire. 

Appendix. 
Deformite  par  vertu  est  couverte, 
Et  par  vertu  beaulte  est  plus  apperte. 

98. — Puer  fiiigendus  ah  optimo  artifice. 

Cerens  est  docto  fingendus  pollice  vultus, 
(Prometheum)    Ora  prometheura  pulchra  venustat  opus. 

L'eufant  doibt  estre  instruict  d'un  bon  ouvrier. 
Le  jeune  enfant  ait  maistre  docte  et  saige, 
Le  bon  ouvrier  decore  bien  I'ouvraige. 

Appendix. 
Mainct  precepteur  parle  bien  de  vertu, 
Duquel  le  coeur  est  de  vice  vestu. 

Vel. 
C'est  rien  qu'avoir  vertu  en  son  langaige, 
S'el  n'est  au  coeur  et  en  prendre  I'usaige. 

Vel.  • 
En  donnant  maistre  a  ton  iilz,  le  langaige 
Ne  voy  du  tout  mais  vegarde  I'ouvraige. 

Vel. 
(40,  recto)  Du  pere  on  voit  enfans  I'engin  avoir, 

Les  escolliers  du  maistre  le  sijavoir, 

Vel. 
Le  pere  et  mere  aulx  enfans  donnent  vivre, 
Le  precepteur  bien  vivre  leur  delivre. 

99. — 3Iens. 
(diffusa)  Divina  humanos  mens  est  infusa  per  artus, 

Cogitet  ut  spreto  facta  superna  solo. 

L'ame. 
L'ame  est  au  corps  pour  contempler  les  cieulx 
En  contempnant  terrestres  et  bas  lyeux. 


140      D.  H.  Carnahan — Maistre  Eloy  du  Mont,  diet  Costentin. 

Appendix, 
Charnelz  ont  soing  de  I'homme  exteriore 
Bien  preparer,  I'effans  I'interiore. 

Vel. 
Pourceau  I'ordure  anx  belles  fleurs  prepose, 
L'homme  cbarnel  I'atne  a  son  corps  postpose. 

100. — A)incus   reconciliatus. 

Gratia  que  coeat  ficti  male  sarta  sodalis, 
(yeluti)  (Siculo  Est  velut  in  siculo  scylla  cavenda  mari. 

L'amy  reconcilie. 
Fuy  cestuyla  comme  peril  en  raer, 
Qui  t'a  deceu  soubz  urabre  de  t'aymer. 

Appendix. 
Plus  a  craindre  est  I'enneray  familier 
Seul,  que  ne  sont  aultres  plus  d'un  millier. 


Scylla) 
(40,  verso) 


101. —  Generosus. 

Acceptum  duplici  munus  cum  foenore  reddit, 
Vincitur  baud  larga  mens  generosa  manu. 

Le  noble. 
Au  double  rend  I'homme,  arme  de  noblesse, 
Vaincre  on  ne  peult  noble  coeur  par  largesse. 

Appendix. 
Dieu  et  le  monde  ingratitude  en  hainne 
Ont  grandement,  car  I'offence  est  villainne. 


(41,  recto) 


(Croese) 


102. — Metiende  vires. 

Ardua  ne  subeas  ignota  pondera  molis, 
Ni  bene  sint  tergi  robora  mensa  tui. 

On  doibt  congnoistre  sa  puissance. 
N'entrepren  fais  trop  ardu  ne  pesant, 
Si  lu  ne  S9ais  ton  povoir  suffisant. 

Appendix. 
Qui  trop  embrasse,  on  diet,  que  pen  estrainct, 
L'oeuvre  imparfaict  foul  laisser  est  contrainct. 

103. — Nemo  foelix  ante  ohitum. 

Ne  quisquam  extrema  foelix  nisi  morte  vocetur, 
Instruis  accenso  Craese  ligate  rogo. 

Nul  homme  eureux  avant  sa  mort. 


D.  H.  Carnahan- — Maistre  Eloy  dit  Mont^  diet  Costentin.      141 

Cresus  instruict  par  ung  cas  douloureux, 
Qu'aulcun  ne  soit  ains  la  mort  diet  heureux. 

Appendix. 
Mainct  pensant  boire,  a  la  main  tient  sa  tasse 
Plainne  de  vin  qui  malgre  soy  s'en  passe. 

104. —  Gallic  senatores. 
(Jiistitiae)  Justicia  e  summo  terras  jove  missa  per  omnes, 

Gallorum  elegit  tecta  verenda  patrum. 

Les  senateurs  de  France. 
Justice  en  terre  envoyee  de  Dieu, 
Chieux  senateurs  de  France  a  prins  son  lieu. 

Appendix. 
Quand  bien  aymee  est  justice  d'un  prince, 
Elle  ^ura  regne  en  toute  sa  province. 

(Dares)  105. — Ne  dhares  cum  entello^ 

(41,  verso)  (Si-  Ne  siculo  phrigius  cano  decertet  ephebus, 
^         Fortius  a  lasso  stant  sola  fixa  bove. 

Que  Dares  ne  combate  avec  Entellus. 
Arrogamment  le  jeune  ne  bataille 
Contre  le  vieil  trop  ruse  en  bataille. 

Vel. 
Le  jeune  au  vieil  ne  se  vueille  debattre, 
Le  vieil  est  ferrae  et  ruse  a  combatre. 

Appendix. 
Pour  la  victoire  avoir,  plus  faiet  prudence 
Que  ne  faict  force  ou  grande  violence. 

106. — Soli  christo  qui  est  Alpha  et  fl,  honor  et  gloria. 
(litera)  Prima  rudimenti  supremaque  littera  graii, 

(Christe)  Danda  uni  est  dexter  gloria  cbriste  tibi. 

A  seul  Christ  commencement  et  tin,  honneur  et  glore. 
Eternal  Christ,  fin,  et  commencement, 
Glore  et  honneur  soit  a  toy  seullement. 

Appendix. 
Commencement  et  fin  du  tresparfaict. 
Prent  toute  chose  et  sans  luy  n'est  rien  faict. 

Fin  des  disthicques,  lexers  traductions  et  appendices. 

»  See  the  Aenead,  Lib.  V,  363-484. 


142      D.  H.  Carnnhan — 3faistre  JEloy  du  Mont,  diet  Costentin 


XVII. 

Ballade  du  bon  Roy  Fran^oys 
Laquklle  s'adresse  aulx  Frax^ots 
Les  premieres  lectres  prexdres 
Des  lignes,  ex  vous  apprendrez 
nom,  surnom,  du  roy  exalte 
Plus  qu'aultre  de  la  chrestiente. 

Fran9oys,  uiig  franc  Fran903's  en  France 
Regne  sur  vous,  sans  mner  lettre 
Avez  ung  nora  ;  vivre  en  souffrance 
N'est  veu  les  siens  Frangoys  permectre  ; 
Changer  juges,  aultres  comraectre, 
On  justice  voit  variable, 
II  veult  les  bons  en  biens  acroistre, 
Semblable  aymer  veult  son  semblable, 

De  nom,  de  lignee  et  naissance 
Est  Fran§oys,  vostre  roy  et  maistre, 
Vous  estez  Fran9oys,  Convenance 
Aa'cz  grande,  done,  debvez  estre 
(42,  verso)         Loyaulx  vers  luy  et  en  tout  estre 
Ou  serez  de  coeur  amiable  : 
If  fault  ses  amis  ap])aroistre 
Semblable  aymer  veult  son  semblable. 

France,  qui  vis  en  ta  plaisance, 
Rend  graces  a  Dieu  qui  fist  naistre 
Aulx  Fran9oys,  Fran9oys,  qui  nuysance 
Ne  te  faict,  ainsi  que  congnoistre 
Chacun  peult,  mais  soingneux  faict  mettre 
Ordre   partout,  aulx  bons  affable, 
Jeete  les  maulvais  a  fenestre, 
Semblable  aymer  veult  son  semblable. 

Prince  Fran9oys,  tenant  le  ceptre 
Des  Fran9oys  en  paix  delectable, 
Les  bons  aymez  a  vostre  dextre, 
Semblable  aymer  veult  son  semblable. 


D.  H.  (^arnahan — Maistre  Eloy  du  Maori.,  diet  Costentin.      1 43 

XVIII. 

Les  premieres  lectres  prendres, 

Et  franc  FRANgOYS  vous  apprendrks. 

(43,  recto)  Fonde  siir  foy  le  bienfaict  acquiert  grace, 

Rien  ou  bien  pen  vault  le  bien  que  Pen  brasse, 
(Aiusi  qu'on  diet),  sans  foy  et  sans  credence  ; 
Nourrir  pourtant  de  charite  immense 
Convient  la  foj'^,  aidtrement  seroit  crasse. 

Fo}'  de  marchant  est  de  grand  efficace 
Regnante  foy,  de  gentilhomme  passe 
Auquel  on  donne  ung  tiltre  d'excellence, 
Fonde  sur  foy. 

Nom  de  chrestien,  et  de  treschrestien,  place 
Chez  le  Frango^'s  a  prins,  sans  qu'en  desplace  ; 
Ou  la  foy  est  en  grande  reverence 
Justice  y  est  gavdee  en  diligence, 
Si  le  Fran9oys  S9a3^t  cas  qui  mal  se  face, 
Fonde  sur  foy. 

XIX. 

(43,  verso)  Jacobi  Galli  in  eundem  iiexastichox. 

Torvum  formidant  animalia  queque  leonem, 

Exiraito  gallum,  quo  tremit  ilia  fera. 

Pervigil  est  gallus,  vel  noctis  tempora  prodens, 

Pro  regno  gallus  diraicat  usque  ferox 

Gallo  cuique  quadrant,  quae  dixi,  pluraque  multo, 

Adficias  regera  proin  quibus  euloguis. 

XX. 

Franciscus  BovaLus   Montismarianus  in  tralationem   disti- 

CHORDM  FaUSTINORUM  IN  LINGUAM  FrANCISCAM,  AD  LECTOREM. 

En  patrio  Faustus  raisso  sermone  poeta, 
Francigenas  Francis  vocibus  adloquitur 
Miretur  quanquam,  si  quis  modo  sensus  in  illo  est 
Dedignaturam  non  tamon  esse  puto, 
Disthica  nam  scripsit  solis  noscenda  Latinis, 
Disthica  moratis  inclita  carminibus. 


144      D.  II.  Carnahan — Maistre  Eloy  du  Mont,  diet  Costentin. 

Nunc  ea,  vel  vilis  })as.sim  plcbecula  discit, 
Hinc  format  mores  rustica  turba  suos. 
Optimus  hoc  Fausto  tribuit  Montanus  ab  ipso, 
Sunt  lej)ide  in  Francos  disthica  versa  raodos. 
Sed  regi  hoc  debet  Faustus,  nam  precipue  illi     • 
Montaiii  eximium  scriptitat  ingenium. 
(44,  recto)  Montaniun  et  doctos  quoscumque  araat,  et  foyet  hie  rex, 

Huic  debet  musas  Francia  tota  suas. 
Debet  ei  pacein,  debet  foelicia  secla, 
Quid  debet  dicam  ?  debet  et  ipsa  animam. 

XXI. 

B'^LADB  DU  Roy  des  Francoys, 

Le  PKEMIER  DE  CE  NOM  FRANgOYS  ; 

Les  premieres  lettres  prendrez, 
Son  NOM  et  suenom  apprendrez, 

France  a  Fran9ois,  Fran9oys  a  France, 

Roy,  Fran§oys  est,  c'est  ung  bon  heur 

Auquel  debvons  toute  obeyssance  ; 

Nous  avons  Fran§ois  pour  seigneur, 

C'est  ung  nom  franc,  doulx,  sans  rigueur, 

Oultre,  selon  la  saincte  lettre, 

II  convient  aymer  de  bon  coeur 

Son  Roy,  son  seigneur  et  son  maistre. 

De  franc,  Fran9ois,  nom  de  clemence 
Est  derive  pour  sa  doulceur, 
(44,  verso)  Valoys  est  ung  nom  d'excelence, 

Ainsi  diet,  Valoys,  de  valeur  ; 
Le  bon  Roy  Fran9oys,  franc  donneur, 
On  ayme,  et  dedens  son  coeur  mettre 
II  convient  en  crainte  et  honneur, 
Son  Roy,  son  seigneur  et  son  maistre. 

France,  nom  de  grande  importance. 

Region  des  aultres  la  fleur. 

A  prins  de  Francion  nayssance. 

Nay  d'Hector  des  Troyens  tuteur  ; 

Chacun  Fran9oys,  s'il  n'est  fauteur 

Ou  par  trop  meschant,  recongnoistre, 

II  doibt  comme  bon  serviteur. 

Son  Roy,  son  seigneur  et  son  maistre. 


D.  H.  Carnahan — Maistre  Eloy  dn  Mont,  diet  Coslentin.      145 

Prince,  des  coeurs  vray  pocesseur, 
Tout  le  pays,  sans  tictif  estre, 
Ayme  de  coeur,  soyez  en  seur, 
Son  Roy,  son  seigneur  et  son  maistre. 


(45,  recto)  XXII. 

Balade  du  concept  virginal,  allusion  prinse  sur  ce  mot  de 
Valots,  en  la  personne  de  Marie. 

Le  Roy  peult  faire  a  son  vouloir 
Grace  a  I'un,  I'autre  faire  pendre, 
L'un  ennoblist  et  faict  valoir 
En  honneur,  I'autre  faict  descendre  : 
Dieu,  (que  plus  puyssant  faulte  entendre 
Qu'ung  roy  lequel  est  sur  les  loix). 
Pure  en  concept  me  voulut  rendre 
Puys  qu'a  Dieu  pleut,  je  le  valoys. 

Pas  n'estoys  a  equipoller 
A  Dieu  pour  en  moy  le  comprendre, 
Mais  il  luy  pleut  tant  m'extoller 
Que  pour  mere  me  voulut  prendre, 
Voulant  qu'en  moy  n'eust  que  reprendre  : 
Raison  ont  done  Normans,  Gaulois, 
De  mon  concept  pur  entreprendre, 
Puys  qu'a  Dieu  pleut,  je  le  valoys. 

(45,  verso)  II  n'est  pas  besoing,  soit  en  parler 

Ou  en  escript,  du  faict  contendre 
Lequel  Dieu  veult,  qui  peult  par  I'air 
Et  tons  lieux  sa  puyssance  estendre  ;, 
Contre  envieux,  done,  voulans  tendre 
Me  blasmer,  soit  maistre  ou  valletz, 
Aultre  raison  ne  veuil  pretendre, 
Puys  qu'a  Dieu  pleut,  je  le  valoys. 

Envoy. 
Prince,  faictes  resouldre  en  cendre 
Mes  raaldisans,  soient  clerz  ou  laiz. 
Pour  ceste  raison  leur  apprendre, 
Puys  qu'a  Dieu  pleut,  je  le  valoys. 


140      D.  11.  {Jarnahan — Maistre  IlIixj  da  Mont,  diet  Costentin. 

(46,  recto)  XXJII. 

Rondeau  Joyeux  a  sa  dame. 
Les  premieres  lettres  prendras 
Et  franc  Fean^oys  tu  apprendras. 
Faictes  ainsy  (Dame),  comrae  j'entens 
Rien  envers  vous  qu'amitie  ne  pretens, 
A  vostre  amy  ce  qii'il  vous  admonneste 
Ne  denyez,  ce  n'est  cas  deshonneste, 
C'est  quf  d'amours  ayons  le  passetemps. 

Femme  entendu  en  amoureux  contendz 
Rend  son  amy  dii  niunbre  des  contentz, 
A  luy  jamaiz  n'escondit  la  requeste  ; 

Faictes  ainsy. 
Ne  retardez  (Dame),  ce  que  j'attens, 
Cest  fruict  d'amours  a  aultre  cas  ne  tens, 
Ou  le  servant  de  bien  servir  s'appreste 
II  est  de  droict  que  sa  dame  lu}'  preste 
Son  domicile  et  houstilz  competens  ; 

Faictes  ainsy. 

(46,  verso)  XXIV. 

"  Christe  qui  lux  es  et  dtes.'"     (Traduict  jouxte  la  lettre 

DE  LA  MESURE  ET  QUANTITE  d'iCELLE,   QUI    EST  ORAISON  CONVENABLE 
quand  on  SE  COUCHE  AU  SOIR.) 

O  Christ,  lumiere  ei  jour  nomme, 
Christe  qui  lux  es  et  dies  j)g  ^^^j^^  j^g  tenebres  chassant, 
noctis  tenebi'as  detegis 

lucisque  lumen  crederis    Splendeur  de  lumiere  estime, 
lumen  beatuinpredicaus.  Heureuse  lumiere  annun9ant. 

Seigneur,  sainct  priaires  faisons 
Precamur  sancte  domine    q^^^  ^^^^^  ^^^-^^  ^^^^  aydant, 

deftende  nos  m  hac  nocte    ^  j        j  ^  _ 

sit  nobis  in  te  requies       Et  tousjours  en  toy  reposons 
quietam  noctem  tribue.     Tranquille  nuict  nous  concedant. 

Noz  yeulz  en  repos  soient  rendus, 

Oculi  somnum  capiant  j^^g  ^^^^^j.^  toug^ours  en  toy  veiUans, 
cor  ad  te  semper  vigilet  •'.  '' 

dextera  tua  protegat  Par  ta  dextre  soient  deffendus 

famulos  qui  te  diligunt.  ^erviteurs  ton  amour  voulans. 


'  The  Latin  "oraison,"  which  is  given  by  the  aiithor  in  the  margin,  is  taken 
directly  from  two  Ambrosian  hymns;  the  ''Hymuus  ad  completorium "  and 
the  '•  Hymnus  Vespertinus." 


D.  H.  Carnahan — Maistre  Eloy  du  3font,  diet  Costentin.      147 


JMe  gravis  somnus  irrnat 


De  gref  dormir  iie  soyons  prins 


TVT     1     X-  .  .  ,  Et  du  faulx  ennemy  surprins, 

jNec  nostis  nos  surnpiat  -^  ^       _  ' 

nee  caro  illi  conseutieiis  Qu'a  luy  lie  conseilte  la  chair 

nos  tibi  reos  statuat.  q^^j  ^g^.^  ^^^  j^^^^^  ^^^^  peclier. 


Regarde  nous,  vray  deffenseur, 
SiTesTepriSr"'      Noz  ennemis  soient  reprimfe, 
guberna  tuos  famulos        Regi  tes  servantz  soubz  toy  seur 
qnossangninemercatuse8.Q^^g  ^^  ^^^^  ^^^^^  ^^  redimez, 


Memento  nostri  domine 
in  gravi  isto  corpora 
qui  es  defensor  anime 
adesto  nobis  domine. 


Souvienne  toy  de  nous,  Seigneur. 
Tant  qu'en  ce  gref  corps  avons  cours. 
Qui  de  nostre  ame  es  gouverneur  ; 
Soys  present  nous  feisant  secours. 


Soit  glore  au  pere  createur, 

Deo  patri  sit  gloria  ^  g^^^  ^1^  gemblablement, 

ejiisqne  son  nlio 

cum  spiritu  paraclito         Avec  I'esprit  consolateur, 
et  nunc  et  in  perpetuum.  Pj-esent  et  eternellement. 


Maria  mater  gratia 
mater  misercoi'die 
tu  nos  ab  hoste  protege 
et  bora  mortis  suscipe. 


O  Marie,  mere  de  grace, 
De  misericorde  aussi  mere, 
De  nous  le  faulx  ennemy  cliasse, 
Pren  nous  I'heure  de  mort  amere. 


XXV. 

Dizain  de  France  et  Italie. 

Italiens  ont  moult  France  ennoblie 
De  deux  grandz  biens,  de  la  langue  latine, 
D'un  aultre  bien  qui  vault  qu'on  ne  I'oublie, 
C'est  de  la  sage  et  tresnoble  daulphine.' 
()  France,  France,  a  Dieu  tu  rendras  grace, 
Le  suppliant  que  de  temps  longue  espace 
Soit  la  daulphine  avecques  le  daulpbin, 
Et  qu'ilz  ne  soient  frustrez  de  leur  attente 
Par  mort  crnelle,  en  attendant  la  fin 
Que  du  bon  Roy  nature  soit  contente. 


1  See  page  92  of  the  Introduction. 


H^l 


b 


TRANSACTIONS  OF  IfKE 
CONNECTICUT  ACADEMY  Oi^  ARTS  AI'JD  SCIENCES 


Incorporateu  a.  D.  l<ytl 


VOLUME  XIII.     PF.  149-297 


NOV..  1907 


Publications  of  Yale  University 


THE   STATE   WORKS  OF  PENNSYLVANIA 


I'.V 


AVARD  LONGLEY  BISHOP,  Ph.D. 


Instructor  in  Commercial  Geography  in  Yale  University 


NEV^    HAVEN,    CONNECTICUT 

■^■-•^  1907 

THE   TUTTLE,  MOREHOUSE   &   TAYLOR    PRESS 


V. — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania.     By  Avard  Longley 

Bishop,  Ph.D. 

Introduction. 

What  is  kiiowu  technically  in  the  history  of  Pennsylvania  as 
the  "state  works"  comprised  a  system  of  transportation  which  was 
huilt,  owned  and  operated  by  the  commonwealth.  "Public  works" 
and  "internal  improvements"  are  other  names  commonly  applied  to 
the  system.  The  writer  has,  therefore,  used  these  three  terms 
interchangeably. 

The  popular  movement  for  the  state  itself  to  provide  an  adequate 
means  of  transportation  to  the  growing  West  may  be  said  to  have 
commenced  in  Pennsylvania  in  1823.  The  work  of  construction 
was  undertaken  in  1826  and  within  a  few  years  an  extensive  sys- 
tem of  canals  and  railways  was  built  and  in  operation.  By  1859, 
however,  there  was  not  a  single  mile  of  public-owned  canal  or 
raihvay  in  the  commonwealth.  It  is  thus  seen  that  the  present 
study  is  limited  to  a  definite  field  which  furnishes  an  historical 
example  of  public  ownership  and  control  of  a  transportation  system. 

The  material  upon  which  this  studj^  is  based  was  obtained  prin- 
cipally from  the  state  library  of  Pennsylvania  at  Harrisburg. 
The  writer  was  given  free  access  to  the  acts  of  legislature,  journals 
of  the  house  and  senate,  legislative  and  executive  documents, 
reports  and  journals  of  the  canal  boards,  pamphlets,  news- 
papers, etc., — in  a  word  to  all  of  the  published  and  unpublished 
papers  and  documents  which  have  any  bearing  upon  the  subject 
under  consideration.  The  information  gained  from  these  sources 
was  supplemented  by  other  of  a  more  general  character,  by  visits 
to  several  sections  of  the  abandoned  works,  and  by  conversation 
with  a  number  of  old  residents  of  the  state. 

The  above  does  not  apply,  however,  to  the  material  obtained  for 
Chapter  1.  This  was  taken  largely  from  Hazard's  "Register  of 
Pennsylvania,"  especially  Volumes  I  and  II;  from  Carey's  "Brief 
View  of  the  System  of  Internal  Improvements  of  the  State  of 
Pennsylvania"  (1831)  ;  and  from  "The  Canals  of  Pennsylvania  and 
the  System  of  Internal  Improvements  of  the  Commonwealth,"  by 
Theodore  B.  Klein,  published  in  Part  IV  of  the  Annual  Report 
of  the  Secretary  of  Internal  Affairs  of  Pennsylvania  for  1900.    As 

Trans.  Conn.  Acad.,  Vol.  XIIT.  12  Nov.,  1907. 


150  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worhs  of  Pennsylvania. 

these  sources  have  been  freely  drawn  upon  in  the  first  chapter, 
which  is  introductory  to  the  main  thesis,  specific  references  have 
not  been  given  in  all  cases.  Furthermore,  in  preparing  the  chap- 
ter on  "Finance,"  many  suggestions  were  obtained  from  Worth- 
ington's  "Historical  Sketch  of  the  Finances  of  Pennsylvania" 
and  from  Nead's  "Brief  Review  of  the  Financial  History  of 
Pennsylvania." 

In  making  this  study  valuable  assistance  has  been  received  from 
many  persons.  Although  individual  acknowledgments  are  not  made 
in  all  cases,  the  writer  by  no  means  overlooks  the  obligation.  My 
special  gratitude  is  due  to  Professor  G.  S.  Callender,  who,  in 
directing  the  Avork,  has  given  invaluable  counsel  and  criticism.  I 
am  also  indebted  to  Professor  W.  G.  Sumner  for  advice  and  sug- 
gestion concerning  the  matter  and  form  of  the  present  study.  For 
many  courtesies  extended  and  for  assistance  rendered  in  locating 
material,  I  wish  to  acknowledge  my  indebtedness  to  Hon.  Thomas 
L.  Montgomery,  State  Librarian  of  Pennsylvania,  and  to  his 
assistants. 

Acknowledgment  is  hereby  made  of  the  assistance  received  from 
the  Carnegie  Institution  of  Washington  in  the  collection  of  material 
for  this  monograph. 

A.    L.    B. 

New  Haven,  Conn.,  May  1st,  1906. 


Chapter  I. — Improvements  in  TRANSPORTATioisr  Before  1823. 

For  many  years  after  the  first  settlements  in  the  American  colo- 
nies, the  population  was  confined  to  a  narrow  strip  of  country  along 
the  Atlantic  coast.  The  first  census  in  1790  showed  that  settlers  from 
Maine  to  Georgia  had  spread  themselves  over  a  large  part  of  the 
Atlantic  plain  and  were  climbing  the  mountains.  The  southeast- 
ern part  of  ]^ew  York,  eastern  and  southern  Pennsylvania,  and  the 
eastern  part  of  Virginia  were  the  only  sections  of  these  states  as  yet 
settled.  The  average  breadth  of  the  populated  area  was  255  miles 
from  the  coast.  Westward  the  lines  of  immigration  were  reaching 
out  at  four  points, — up  the  Mohawk  valley  in  central  New  York, 
along  the  Potomac  through  western  Maryland,  southwestwardly 
down  the  east  Tennessee  valley,  and  around  the  southern  end  of  the 
Appalachian  system  in  Georgia.  Beyond  the  mountains  the  settle- 
ments were  few.    The  most  vigorous  was  around  Pittsburg  in  western 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania.  151 

Pennsylvania.  Another  existed  in  the  northern  part  of  Ken- 
tucky, and  small  ones  along  the  Cumberland  river  in  Tennessee 
and  at  the  junction  of  the  Kanawha  with  the  Ohio  river  in  what  is 
now  West  Virginia.  Excepting  a  few  garrisoned  posts,  these  were 
the  principal  western  points  yet  reached  east  of  the  Mississippi.* 

The  beginning  of  the  nineteenth  century  showed' a  marked  change. 
The  settled  areas  along  the  Atlantic  coast  had  now  become  con- 
siderably broader,  while  the  frontier  in  ISTew  York  and  Pennsyl- 
vania had  been  pushed  back  until  about  three-fourths  of  each  state 
had  been  populated.  Ohio  had  been  occupied  on  both  its  eastern 
and  southwestern  borders,  and  the  settlements  in  Kentucky  and 
Tennessee  had  reached  out  toM^ards  each  other  until  they  now 
formed  one  large  and  flourishing  community.  A  continuous  chain 
of  immigration  extended  also  from  the  forks  of  the  Ohio  in  Penn- 
sylvania along  its  western  border  to  Lake  Erie. 

By  1810  still  greater  movements  were  in  progress,  especially  in 
the  west.  More  than  half  of  Ohio  and  large  parts  of  Kentucky  and 
Tennessee  had  been  reclaimed  from  the  wilderness.  At  the  close 
of  the  second  decade  of  the  century,  most  of  Ohio  was  settled  and 
population  was  working  its  way  rapidly  into  southern  Indiana  and 
Illinois,' and  southeastern  Missouri. f 

The  westward  movement,  as  yet  inconsiderable  compared  with  its 
later  history,  was  now  sufficiently  important  to  attract  the  atten- 
tion of  the  East,  whose  far-seeing  citizens  had  early  looked  forward 
to  the  future  economic  importance  of  the  vast  region  beyond  the 
mountains.  To  secure  for  their  own  state  a  predominating  influ- 
ence in  the  trade  of  the  West  became  at  once  the  ambition  of  leading 

*  Tliese  and  the  following  facts  concerning  the  distribution  of  population 
until  1820  have  been  gathered  from  Scribner's  Statistical  Atlas  of  the 
United  States,  the  Census  Reports,  and  the  Statistical  Atlas  of  the  United 
States    (1903)    published  by  the  United  States  Government. 

t  The  Statistical  Atlas  of  the  United  States  (1903),  p.  26,  states  that  in 
1790  not  more  than  5  per  cent,  of  the  population  of  the  United  States  was 
west  of  the  Appalachian  mountains.  Hence  not  more  than  196,460  people 
were  there  at  this  time. 

The  census  reports  show  that  in  1800  the  western  states  and  territories  con- 
tained 387,183  inhabitants;  in  1810  the  number  was  1,075,398;  and  ten 
years  later  it  had  increased  to  2,207,476.  If  we  include  the  population  of 
western  Pennsylvania  and  Virginia  in  1820,  the  total  population  of  the  West 
at  this  time  was  a  little  more  than  2,600,000. 

Tlie  total  population  of  the  United  States  was — in  1790,  3,929,214;  in 
1800,  5,308,483;    in  1810,  7,239,881;    in  1820,    9,633,822. 


152  .1.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

men  on  tbe  Atlantic  seaboard,  particularly  in  jNTew  York,  Pennsyl- 
vania, Maryland  and  Virginia.  The  peculiar  topography  of  the 
country  afforded  but  one  natural  outlet  to  tidewater,  viz. — by 
the  long  route  of  the  Ohio  and  the  Mississippi  to  the  Gulf.*  The 
Allegheny  mountains,  separating  the  East  from  the  West,  were 
regarded  as  a  formidable  barrier  to  trade  and  communication. 
How  to  link  those  two  sections  of  the  country  by  an  adequate 
transportation  system  was  the  problem. 

In  the  early  history  of  the  colonies,  before  the  movement  west- 
ward had  become  of  any  importance,  and  when  most  of  the  popu- 
lation was  confined  to  the  coast  and  the  immediate  interior,  the 
improvements  in  transportation  were  inextensive  and  of  a  local 
character.  Roads  had  to  be  constructed  through  the  forests, 
marshes  made  passable  by  causeways,  and  rude  bridges  thrown 
across  the  smaller  streams.  Later,  appropriations  were  made  to 
improve  the  navigation  of  the  rivers.  For  a  long  time  the  only 
communications  to  the  small  western  settlements  were  Indian  trails 
along  which  no  bulky  goods  could  be  carried.  These  in  due  course 
gave  way  to  roads  which  for  a  time  were  considered  adequate  for 
trade  and  travel.  But  even  before  the  West  had  come  into  prom- 
inence sufficient  to  present  new  problems  in  the  field  of  trans- 
portation, the  adaptability  of  canals  to  the  needs  of  commerce, 
and  their  superiority  over  other  known  means  of  transportation, 
had  been  satisfactorily  demonstrated.  In  the  latter  part  of  the 
eighteenth  century,  a  few  of  the  far-seeing  men  in  Virginia,  Mary- 
land, Pennsylvania  and  JSTew  York  conceived  the  idea  of  using 
them  to  supplement  the  natural  water  courses  in  reaching  the  Ohio 
valley  and  Lake  Erie.f  When  the  growth  of  the  West  had  attracted 
public  attention  the  rivalry  of  the  adjacent  eastern  states  for  its 
trade  was  keen.     Every  one  of  the  Atlantic  seaboard  cities  had  an 


*  The  St.  Lawrence  route  should  not  be  overlooked,  but  less  attention  was 
given  to  it  than  to  the  one  mentioned  above. 

■}■  As  early  as  1754  George  Washington  in  person  explored  a  route  to  con- 
nect the  east  and  west  by  the  waters  of  the  Potomac  and  Yonghiojieny  rivers. 
He  also  made  a  report  to  the  colonial  legislature  of  Virginia  describing  the 
obstacles  to  be  overcome  from  Cumberland  at  the  mouth  of  Wills'  Creek  to 
Georgetown.  On  the  20th  of  July,  1770,  he  made  another  report  to  the 
Governor  of  Maryland  upon  another  route  to  the  west  at  Pittsburg,  and 
spoke  of  its  importance,  to  use  his  own  words,  as  "the  channel  of  conveyance 
of  the  extensive  and  ^•aluable  trade  of  a  rising  empire."  Later,  he  wrote  of 
the  political  importance  of  opening  a  communication  to  the  West,  in  that  it 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania.  153 

expert  who  could  demonstrate  beyond  doubt  that  that  particular 
port  was  in  closest  touch  with  Pittsburg  and  the  West.*  Agitators 
were  ever  ready  with  schemes  for  improvements  that  would  posi- 
tively ensure  the  state  in  question  a  predominating  influence  in  the 
trade  of  the  West. 

Of  this  movement  the  building  of  the  Erie  canal  was  the  climax. 
Its  successful  operation,  and  the  consequent  rapid  fall  in  freight 
rates,  necessitated  the  commencement  of  similar  works  in  other 
states  for  the  sake  of  their  own  self-preservation.  The  peculiar 
physical  features  of  l^ew  York,  making  is  unnecessary  to  over-top 
the  mountains  to  reach  the  West,  gave  that  state  a  decided 
advantage  over  all  her  competitors.  It  made  defeat  inevitable  to 
Pennsylvania  from  the  beginning,  in  spite  of  her  advantage  over 
New  York  in  distance  from  the  Ohio  valley. 

The  later  success  of  the  Erie  canal  eclipsed  all  similar  trans- 
portation achievements  of  other  states.  Their  magnitude  in  Penn- 
sylvania, though  greater  than  in  ]^ew  York,  failed  to  make  an 
equal  impression  upon  the  imagination.  The  building  of  the 
state  works  not  taking  place  until  after  the  opening  of  the  Erie 
canal  also  led  many  to  infer  that  little  attention  was  given  by 
Pennsylvania  to  internal  improvements  until  ISTew  York  led  the 
way.  The  error  of  such  an  inference  will  appear  from  the  follow- 
ing summary  of  the  activities  of  the  state  and  of  private  companies 
in  improvements  in  transportation  before  1823,  the  date  which 
marks  the  commencement  of  the  popular  agitation  resulting  in  the 
building  of  the  state  works. 

The  history  of  the  movement  for  internal  improvements  in  Penn- 
sylvania reaches  back  into  the  early  records  of  the  colony.  William 
Penn,  in  1690,  recorded  the  practicability  of  artificially  joining  the 
Susquehanna  and  the  Schuylkill  rivers  by  means  of  their  branches. 
This  suggestion  is  found  in  a  document  entitled  "Some  proposals 

would  be  the  best  if  not  the  only  means  of  keeping  the  eastern  and  western 
countries  together. — Pickell,  A  Xevv  Chapter  in  the  Early  Life  of  Washington, 
p.    172. 

Many  of  the  Washington  documents  regarding  canals  and  internal 
improvement  projects  are  found  in  Reports  of  Committees,  House  of  Rep., 
Congress  United  States,  1st  Session,  19th  Congress;  subject,  "The  Chesa- 
peake and  Ohio  Canal,"  Xo.  228. 

*  Hulbert,  Historic  Highways,  xiii,  p.    173. 


154  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

for  a  second  settlement  in  the  Province  of  Pennsylvania."*  It 
is  difficult  to  draw  any  satisfactory  conclusions  as  to  how  Penn 
proposed  to  bring  about  the  communication,  but  the  fact  is  that 
a  canal  was  commenced  between  these  rivers  exactly  a  century  after 
the  document  referred  to  was  written.  If  it  was  his  idea  to  join 
the  Schuylkill  and  the  Susquehanna  by  a  canal,  Penn  was  far  in 
advance  of  the  age  in  devising  means  of  internal  transportation, 
for  at  this  time  canals  were  unknown  even  in  Great  Britain. 

ISTearly  three-quarters  of  a  century  had  yet  to  elapse  before  any 
movement  for  the  improvement  of  the  means  of  inland  navigation 
of  Pennsylvania  crystallized  into  an  act  of  legislature  authorizing 
the  same.  The  first  activity  was  directed  to  the  improvement  of 
the  rivers.  Large  sums  of  money  were  thus  expended  with  little 
results  before  this  device  was  supplemented  by  building  artificial 
waterways. 

The  Schuylkill  river  was  the  first  to  receive  attention.  By  Act 
of  March  14th,  1761, f  fifteen  commissioners  were  appointed  to 
make  this  waterAvay  "navigable  and  passable  for  boats,  floats,  rafts, 
canoes  and  other  small  vessels  from  the  ridge  of  mountains  com- 
monly called  the  Blue  Mountains  to  the  river  Delaware."  Power 
was  also  vested  in  them  to  receive  and  appropriate  all  moneys 
donated  for  this  purpose.  Supplementary  acts|  were  passed  from 
time  to  time  appointing  new  commissioners.  IN'o  general  plan  of 
improvement  was  carried  through,  however,  until  the  formation  of 
the  Schuylkill  l^avigation  Company,  a  private  enterprise  incor- 
porated in  1815. 

*  "It  is  now  my  purpose  to  make  another  settlement,  upon  the  river  of 
Susquehannagh,  that  runs  into  the  Bay  of  Chesapeake,  and  bears  about  fifty 
miles  west  from  the  river  Delaware,  as  appears  by  the  Common  Maps  of  the 
English  Dominion  in  America.  Tliere  I  design  to  lay  out  a  Flan  for  the 
building  of  another  City,  in  the  most  convenient  place  for  communicating 
with  the  former  plantations  on  the  East;  which  by  llind,  is  as  good  as  done 
already,  a  way  being  laid  out  between  the  two  rivers  very  exactly  arid  con- 
veniently, at  least  three  years  ago;  and  which  will  not  be  hard  to  do  by 
water,  by  the  l)enefit  of  the  river  Scotilhill ;  for  a  Branch  of  that  river  lies 
near  a  Brunch  that  rims  into  the  Susquehannagh  River,  and  is  the  Common 
Course  of  the  Indians  with  their  Skins  and  Furrs  into  our  Parts."  See  Haz. 
Reg.,  I,  p.  400. 

f  Smith's  Laws  of  Pennsylvania,  T,  p.  2.35. 

t  February  2Gth,  1773;  March  24th,  1781;  March  15th,  1784. 


A.  L.  £^ishop — TJie  State  Wo7'l:s  of  Pennsylvania.  155 

The  works  of  this  company  extended  108  miles  up  the  Schuylkill 
from  Philadelphia.  Connection  was  made  with  the  Union  canal  at 
Eeading.  This  improvement  was  effected  by  converting  the  channel 
into  slackwater  by  building  thirty-one  dams.  Tolls  were  first  taken 
in  1818,  amounting  to  $233.  By  1825  they  had  increased  to 
$15,776,  of  which  $9,700  were  received  from  coal.  The  Schuylkill 
coal  industry  now  had  a  rapid  expansion.  By  1823,  only  eight 
years  after  its  commencement,  the  company's  tolls  amounted  to 
$325,468,  of  which  the  sum  of  $228,000  was  derived  from  coal 
alone.  Much  of  the  balance  came  from  return  freights  from  Phila- 
delphia on  supplies  for  the  mining  districts.  The  report  of  the  com- 
pany for  1865  showed  that  1,000  boats  with  an  average  capacity  of 
170  tons  passed  to  and  fro  through  the  canal,  carrying  1,500,000 
tons  of  coal,  lumber,  iron  ore,  etc.  The  cost  of  the  line  had  been 
$12,500,000  and  a  dividend  of  six  per  cent,  was  being,  paid.  Time, 
however,  brought  great  changes  in  the  method  of  transportation, 
and  eventually  a  rival,  the  Philadelphia  and  Reading  Railroad, 
obtained  control  over  it  through  a  long  lease.  The  Schuylkill 
ISTavigation  Company  remains  as  one  of  only  four  canal  and  navi- 
gation companies  that  now  report  to  the  Secretary  of  Internal 
Affairs. 

The  present  condition  of  the  works  has  been  described  as 
follows : — 

"The  canal  itself  has  become  a  memory,  the  corpus  being  valu- 
able only  as  a  possible  asset  in  case  a  sale  should  be  made  for  water- 
works purposes.  For  the  last  few  years  not  more  than  two  or 
three  canal  boats  have  passed  daily  through  the  lock  at  the  head 
of  Fairmount  pool.  The  wooden  locks  are  but  rotting  timbers ;  the 
pools  are  shallow  basins,  filled  with  the  debris  of  coal  mines;  the 
skeletons  of  its  boats  lie  bleaching  on  the  shores  of  the  beautiful 
Schuylkill,  the  few  that  are  left  floating  being  but  sad  reminders 
of  the  first  great  transportation  enterprise  of  the  Keystone  State."* 

Many  efforts  were  made  to  improve  the  navigation  of  the 
Susquehanna  river  previous  to  the  commencement  of  the  state 
works.  Large  sums  of  money  were  expended  in  removing  rocks, 
deepening  channels,  and  building  wing  walls,  yet  the  benefit 
derived  from  such  labor  was  scarcely  perceptible.  In  the  year 
1793  a  company  was  incorporated  to  make  a  canal  around  the  Cone- 
wago  Falls  on  the  west  side  of  the  river  in  the  county  of  York. 

*  Scott,  Memoir  of  Charles  E.  Smith,  p.  39. 


ISP)  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worl:s  of  Pennsylvania. 

Tliis  work  extended  a  iiiile  and  a  quarter,  overcoming  a  fall  of 
21  feet,  and  was  executed  at  an  expense  of  $100,000.  In  the  year 
1813  an  act  "was  passed  authorizing  James  Hopkins  of  Lancaster 
county  to  make  a  canal  for  the  same  purpose  on  the  east  side  of  the 
river;  accoi-dingly,  in  1814,  two  dams,  one  of  800,  the  other  of 
500  feet,  were  built.  The  canal  was  one  mile  in  length  and  was 
excavated  out  of  rock.  The  ascent  of  21  feet  was  overcome  by  one 
guard  and  three  lift  locks,  each  110  feet  long  and  18  feet  wide. 
The  cost  of  the  work  was  $120,000.  The  water  power  obtained 
from  these  two  canals  was  the  chief  inducement  which  prompted 
their  construction. 

The  river  Lehigh  also  received  considerable  attention  from  the 
advocates  of  internal  improvements.  Its  importance  as  a  highway 
for  internal  navigation  was  not  overlooked  either  by  the  state  or  by 
private  individuals.  It  was  declared  a  public  thoroughfare  in  1771. 
Private  subscriptions  were  made  at  an  early  date  to  improve  its 
navigation,  and  commissioners  were  appointed  to  appropriate  and 
expend  the  money.  What  amount  was  raised  is  unknown  but  it 
was  j)robably  inconsiderable.  By  Act  of  April  13th,  1791,*  the 
legislature  appropriated  1,000  pounds  to  be  expended  on  the  Lehigh 
"from  its  junction  with  the  Delaware  ■  as  far  up  the  same  as  the 
sum  would  admit."  On  February  27th,  1798,  a  company  was  incor- 
porated to  better  its  navigation  and  a  lottery  authorized  to  help 
obtain  the  desired  funds.  ]^o  improvements  appear  to  have  been 
made  at  this  time.  A  few  years  later  Messrs.  Josiah  White,  George 
F.  A.  Hauto  and  Erskine  Hazard  became  interested  in  transporta- 
tion schemes  and  secured  the  passage  of  a  law  on  March  20th,  1818, 
granting  them  certain  rights  and  privileges  concerning  the  improve- 
ment of  the  Lehigh.  These  were  later  confirmed  to  them  and  their 
successors  by  the  incorporation  of  the  "Lehigh  Coal  and  ISTavigation 
Company"t  on  February  13th,  1822. 

,  In  the  early  history  of  the  company,  the  river  was  used  only  for 
a  descending  navigation.  The  coal  and  lumber  of  the  country 
drained  by  the  Lehigh  w^ere  brought  to  market  in  arks  which  were 
broken  up  and  sold  upon  their  arrival  in  Philadelphia.  Later  it 
was  decided  to  increase  the  navigability  of  the  river  by  building 

*Laws   (Ms.),  No.  4,  p.  188. 

f  The  privilege  of  both  mining  and  transporting  coal  was  granted  to  this 
company,  whereas  the  Schuylkill  Navigation  Company  had  no  mining 
privileges. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worl-s  of  Pennsylvania.  157 

a  series  of  locks.  The  amount  expended  for  this  purpose  and  in 
improvements  of  every  description,  including  opening  the  Mauch 
Chunk  coal  fields,  dwellings,  mills,  railroads  and  turnpikes,  up  to 
January  1st,  1828,  was  $875,718.79.*  The  act  of  incorporation  of 
1822  contained  a  proviso  that  the  total  sum  at  any  one  time  invested 
in  land  should  not  exceed  $60,000.  The  maximum  capitalization 
was  also  fixed  at  $1,000,000.  In  later  years,  when  increasing  busi- 
ness came  to  require  it,  these  restrictions  were  removed.  The  com- 
pany is  still  in  existence  with  a  capitalization  of  $15,801,300.  It 
owns  various  properties,  including  coal  fields  and  a  main  line  of 
canal  48  miles  in  length  extending  from  Coal  Port  to  Easton.f 

A  successful  enterprise  looking  towards  the  improvement  of 
navigation  on  the  western  waters  of  the  state  was  incorporated  by 
the  legislature  on  the  24th  of  March,  1817,  under  the  name  of  "The 
President,  Managers,  and  Company  of  the  Monongahela  Navigation 
Company."  This  act  appointed  commissioners  to  receive  subscrip- 
tions to  1,600  shares  of  stock  at  $30  each,  as  a  capital  for  improve- 
ments in  navigation  on  the  Monongahela  river.  It  was  proposed 
and  authorized  in  the  act  of  incorporation  to  construct  sixteen 
dams  across  the  river  from  the  state  line  to  its  mouth,  a  distance  of 
ninety  miles.  This  would  form  a  slack  water  navigation,  and  locks 
connected  the  pools.  The  sum  of  $30,000  was  subscribed  by  the 
state  and  $18,360  by  individuals.  The  work  was  commenced  in 
1821,  but  little  progress  was  made  before  operations  were,  for  the 
time  being,  suspended.  Several  years  later,  however,  work  was 
resumed,  and  in  1890  the  official  report  showed  that  the  capital 
had  reached  the  sum  of  $1,630,000,  upon  which  a  handsome  divi- 
dend of  9  per  cent,  was  paid.  The  work,  however,  is  maintained 
now  free  of  expense  to  the  shippers  of  the  various  products  of  the 
Monongahela  valley,  for  in  1897  the  government  of  the  United 
States,  by  proceedings  in  condemnation,  acquired  possession  and 
control  of  the  company. 

During  the  few  years  immediately  preceding,  and  closely  fol- 
lowing the  American  Revolution,  many  plans  were  brought  forward 
in  Pennsylvania  for  improvements  in  transportation.  These  were 
not  only  of  a  local  character  but  provided  also  for  the  development 

*  Haz.  Reg.,  I,  p.  414.     This  figvire  does  not  include  the  money  expended 
in  buying  real  estate. 

tHeport  Pennsylvania  Department  Internal  Affairs,  1903-04,  iv,  p.  712. 


158  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

of  outlying  territory.  It  was  even  proposed  to  unite  the  waters  of 
the  Atlantic  with  those  of  the  Ohio  and  Lake  Erie  by  a  chain  of 
interior  navigation.*  In  his  message  to  the  legislature  in  1790, 
Governor  Thomas  Mifflin  said : — 

"The  very  laudable  attention  paid  to  the  survey  of  roads  and 
rivers  is  conclusive  proof  of  the  importance  of  the  object,  while  it 
furnishes  an  example  highly  deserving  of  your  imitation.  Every  day, 
indeed,  produoos  an  additional  incentive  to  persevere  in  improve- 
ments of  this  kind.  The  commercial  policy  of  insuring  the  trans- 
portation of  our  produce  from  the  interior  counties  to  the  capital 
is  dependent  upon  the  ease  and  facility  of  the  communications  that 
are  established  throughout  the  state;  and  when  we  consider  Penn- 
sylvania not  only  as  the  route  that  actually  connects  the  extreme 
members  of  the  Union,  but  as  a  natural  avenue  from  the  shores 
of  the  Atlantic  to  the  vast  regions  of  the  western  territory,  imagina- 
tion can  hardly  paint  the  magnitude  of  the  scene  which  demands 
our  industry,  nor  hope  exaggerate  the  richness  of  the  reward  which 
solicits  our  enjoyment." 

In  harmony  with  the  trend  of  popular  feeling,  there  was  formed 
at  Philadelphia  in  1789  "The  Society  for  promoting  the  improve- 
ment of  Road  and  Inland  ISTavigation,"  composed  of  enlightened 
citizens  from  various  parts  of  the  state.  Within  two  years  it  had 
a  hundred  members.  The  meetings  were  held  Monday  evenings 
during  the  sessions  of  the  legislature  to  suggest  schemes  and  pro- 
posals for  promoting  trade  and  communication  between  the  different 
parts  of  the  state  and  of  the  Union.  On  February  7th,  1791,  this 
society,  of  which  Robert  Morris  was  president,  presented  a  memo- 
rialf  to  the  legislature  containing  a  detailed  and  comprehensive 
view  of  the  various  routes  suitable  for  roads  and  canals  from  the 
seaboard  to  the  interior  of  the  state,  the  West  and  Lake  Erie,  and 
the  adjoining  states.  Maps  and  estimates  of  expenses  necessary  to 
build  the  proposed  lines  of  communication  were  also  furnished. 
This  memorial  is  an  important  landmark  in  the  early  history  of 
transportation  in  Pennsylvania,  showing  clearly  the  elaborate 
scheme  of  internal  improvements  contemplated  by  its  originators. 
In  the  light  of  later  developments,  that  part  proposing  to  connect 
the  eastern  waters  with  those  of  the  Ohio  and  Lake  Erie  is  pecu- 
liarly interesting,  in  that  it  shows  conclusively  that,  long  before 
connection  had  been  made  with  the  West  by  the  Erie  canal,  public- 

*  Haz.  Reg.,  I,  p.  409. 

•j- Full  text  of  this  memorial  in  Haz.  Reg.,  II,  pp.  119-122. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania.         15!J 

spirited  citizens  in  Pennsylvania  had  conceived  this  idea  as  prac- 
ticable,* and  had  surveyed  routes,  and  estimated  their  expenses. 
Moreover  the  course  followed  later  in  building  the  main  line  of 
the  state  works  was,  roughly  speaking,  the  one  recommended  by 
the  memorialists.  The  care  with  which  the  route  had  been  deter- 
mined   at    this    early    date,    the    exact    survey,    and    the    distances 

between  the  various  connecting  points  are  shown  by  the  following 
tablet  :— 

Miles.  Chains. 
"[From   Pliiladclpliia]    up   Schuylkill  to  the  mouth  of  the 

Tulpehookcn 61  00 

Thence  up  Tulpehocken  to  the  end  of  the  proposed  canal,  37  09 

Length  of  the  canal,    4  15 

Do^\^l  Quitipahilla  to  Swatara,   15  20 

Down  Swatara  to  Susquehanna, 23  00 

Up  Susquehanna  to  Juniata,    23  28 

Up  Juniata  to  Huntington,    86  12 

From  Hinitington,   on  Juniata,   to   the  mouth  of  Popular 

Run 42  00 

Portage  to  the  Canoe  Place  on  tlie  Conemaugh,   18  00 

Down   Conemaugh   to   Old   Town   at   tlie   mouth   of   Stony 

Creek,     .  .  .  T 18  00 

Down  Conemaugh  and  Kiskeminetas  to  Allegheny  River, .  .  69  00 

Down  Alleghenj'  River  to  Pittsburg  on  the  Ohio,   29  00 

426  04 " 

The  estimated  expense  of  putting  through  the  entire  work  from 
Philadelphia  to  Pittsburg  was  a  little  less  than  $2,000,000.  When 
Pittsburg  had  once  been  reached,  it  was  regarded  as  a  compara- 
tively easy  matter  to  tap  Lake  Erie  through  Allegheny  river  and 
French  creek. 

In  recommending  the  opening  of  a  commercial  channel  by  this 
route  the  memorialists  pointed  out  to  the  legislators  that  they  would 
thus  execute  a  work  of  the  first  rank  for  the  honor  and  advantage 
of  their  state.  It  would,  in  their  opinion,  combine  the  interests 
of  all  its  parts  and  cement  them  into  a  perpetual  commercial  and 
political  union.  Moreover  the  future  importance  of  the  trade  of 
the  territory  beyond  the  mountains  was  a  further  motive  that 
weighed  heavily  with  them,  impelling  them  to  exert  all  possible 
pressure  upon  the  legislature  to  provide  means  for  its  outlet.  That 
the  rivalry  between  the  eastern  cities  for  its  control  would  be  keen, 

*  Tlie  idea  of  the  memorialists  regarding  the  western  connection  was  to 
put  through  a  main  line  of  water  communication  between  Philadelphia 
and  Pittsburg  excepting  a  portage  of  eighteen  miles  over  the  Allegheny 
mountains. — Haz.  Reg.,  II,  p.  122. 

fHaz.  Reg.,  II,  pp.  119-120. 


IGO  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worl's  of  Pennsylvania. 

was  not  overlooked ;  but  tliat  Philadelphia  might  secure  the  major 
])art  of  this  trade  if  adequate  transportation  facilities  were  pro- 
vided, was  hardly  questioned.  We  shall  see  later  how  wide  of  the 
mark  this  prediction  proved  to  be.  Their  opinions  in  this  matter 
were  based  upon  the  advantage  in  distance  (considering  Pitts- 
burg as  the  point  of  entrance  to  the  Ohio  valley)  possessed  by 
Philadelphia  over  other  ports  on  the  Atlantic.  With  this  advan- 
tage, they  believed  there  could  be  no  doubt  that  the  transportation 
of  all  kinds  of  commodities  from  Philadelphia  to  Pittsburg  might 
be  effected  "at  a  much  cheaper  rate  than  from  any  other  seaport 
on  the  Atlantic  coast."  The  time  was  not  yet  ripe,  however,  for 
the  government  to  undertake  at  once  so  extensive  a  programme  of 
improvements  as  here  proposed.  However,  as  we  shall  soon  see, 
some  provisions  were  immediately  made  to  better  several  local 
lines  of  transportation. 

Stimulated  now  by  the  recommendations  of  Governor  Mifflin  in 
his  message  of  1790  and  by  the  efforts  of  the  improvement  society, 
the  legislature  appointed  a  board  of  commissioners  to  explore  the 
western  waters,  the  Susquehanna,  the  Delaware,  etc.  On  January 
5th,  1791,  the  same  body  appointed  a  committee  to  examine  their 
reports,*  and,  wath  the  information  contained  therein  as  a  basis, 
to  recommend  jilans  for  improving  the  roads  and  navigation  of 
the  state.  The  report  of  this  committeef  was  presented  to  the 
legislature  on  February  19  th  of  the  same  year.  It  was  unanimously 
recommended  that  some  action  should  be  taken  by  the  government 
to  improve  at  once  the  navigation  of  the  most  important  rivers 
of  the  state,  and  to  build  roads  and  portages  for  the  purpose  of 
facilitating  transportation  between  them.  Estimates  also  of  the 
expense  anticipated  in  making  each  of  the  improvements  were  sub- 
mitted. The  importance  of  providing  a  direct  line  of  water 
communication,  except  at  the  Allegheny  portage,  to  connect 
Philadelphia  with  the  western  waters  and  the  great  lakes  was  not 
overlooked.  In  short,  the  programme  submitted  as  timely  for 
the  adoption  of  the  government  was  such  as  would  provide  the 
various  parts  of  the  state  with  easy  and  cheap  transportation  for 
local  traffic,  and  improved  facilities  for  reaching  the  West.     The 

*  Full  reports  of  those  coiiiinissioners  arc  published  in  an  appendix  to  the 
Journal  of  the  House  of  Representatives  for  1815-16. 
t  Full  report  in  Haz.  Reg.,  II,  pp.  129-132. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worls  of  Pennsylvania.  161 

entire  expense  of  effecting  the  improvements  as  submitted  by  the 
committee  was  60,870  pounds. 

In  accordance  with  this  report  and  in  harmony  with  the  popular 
sentiment,  an  Act*  was  passed  on  the  13th  of  April,  1791,  appro- 
priating 23,320  pounds  for  local  improvements.  The  work  author- 
ized to  be  done  consisted  principally  in  removing  obstacles  from 
the  rivers  and  otherwise  making  them  more  navigable,  and  in 
building  roads  to  connect  the  links  along  the  natural  lines  of  water 
communication.  The  money  appropriated  for  these  purposes  was 
required  to  be  expended  by  the  Governor  contracting  "with  individ- 
uals or  with  companies." 

Another  important  transportation  enterprise  originating  early 
in  the  history  of  Pennsylvania  was  the  Union  canal  between  the 
Schuylkill  and  the  Susquehanna.  The  advantages  to  be  derived 
from  opening  such  a  communication  had  attracted  the  attention  of 
enlightened  men  by  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth  century.  In 
1762,  David  Rittenhouse  and  Dr.  William  Smith  surveyed  and 
levelled  a  route  for  a  canalf  between  these  rivers  via  the  Swatara 
and  Tulpehocken  creeks,  and  the  practicability  of  building  it  was 
satisfactorily  demonstrated.  This  was  probably  the  first  scheme 
of  its  kind  to  be  seriously  discussed  in  the  colonies,:|:  and  it  was 
to  a  similar  route  that  William  Penn  had  referred  in  1690.  In 
1769  and  1770,  a  committee  of  the  American  Philosophical  Society 
re-examined  the  original  surveys  and  three  years  later  the  legisla- 
ture appointed  a  committee  to  do  like  wise. §  All  agreed  upon  the 
one'  route  for  the  canal.  The  formidable  nature  of  the  proposed 
works  under  colonial  economic  conditions,  their  novelty  in  this 
country,  and  still  more  the  outbreak  of  the  Kevolutionary  war,  pre- 
vented their  immediate  construction. 

At  length  by  Act  of  September  29th,  1791,||  a  company  was 
incorporated  to  open  a  canal  and  lock  navigation  between  the 
Schuylkill  and  the  Susquehanna  by  the  route  already  determined. 
The   intention   of   later   extending   the   work   to   the    western    and 

*La.ws   (Ms.),  No.  4,  p.  188. 

f  Haz.  Reg.,  I,  pp.  409-10.  Tanner,  Canals  and  Railroads  of  the  United 
States,  p.  95. 

X  Haz.  Reg.,  I,  p.  409.     Hiilbert,  Historic  Highways,  xiii,  p.  22. 

§  Breck,  Sketch  of  Internal  Improvements  already  made  by  Pennsylvania, 
p.  57.     Carey,  Brief  View  of  Internal  Improvements,  p.  2. 

||LaA\'^   (Ms.),  No.  4,  p.  234. 


162  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worhs  of  Pennsylvania. 

nortliAvcstern  counties  of  the  state  was  expressed  in  the  act.  On 
April  10th,  1792,  another  act*  was  passed  creating  a  company 
to  open  a  water  communication  between  the  Schuylkill  and  the 
Delaware.  The  idea  of  its  promoters  was  to  build  a  canal  seventeen 
miles  long  from  Norristown  to  Philadelphia.  It  was  also  their 
intention  to  make  a  temporary  improvement  of  the  Schuylkill 
between  Norristown  and  Eeading,  and  thus  form  an  uninterrupted 
water  communication  with  the  interior  of  the  state  and  the  West. 

It  soon  became  clear  to  the  two  companies  that,  in  consequence 
of  the  difficulties  encountered  in  improving  the  channels  of  the 
rivers,  the  canals  should  be  longer  than  they  had  anticipated. 
Hence  the  Susquehanna  and  Schuylkill  Company,  at  the  sugges- 
tion of  a  British  engineer  named  Weston  whom  they  had  imported 
for  their  service,  determined  to  extend  their  canal  from  river  to 
river,  a  distance  of  about  seventy  miles.  The  two  companies  united 
their  forces  and  completed  about  fifteen  miles  of  the  most  difficult 
parts  of  the  two  Avorks,  but,  on  account  of  financial  difficulties,  both 
were  compelled  to  suspend  operations  after  the  expenditure  of 
$440,000. f  These  magnificent  projects,  worthy  of  the  influential 
citizens  by  whom  they  were  conceived,  were  defeated  partly  by  the 
want  of  public  spirit  among  capitalists,  but  largely  in  consequence 
of  the  spirit  of  ruinous  speculation.  For  they  were  ushered  before 
the  public  not  long  after  the  historic  speculations  following  upon 
the  organization  of  the  federal  government,  in  public  securities,  in 
the  stock  of  the  Bank  of  the  United  States,  and  in  public  lands. 
Fortunes  were  realized  from  the  first  two  of  these  schemes  by  most  of 
those  who  engaged  in  them ;  equally  large  ones  were  anticipated  by 
those  who  speculated  in  public  lands.  It  was  believed  that  canal 
stock  would  at  this  time  rise  in  the  same  manner  as  other  stocks  had 
risen,  and  that  they  would  thus  aiford  a  good  chance  to  make  money. 
The  result  was  that  there  was  a  struggle  for  an  opportunity  to  sub- 
scribe. Accordingly,  a  large  proportion  of  the  shares  were  taken 
by  persons  who  were  wholly  unable  to  pay  up  the  remaining  instal- 
ments and  who  never  contemplated  doing  so.  Their  object  was  to 
sell  out  at  once  whenever  an  advance  took  place.  In  this  they  were 
sorely  disappointed.  There  were  no  purchasers,  and  instead  of 
making  money,  the  original  subscribers  forfeited  their  first  pay- 

*Laws   (Ms.),  No.  4,  p.  510. 
fHaz.  Reg.,  I,  p.  410. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worhs  of  Pennsylvania.  163 

nients.  Partial  success  attended  the  attempt  to  enforce  the  payment 
of  the  remaining  instalments  from  those  who  were  solvent.* 

The  project,  however,  as  we  have  already  seen,  had  to  be  aban- 
doned. The  suspension  of  these  works  exercised  a  most  disastrous 
effect  upon  every  similar  work  projected  for  many  years  after- 
wards. 

These  two  companies  were  kept  alive  by  Charles  Palaski,  who 
called  meetings  of  the  members  and  had  officers  and  managers 
appointed,  until,  by  Act  of  April  2d,  1811,  the  original  companies, 
composed  largely  of  •  the  same  individuals,  were  reorganized  and 
united  under  the  name  of  "The  Union  Canal  Company."  For 
several  years  following  the  act  of  amalgamation,  it  lingered  in  a 
state  of  comparative  inactivity.  At  length,  however,  after  encoun- 
tering various  difficulties  and  discouragements,  the  canal  was 
completed  and  a  communication  opened  in  May,  1827,  between 
Reading  and  Middletown. 

In  the  act  of  1811  forming  the  Union  Canal  Company,  the 
president  and  managers  were  specially  authorized  to  extend  their 
canal  from  Philadelphia  to  Lake  Erie,  with  the  privilege  of  making 
such  further  extensions  in  any  other  part  of  the  state  as  they  deemed 
expedien-t.f 

In  order  to  resume  operations  with  the  prospect  of  success  large 
sums  of  money  were  needed.  The  work  lingered  on  for  several 
years  after  1811,  until  helped  by  the  state.  By  an  Act  passed  March 
29th,  1819,  the  latter  granted  an  interest  of  6  per  cent,  to  sub- 
scribers of  the  stock  that  might  be  sold  to  recommence  the  work. 
This  was  to  be  taken  from  the  proceeds  of  a  lottery.  By  an  addi- 
tional Act  of  March  26th,  1821,  the  state  guaranteed  this  interest 
by  a  pledge  to  supply  any  deficiency  in  it  which  the  lottery  could 
not  produce.  The  new  subscriptions  which  were  obtained  by  this 
legislative  encouragement  enabled  the  managers  to  resume  opera- 
tions in  1821  and  to  complete  the  whole  work  in  1827. 

"-'  See  Carey :    Brief  View  of  the  System  of  Internal  Improvements  of  the 
State  of  Pennsylvania,  pp.  4,  5,  6,  et  seq. 

f  Section  XXX.  "And  be  it  further  enacted  by  the  authority  aforesaid, 
That  it  shall  be  lawful  for  the  President  and  Managers  of  the  'Union  Canal 
Company  of  Pennsylvania'  as  soon  as  they  may  think  proper,  to  extend 
this  route  to  communicate  with  Lake  Erie  or  other  waters  of  any  neighboring 
state  by  canal  and  lock  navigation,  .  .  .  ." — Laws  of  Pennsylvania, 
1810-11,  Chapter  dxxxvi,  p.  238. 


164  A.  L.  Bishop — TJie  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

The  Union  canal  was  seventy-seven  miles  long,  exclusive  of 
various  pools  and  navigable  feeders.  It  extended  from  Middletown 
on  the  Susquehanna  to  a  point  on  the  Schuylkill  a  short  distance 
below  Reading.  At  Middletown  it  connected  with  the  Pennsyl- 
vania canal  leading  to  Pittsburg  and  Erie,  to  Tioga  in  the  north, 
and  to  Bald  Eagle  creek  on  the  Avest  branch  of  the  Susquehanna. 
At  Reading  it  connected  with  the  Avorks  of  the  Schuylkill  Xaviga- 
tion  Company  leading  to  Philadelphia. 

■  "Large  quantities  of  iron  ore  from  the  Cornw^all  banks  of  Lebanon 
county  were  shipped  to  Danville  and  other  points  via  the  Union 
canal,  and  coal  Avas  returned  from  the  Wyoming  region  for  use 
in  the  furnaces  at  Lebanon  and  vicinity  as  back-loading."  After  its 
enlargement,  lumber  from  the  west  branch  region  of  the  Susque- 
hanna came  through  it  for  a  time  in  order  to  aA^oid  towage  charges 
on  Chesapeake  Bay.  "But  the  delays  incident  to  the  frequent  lack 
of  sufficient  Avater  and  the  great  amount  of  lockage  were  detrimental 
to  the  shippers  and  carriers.  At  last,  in  1885,  the  officials  of  the 
company  reported :  'The  Union  canal  is  non  est,  it  having  been 
sold  out,  property  and  franchise,  by  the  sheriff  of  Philadelphia.' 
It  had  borne  the  brunt  of  flood  and  financial  panic  for  almost 
three-quarters  of  a  century,  having  been  in  operation  before  the 
canals  of  the  commonwealth.  The  work  Avas  abandoned  and  sold 
for  a  song,  including  the  masonry  of  one  hundred  lift  locks,  three 
guard  locks,  Avith  buildings,  machinery  and  pumps,  all  of  which 
had  cost  more  than  $6,000,000,  which  melted  away  from  the 
estates  of  Avidows,  orphans  and  capitalists  all  OA^er  the  common- 
wealth."* 

We  haA^e  now  given  a  summary  of  AA^hat  was  done  in  Pennsyl- 
vania in  the  line  of  internal  improvements  by  canal  and  naA^gation 
companies  and  by  the  state  in  improving  water-ways  previous  to 
the  beginning  of  the  popular  movement  resulting  in  the  execution 
of  the  state  Avorks.  In''  addition  to  the  numerous  improA^ements 
made  by  canal  and  navigation  companies,  there  remains  yet  to 
mention  what  was  done  during  this  period  in  building  turnpike 
roads  and  bridges.  Here  the  best  information  is  furnished  by  a 
report  of  the  Committee  of  Roads,  Bridges,  and  Inland  Naviga- 
tiont   submitted   to   and   read   in   the   senate   of   Pennsylvania   on 

*  Klein,  Canals  of  Pennsylvania,  p.  Ixxiv. 

f  Report  on  Roads,  Bridges  and  Canala,  1822. 


A.  L.  BisJiop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania.  165 

March  23d,   1822.     This  report,  was  prepared  in  response  to  the 
following  resolutions  passed  by  that  body  on  January  4th,  1822 : — 

"Resolved,  That  the  committee  on  roads,  bridges  and  inland 
navigation  be  insti-ucted  to  ascertain,  as  far  as  is  practicable,  and 
report  to  the  senate,  a  list  of  the  turnpike  road  companies,  incor- 
porated by  the  legislature  of  Pennsylvania,  the  amount  of  the 
state's  subscription  to  each,  the  number  of  miles  of  each  already 
completed,  the  counties  in  which  located,  the  expenses  of  construct- 
ing the  same,  the  nature,  width,  and  depth  of  the  materials  of 
which  they  are  composed,  together  with  such  information,  relative 
to  the  improvements  Avhich  have  been  made  in  the  mode  and 
economy  of  constructing  turnpike  roads  as  will,  in  their  opinion, 
be  useful  to  the  legislature." 

"Resolved,  That  the  same  committee  also  be  instructed  to  ascer- 
tain, as  far  as  is  practicable,  and  report  to  the  senate,  a  list  of  the 
bridge,  canal,  and  lock  navigation  companies,  incorporated  by  the 
legislature,  the  amount  of  the  state's  subscription  to  each,  the  cost 
of  and  progress  made  in  constructing  the  same,  together  with  such 
other  information  relative  to  the  subject  of  roads,  bridges  and 
inland  navigation,  as  may  present  a  complete  view  of  the  actual 
extent  of  inteimal  improvement." 

As  no  official  document  giving  an  entire  view  of  the  extent  of 
the  state's  internal  improvements  existed  anywhere  at  this  time 
(1822),  it  was  impossible  to  collect  the  information  called  for  by 
the  preceding  resolutions  without  the  aid  of  the  officers  of  the 
respective  companies  concerned.  Accordingly,  after  having  com- 
pleted their  lists,  the  committee  addressed  a  circular  letter  to  the 
president  and  managers  of  each  corporation  with  a  request  that 
they  should  furnish  the  desired  information  by  answering  a  series 
of  questions  enclosed.  Satisfactory  answers  were  returned  in  nearly 
all  cases.  A  large  amount  of  information  respecting  the  companies 
was  consolidated  into  tables  accompanying  the  report. 

From  an  inspection  of  these  tables,  it  is  found  that  the  number 
of  turnpike  roads  contemplated  by  the  various  charters  of  the 
companies  which  had  received  letters  patent  was  2,521%,  of  which 
1,807  were  completed.  About  1,250  miles  of  these  roads  were  of 
solid  stone.  The  amount  of  capital  subscribed  towards  these 
improvements  by  individuals  '(including  the  subscriptions  of  a  few 
banks)  which  had  been  paid  or  was  expected  to  be  paid  was 
$4,158,347.  The  amount  subscribed  by  the  commonwealth  was 
$1,861,542.  The  report  of  the  committee  stated  that  if  there  were 
added  to  these  sUms  one-half  the  amount  of  the  existing  debt  of 

Traxs.  Conn.  Acad..  Vol.  XIII.  i;3  Nov.,  1907. 


160  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

the  companies,  say,  $381,585,  Avliich  it  is  probable  the  roads  had 
cost  more  than  the  amount  subscribed  by  the  state  and  solvent 
individuals,  it  would  appear  that  to  turnpike  roads  there  had  been 
subscribed  and  appropriated  up  to  1822  in  the  State  of  Pennsyl- 
vania the  sum  of  $6,401,474. 

The  works  completed  or  in  progress  at  that  time  provided  for  two 
stone  roads  between  Pliiladelphia  and  Pittsburg,  one  of  which  had 
already  been  finished;  one  continuous  road  from  Philadelphia  to 
the  town  of  Erie  on  the  lake  of  the  same  name,  passing  throvigh 
Sunbury,  Belief onte,  Franklin  and  Meadville;  two  roads,  with  a 
deficiency  of  but  a  few  miles  of  turnpike,  from  Philadelphia,  one 
to  Xew  York  state  line  in  Bradford  county,  passing  through  Ber- 
wick, the  other  to  the  northern  part  of  the  state  in  Susquehanna 
county  passing  through  Bethlehem;  and  a  continuous  road  from 
Pittsburg  to  Erie  via  Butler,  Mercer,  Meadville  and  Waterford. 
The  completion  of  these  lines  insured  the  northern,  northwestern 
and  western  sections  of  the  state  connection  with  the  metropolis, 
and,  in  the  opinion  of  th6  framers  of  the  report,  would  ^'afford  facil- 
ities for  traveling  and  transportation  unequalled,  as  to  extent,  in 
the  United  States." 

With  reference  to  bridges,  also,  a  large  appropriation  had  been 
made.  Private  individuals  had  subscribed  to  $1,629,200  worth  of 
stock,  and  the  commonwealth  to  the  amount  of  $382,000.  If  to 
these  sums  one-half  of  the  amount  of  the  debts  be  added,  as  in  the 
former  case,  the  amount  contributed  to  the  construction  of  bridges 
totalled  $2,051,795. 

So  far  as  navigation  companies  were  concerned,  the  common- 
wealth had  subscribed  $130,000  out  of  a  total  of  $1,916,510 
appropriated  for  constructional  purposes. 

If  all  these  subscriptions  and  appropriations  be  added  together, 
the  amount  shown  to  have  been  applied  towards  all  kinds  of 
•improvements  in  transportation  in  Pennsylvania  before  the  begin- 
ning of  the  popular  movement  in  1823  was  nearly  $10,500,000. 
This  amount  was  expended  by  the  state  and  by  corporations 
(largely  the  latter)  exclusive  of  various  sums  large  and  small  spent 
by  the  counties  on  roads,  bridges,  and  other  improvements;  an 
amount  which,  though  liberal,  it  is  impossible  to  determine,  owifig 
to  the  loss  of  many  county  documents  and  to  the  confusion  of 
counts.* 

*  Haz.  lleg.,  I,  p.  408. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania.  167 

The  foregoing  review  warrants  the  conclusion  that  in  matters 
of  improvements  in  transportation  facilities  the  policy  pursued 
was  liberal  and  progressive.  Actuated  by  an  enlightened  public 
spirit,  numerous  charters  for  turnpike  roads,  bridges  and  naviga- 
tion companies  had  been  granted,  many  of  which  were  subsidized 
with  public  funds  amounting  to  a  total  of  $2,373,542.  By  pur- 
suing this  policy,  the  state  had  strongly  stimulated  the  activities 
of  numerous  liberal-minded  citizens  in  their  efforts  to  keep  abreast 
of  the  times.  We  have  seen  further  that  the  early  champions  of 
internal  improvements,  long  before  the  Erie  canal  was  projected, 
not  only  had  conceived  the  idea  of  connecting  the  eastern  and  west- 
ern waters  by  a  navigable  route  of  communication,  but  also  had 
carefully  surveyed  the  proposed  line  and  made  estimates  of  the 
expenses  incident  to  its  construction.  While  Pennsylvania  and  her 
southern  neighbors  thought  seriously  about  this  scheme,  the  enter- 
prising citizens  of  their  sister  state,  !N"ew  York,  were  actually  con- 
structing a  similar  work  with  all  consistent  speed.  Their  example 
in  this  connection  was  a  powerful  factor-  in  precipitating  the  move- 
ment in  Pennsylvania.  Accordingly,  before  the  completion  of  the 
Erie  canal,  there  arose  in  that  state  a  widespread  and  vigorous 
popular  agitation  for  a  through  waterway  to  the  West.  It  is  to  an 
examination  of  this  movement  that  we  next  turn  our  attention. 

Chapter  II. — The  Popular  Movement  for  Internal 

Improvements. 

The  close  of  the  first  quarter  of  the  nineteenth  century  was 
marked  by  vigorous  efforts  on  the  part  of  many  states  of  the  Union 
to  improve  their  transportation  facilities.  The  commercial  cities 
on  the  Atlantic  seaboard  had  watched  with  interest  the  growth 
of  the  West  and  the  rapid  expansion  of  its  trade  soon  after  1815. 
Yet,  apart  from  local  sporadic  movements,  no  very  serious  atten- 
tion had  been  paid  to  the  matter  of  a  better  western  communica- 
tion. To  this  end,  however,  these  cities  now  became  the  leaders  of 
popular  movements  in  their  respective  states.  In  the  West,  the 
transportation  enterprises  proposed,  and  later  carried  through, 
were  scarcely  less  numerous  or  important.*     The  principal  works 

*  "It  is  reported  that,  from  an  actual  examination  of  the  subject,  no  less 
than  102  canals  are  made,  making,  and  projected  in  the  United  States." 
Niles'  Reg.,  XXX   (July  1,  1826),  p.  317. 


168  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

built  Avere  designed  to  connect  the  Great  Lakes  with  the  Ohio  and  the 
Mississippi  rivers.  The  minor  works  were  either  branches  of  the 
main  lines,  or  short  ones  to  provide  outlets  for  the  trade  of  the 
interior  of  the  states.  Before  entering  upon  a  discussion  of  the 
movement  in  Pennsylvania,  an  examination  of  the  causes  giving 
rise  at  this  particular  time  to  the  general  activity  of  the  eastern  and 
western  states  in  transportation  improvements  demands  attention. 

In  spite  of  the  large  immigration  into  the  West  before  1815,  its 
economic  importance  until  then  was  comparatively  inconsiderable. 
This  was  due  largely  to  the  fact  that  the  conditions  governing  the 
prosperity  of  newly-settled  regions  were  absent.*  Isolated  from  the 
markets  of  the  eastern  seaboard,  the  western  farmers  were  obliged 
to  send  most  of  their  surplus  produce  down  the  Mississippi.  The 
route  was  long  and  dangerous,  and  there  was  indeed  little  demand 
for  their  commodities  in  the  sparsely  settled  districts  along  the 
loAver  course  of  the  river.  Hence  most  of  their  exports  had  to  be 
sent  to  market  around  by  sea  to  the  Atlantic  cities  or  to*  foreign 
countries.  The  value  of  these  shipments  was  small.f  Local  manu- 
factories existed  turning  out  such  articles  as  were  necessary  for 
the  simple  economy  of  the  western  settlements.  Yet  even  under 
these  conditions,  here  and  there  in  the  Atlantic  states,  especially  in 
the  cities  along  the  coast,  groups  of  far-seeing  citizens  could  be 
found  who  believed  that  the  West  had  a  -bright  future.  Many  had 
abundant  faith  in  its  possibilities.  But  its  trade  was  relatively  too 
unimportant,  as  yet,  to  attract  the  attention  of  the  greater  propor- 
tion of  the  population. 

Soon  after  the  war  of  1812,  however,  two  events  occurred  Avhich 
profoundly  affected  the  development  of  the  West.  The  introduction 
of  the  steamboat  and,  by  1817,  its  common  use  upon  the  Mississippi 
and  its  tributaries,  brought  the  West  into  easy  communication  with 
the  seaboard.     The  result  was  an  immediate  increase  of  trade. $ 

*  An  excellent  discussion  of  these  influences,  their  absence  in  the  West 
before  1815,  and  the  circumstances  giving  rise  t6  the  economic  importance 
of  the  West  after  that  date  is  given  by  Prof.  G.  S.  Callender  in  the  Q.  J.  Ec, 
xvii    (1902-03),  pp.  116-137. 

f  Roads,  of  course,  led  over  the  mountains  to  the  eastern  seaboard,  but 
very  few  articles  would  pay  for  their  conveyance  there  by  land.  Live  stock, 
however,  was  frequently  driven  to  the  eastern  market. 

±  "This  commerce  is  already  [1818]  very  great  and  fast  augmenting.  As 
an  example  of  the  constant  and  increasing  movement  on  the  Mississippi  and 


A.  L.  Bishop — Tlie  State  Worhs  of  Pennsylvania.  169 

But  what  was  even  more  significant  was  the  fact  that  the  spread 
of  cotton  culture  into  the  southwest  had  now  given  to  the  states 
of  the  northwest  their  first  important  market.  These  two  events 
happening  about  the  same  time  furnished  the  necessary  conditions 
for  a  speedy  development.  A  lively  trade  now  sprang  up  between 
the  farmers  of  the  northwest  and  the  southern  cotton  planters. 
The  absence  of  complete  aud  reliable  statistics  makes  it  impossible 
accurately  to  determine  its  extent,  but  they  are  sufficient  to  estab- 
lish the  belief  that  it  was  large,  and  also  that  it  grew  up  almost 
entirely  after  1815.* 

The  states  on  the  Atlantic  seaboard  were  soon  engaged  in  a  keen 
rivalry  for  the  trade  of  the  West.  Since  commercial  expansion  or 
obliteration  depended  upon  success  or  failure  in  this  contest,  their 
capital  cities  entered  upon  the  struggle  with  tenacity  of  purpose.  It 
is  scarcely  necessary  to  mention  the  fact  that  the  outcome  must 
depend  upon  the  question  as  to  which  one  of  these  states  could 
provide  the  quickest  and  cheapest  route  of  transportation.  Hence 
those  who  had  long  advocated  such  improvements  soon  found  them- 
selves in  the  midst  of  a  popular  movement  for  better  transporta- 
tion facilities  to  the  "West.  New  York  took  the  lead  and  on  July 
4th,  1817,  the  first  excavations  were  made  for  a  canal  between 
Eome  and  Utica.  In  October,  1825,  the  through  line  was  com- 
pleted and  the  city  of  'New  York  was  united  with  the  Great 
Lakes  by  a  stretch  of  navigable  waters  via  the  Hudson  river  and 
the  Erie  canal. f 

its  tributaiy  waters,  and  of  the  immediate  advantages  to  be  derived  to  us  by 
connecting  those  waters  with  the  Susquehanna,  by  means  of  the  Allegheny 
river,  I  will  state  that  there  will  be  thirty  steamboats  this  year  [1818]  on 
the  Mississippi  and  its  tributary  streams:  594  flat-bottomed  boats  and 
300  barges  arrived  at  New  Orleans  from  the  upper  country  in  the  year  end- 
ing October  1st,  1816;  1500  flat-bottomed  boats  and  500  barges,  ditto,  in  the 
year  to  October  1,  1817.  A  large  proportion  of  this  came  from  the  waters 
which  could  be  miited  with  the  Susquehanna,  and  of  course  would  come  to 
the  Philadelphia  market." — Breck,  Sketch  of  Internal  Improvements  already 
made  by  Pennsylvania,  p.  76. 

*  Callender,  State  Enterprise  and  Corporations,  in  Q.  J.  Ec,  xvii,  1902-03, 
p.  128. 

f  Soon  after  the  completion  of  the  Erie  canal  the  state  supplemented  it 
with  an  extensive  system  of  canals  reaching  many  parts  of  the  state.  Note 
that  in  New  York  the  through  line  to  the  West  was  built  first. 


170  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

The  worthy  example  of  Xew  York,  as  has  been  said,  was  a  strong 
factor  in  arousing  Pennsylvania  to  action.  Scarcely  had  the  Erie 
canal  been  commenced  before  signs  of  the  approaching  popular 
movement  appeared,  l^umerous  articles  were  published  in  the 
newspapers  or  were  circulated  in  pamphlet  form  for  the  purpose  of 
impressing  upon  the  public  the  need  of  a  canal  to  compete  with 
New  York.  A  pamphlet  written  by  a  state  senator*  from  Phila- 
delphia deserves  notice.  The  writer  set  forth  in  the  strongest 
language,  "the  superior  situation  of  Philadelphia,  geographically 
considered,  for  the  attraction  of  the  great  and  increasing  trade  of 
the  countries  bordering  on  the  Susquehanna,  the  lakes  and  the 
western  rivers."  He  compared  the  distances  from  Pittsburg  to 
ISTew  York  and  Philadelphia,  and  showed  a  handsome  margin  in 
favor  of  the  latter. f  The  resources  of  the  two  states  were  con- 
trasted to  the  advantage  of  Pennsylvania.  The  ISTew  York  canal 
commissioners  were  quoted  to  the  effect  that  they  expected  from 
the  Erie  canal  a  revenue  from  which  "the  whole  expense  of  this 
magnificent  operation  would  be  defrayed  in  a  few  years,  and  an 
immense  revenue  would  be  secured  to  the  state.  This  would  enable 
it  to  patronize  literature  and  science,  to  promote  education,  morality 
and  religion;  to  encourage  agriculture,  manufactures  and  com- 
merce; and  to  establish  the  interest  of  human  improvement  upon 
an  imperishable  basis  and  to  an  incalculable  extent."  If  these 
results  were  confidently  expected  in  ISTew  York,'  the  outlook  in  Penn- 
sylvania was  certainly  more  promising.  Unless  immediate  action 
were  taken,  however,  the  natural  advantages  of  the  latter  state 
were  bound  to  be  outweighed  by  the  promptitude  of  N'ew  York. 

With  reference  to  Baltimore  as  a  rival,  the  situation  was  also 
alarming.  Via  the  new  national  road,  that  city  Avas  ninety  miles 
nearer  the  Ohio  valley  than  was  Philadelphia.  Moreover  the  road 
was  over  a  part  of  its  length  free  from  tolls, "|  while  heavy  fees 
had  to  be  paid  upon  the  whole  distance  from  Philadelphia  to 
Pittsburg.  To  protect  the  commerce  of  Philadelphia,  in  the  face 
of  competition  from  both  the  north  and  the  south,  the  need  of  a 

*  Breek,  Sketch  of  Internal  Improvements  already  made  by  Pennsylvania 
(1818). 

f  He  estimated  the  distance  from  Pittsburg  to  New  York  at  76GJ  miles; 
from  Pittsburg  to  Philadelpliia,  423  miles. 

$  It  was  toll  free  between  Fort  Cumberland  and  Brownsville,  a  distance  of 
72  miles. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worlds  of  Pennsylvania.  171 

navigable  water  communication  to  the  West  was  so  urgent*  that, 
if  necessary,  she  ought  to  build  it  alone.  The  views  thus  set  forth, 
and  the  arguments  used,  were  indicative  of  a  feeling  shared  by 
many,  especially  in  Philadelphia. 

The  movement  spread  gradually,  and  soon  it  began  to  be  reflected 
in  speeches  and  resolutions  in  the  legislature.  On  January  3d, 
1823,  Dr.  William  Lehmanf  proposed  the  following  resolution  in 
the  house,  which  was  adopted : — 

"Resolved,  That  the  Committee  on  Roads  and  Inland  N'aviga- 
tion  be  instructed  to  consider  the  expediency  of  appointing  commis- 
sioners, whose  duty  it  shall  be  to  furnish  annually  to  the  Legislature 
in  the  early  part  of  the  sessions  a  properly  digested  view  of  the 
state  of  the  roads,  bridges  and  watercourses  of  the  state ;  and  also 
to  cause  to  be  explored  the  route  between  the  Schuylkill  and  Sus- 
quehanna through  the  great  valley  of  Chester  and  Lancaster 
counties  and  also  the  most  suitable  routes  between  the  waters  of  the 
Susquehanna,  the  Allegheny,  and  Lake  Erie,  for  the  purpose  of 
ascertaining  the  practicability  and  the  j^robable  expense  of  connect- 
ing these  streams  by  a  water  communication.''^ 

On  February  24th,  the  committee  reported  a  bill  entitled  "An 
Act  providing  for  the  appointment  of  a  board  of  commissioners  for 
the  purpose  of  promoting  the  internal  improvement  of  the  state." 
]^o  immediate  action  was  taken.  On  the  5th  of  December  of  the 
same  year,  however,  it  was  referred  to  a  special  committee§  and 
two  weeks  later  this  committee  reported  ||  that  examinations  and 
surveys  ought  to  be  made  at  once  for  a  main  route  of  water  com- 
munication between  the  Susquehanna  and  the  Allegheny  rivers. 
This  opinion  was  formed  only  after  a  careful  consideration  of  the 
favorable  geographical  and  material  endowments  possessed  by  Penn- 

.  *  The  movement  even  in  its  commencement  was  first  to  build  a  main  line 
of  communication  to  the  West. — "To  counter-act  these  threatened  evils,  we 
must  furnish  a,  cheaper  water  intercourse  by  some  of  the  routes  hinted 
at.  .  .  .  We  must  work  our  way  to  the  Susqiiehanna,  and  thence  to  the 
Allegheny  first  and  Ave  must  go  about  it  soon  too." — <Breck,  Sketch  of  Inter- 
nal Improvements  already  made  by  Peimsylvania,  p.  70. 

f  Dr.  Lehman  was  one  of  the  most  earnest  advocates  that  could  be  found 
in  the  state  for  the  adoption  of  a  system  of  internal  improvement.  At  this 
time  he  was  chairman  of  the  committee  of  roads  and  inland  navigation. 

$J.  H.  Eep.,  1822-23,  p.  186. 

§  Messrs.  Lehman,  E.  Lewis,  Reynolds,  Hummell,  Diven,  Maclay,  Ogle, 
Clarke  and  Everhart.— J.  H.  Rep.,  1823-24,  p.  82. 

II  Full  text  of  Report  in  J.  H.  Rep.,  1823-24,  pp.  163-170. 


172  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

sylvania;  and  of  tlie  urgent  necessity  of  keeping  pace  with  the 
states  to  the  north  and  to  the  south  to  prevent  commercial  extinc- 
tion.* As  a  preliminary  step  to  the  system  of  transportation 
improvements  which  they  felt  to  be  impending,  the  committee 
urged  the  legislature  to  consider  favorably  the  bill  providing  for 
the  appointment  of  a  board  of  commissioners.  After  numerous 
discussions,  it  passed  both  housesf  and  received  the  approval  of 
Governor  Shultze  on  March  27th,  1824.$ 

This  act  authorized  the  governor  to  appoint  three  commissioners 
to  explore  routes  for  a  canal  from  the  East  to  Pittsburg.  Three 
possible  routes  were  to  be  examined,^ — one  via  the  waters  of  the 
Juniata  and  Conemaugh  rivers ;  a  second  through  the  west  branch  of 
the  Susquehanna,  the  Sinnemahoning  and  the  Allegheny;  the  third, 
via  the  upper  waters  of  the  Schuylkill,  Mahony  creek,  the  Susque- 
hanna, the  Moshannon  or  Clearfield  and  Black  Lick  creeks,  the 
Conemaugh  and  Allegheny  rivers,  xilso  the  country  between  Phila- 
delphia and  the  Susquehanna  was  to  be  explored. 


*  "They  are  sensible  that  the  period  has  arrived  when  Pennsylvania  is 
called  upon  by  every  consideration  of  interest,  duty,  and  honor,  to  bring  into 
active  exertion  those  financial  and  geographical  means  with  which  she  is 
endowed  by  a  bountiful  Creator. 

On  the  north  side  of  Pennsylvania,  before  the  lapse  of  many  months,  New 
York  will  have  united  by  a  canal  of  more  than  400  miles  in  length  the 
Hudson  River  with  Lakes  Champlain  and  Erie.  On  the  south  side  of  the 
state,  Maryland  and  Virginia  have  projected  a  noble  scheme  of  uniting  the 
Potowmac  with  the  Ohio.  These  improvements,  so  honorable  to  the  enter- 
prise of  the  respective  states,  and  so  useful  to  our  common  coimtry,  as  per- 
manent sources  of  national  riches  and  aggrandisement,  should  excite  a  spirit 
of  emulation,  and  induce  Pennsylvania  to  create  improvements  of  a  similar 
character,  and  endeavor  to  fix  within  her  own  limits,  and  direct  to  her  own 
seaport,  at  least  a  portion  of  that  trade  and  wealth  which  awaits  the  enter- 
prise of  those  states  who  establish  easy  and  cheap  communications  with  the 
vast  populations  rising  in  the  West.  .  .  .  Noiseless  and  modest  she  may 
continue  to  move,  but  unless  she  awakes  to  a  true  sense  of  her  situation, 
and  ascends  to  times  and  circumstances,  she  will  be  deprived  of  the  sources 
of  piddic  prosperity,  her  career  of  wealth  will  be  less  progressive  than  that 
of  other  states,  and  instead  of  regaining  the  high  commercial  rank  she  once 
held,  she  will  be  driven  even  from  her  present  station  in  the  system  of  the 
Confederacy."— From  Report  of  Committee,  in  J.  H.  Rep.,  1823-24,  p.  164. 

f  At  the  third  reading  in  the  legislature  the  vote  stood  53  yeas,  34  nays. — 
J.  H.  Rep.,  1823-24,  p.  915. 

XJ.  H.  Rep.,  1823-24,  p.  1101. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worhs  of  Pennsylvania.  173 

The  appointments*  were  made  within  four  days  of  the  passage 
of  the  act.  Since  a  report,  containing  all  the  necessary  informa- 
tion concerning  the  ahove  routes,  was  required  to  be  made  to  the 
governor  of  the  state  before  the  next  session  of  the  legislature,  the 
task  laid  out  for  the  commissioners  was  no  mean  one.  Examination 
and  surveys  were  immediately  commenced,  and  on  February  2d, 
1825,  the  reportf  was  ready.  It  bears  evidence  of  extensive  work. 
Much  difficulty  was  experienced  in  securing  the  services  of  a  com- 
petent engineer,  and  the  work  had  to  be  commenced  without  one. 
Their  labors  convinced  the  commissioners  of  the  "perfect  practica- 
bility of  making  a  canal"  throughout  the  whole  distance  from 
Philadelphia  to  Pittsburg.  The  route  recommended  comprised  four 
sections,  as  follows: — 

1.  From  Philadelphia  to  the  Susquehanna,  a  few  miles  above 
Harrisburg. 

2.'  From  the  east  bank  of  the  Susquehanna  to  the  upper  forks 
of  the  Frankstown  branch  of  the  Juniata  near  Hollidaysburg. 

3.  From  this  point  over  the  Allegheny  mountain,  by  a  tunnel 
four  miles  long,  to  the  forks  of  the  little  Conemaugh  river. 

■1.     From  this  point  to  Pittsburg. 

The  arguments  brought  forward  in  favor  of  the  improvement 
were  very  much  the  same  as  those  already  mentioned.^  In  spite 
of  the  efforts  of  Philadelphia's  enterprising  neighbors,  it  was 
confidentlv  asserted  that  with  a  canal  to  the  "West,  she  would  become 
the  metropolis  of  the  Union.  Moreover,  both  the  impetus  it  would 
give  to  the  economic  development  of  the  state,  and  its  financial 
success,  were  urged.     The  computed  cost  of  the  three  sections  from 

*  The  commissioners  appointed  were  Jacob  Holgate,  of  the  city  of  Philadel- 
phia; James  Clarke,  of  ^Vestmorehind  county;  and  Charles  Trcziyulney,  of 
Centre  county,  all  supporters  of  tlie  political  party  in  power.  See  J.  H.  Rep., 
1824-25,  II,  pp.  285-87,  and  Harrisburg  Chronicle  of  April  12th,  1824. 

t  Full  text  of  report  in  J.  H.  Rep.,  1824-25,  II,  239-285. 

%  Tlie  report  was  signed  by  only  two  of  the  commissioners.  The  reasons 
for  ]\Ir.  Trcziyulney  not  signing  it  were  set  forth  by  him  in  a  letter  to  Gov- 
ernor Shultze,  on  February  9th,  1825,  and  published  in  the  Journal  of  the 
House  of  R.epresentatives,  1824-25,  II,  page  287.  Mr.  Trcziyulney  made 
a  report,  however,  to  the  legislature  in  the  same  manner  as  the  other  com- 
missioners. His  report  differed  from  those  associated  with  Mm  mainly  with 
regard  to  passing  judgment  upon  the  most  suitable  route  for  connecting  the 
eastern  and  western  waters  without  an  examination  of  all  the  routes. 


174  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

Middletown  to  Pittsburg,  built  with  American  locks,*  was  $3,000,000. 
Money  could  be  borrowed  at  4%  per  cent.,  and  the  canal  completed 
in  six  years.  It  was  predicted  that  the  tolls  would  "support  the 
government  and  educate  every  child  in  the  commonwealth."  ^o 
immediate  action  was  taken  by  the  government  to  execute  the  work 
proposed.  However,  the  report  of  the  committee  was  the  subject 
of  a  good  deal  of  discussion  both  within  the  legislature  and 
throughout  the  country,  and  it  Avas  not  without  effect  in  hastening 
the  commencement  of  the  Pennsylvania  canal. 

Enough  has  already  been  said  to  suggest  that  Philadelphia  had 
much  at  stake  in  the  struggle  for  the  trade  of  the  "West.  As  a 
rival  of  'New  York  and  Baltimore,  it  was  now  a  serious  matter  to 
her  whether  the  flames  of  the  popular  movement  were  fanned  or 
extinguished.  It  was  Avell  knowai  by  many  of  her  citizens  that  the 
scheme  was  by  no  means  popular  in  some  parts  of  the  state.  Appre- 
hensions of  the  expense  involved  and  fear  of  failure  made  many 
public-spirited  citizens  hesitate  to  endorse  a  movement  for  com- 
mencing a  canal  to  the  West.  Besides,  its  promoters  had  no  con- 
certed and  well-formulated  plans,  and  little  opportunity  to  exchange 
opinions.  Hence  it  was  only  natural  to  expect  that  some  fruitful 
minds  should  devise  a  means  by  which  the  popular  agitation  might 
be  directed,  and  by  which  thousands  in  the  remote  parts  of  the  state 
might  be  educated  in  the  matter  of  transportation  improvements. 
This  was  furnished  by  the  formation  of  "The  Pennsylvania  Society 
for   the    promotion    of    Internal    Improvements    in    the    Common- 

wealth."t 

The  preliminary  meeting  was  held  on  ISTovember  26th,  1824,  and 
on  the  14th  of  the  following  month  the  formal  organization  took 
place  and  the  constitution  was  adopted. $     Its  object  was  clearly 

*  The  European  plan  of  buildinj?  locks  of  cut  stone,  and  counter  arches  of 
brick  turned  in  the  bottom,  was  very  expensive.  On  the  New  York  canals 
and  the  Union  canal  of  Pennsylvania  wooden  foiuidations  were  used,  and  the 
commissioners  recommended  these  for  the  proposed  canal. 

f  This  organization,  when  referred  to  later,  will  be  called  the  Improve- 
ment Society. 

I  The  full  list  of  officers  was:  President,  John  Sergeant;  Vice  Presidents, 
John  Connelly,  ]\Iat])ew  Carey,  and  Paul  Beck,  Jr.;  Treasurer,  John  White; 
Recording  Secretary,  John  Y.  Clarke;  Corresponding  Secretary,  Gerard 
Ralston;  Acting  Committee,  iiathew  Carey,  Joseph  Memphill,  Richard 
Peters,  Jr.,  Stephen  Duncan,  and  Thomas  Biddle.  The  full  text  of  the  Con- 
stitution ni;iy  lie  fduiid  in  r;un]>hl(>l<.  Xo.  143,  State  Library  of  Pennsylvania. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worls  of  Pennsylvania.  175 

indicated  in  its  name.  Forty-eight  of  tlie  leading  citizens  of 
Philadelphia  were  the  charter  members,  while  the  honorary  list 
contained  the  names  of  some  of  the  most  active  friends  of  internal 
improvements  in  the  United  States.  Within  a  year  a  fund  of  $5,540 
was  accumulated  by  the  members  paying  $100  each  and  by  sub- 
scriptions from  interested  citizens  and  corporations.*  The  edu- 
cational work  was  placed  in  the  hands  of  an  "Acting  Committee." 
Broadly  speaking,  it  was  twofold, — first,  to  disseminate  knowledge 
throughout  the  state  regarding  the  present  transportation  situation 
and  the  urgent  need  of  improvements;  second,  to  collect  informa- 
tion possessed  by  other  states  and  foreign  countries  concerning  trans- 
portation. The  former  was  designed  to  strengthen  the  ranks  of  the 
progressive  party  until  a  united  effort  .would  force  the  legislature 
to  action.  The  latter  would  put  them  in  possession  of  the  technical 
knowledge  required  for  the  work  of  construction  as  soon  as  it 
should  be  authorized. 

Several  movements  w^ere  soon  started  to  effect  the  first  of  these 
objects.  To  these  attention  will  be  given  later.  As  a  preliminary 
measure,  however,  a  circular  letter  was  sent  to  leading  men  in  all 
parts  of  the  state,  outlining  the  plans  and  purposes  of  the  society 
and  inviting  their  co-operation.  A  variety  of  pamphlets  on  turn- 
pike roads,  canals  and  railroads  was  published  and  widely  circu- 
lated. In  these  and  similar  efforts  to  mould  public  opinion,  many 
of  the  city  and  country  newspapers  gave  their  support. 

To  attain  the  second  object,  the  recent  experience  of  !N^ew  York 
in  building  the  Erie  canal  was  studied.  In  addition  to  this,  Wil- 
liam Strickland,  an  architect  and  engineer  of  Philadelphia,  was 
employed  at  a  liberal  salary  to  make  an  investigation  of  European 
railroads  and  canals.  He  left  Philadelphia  in  March,  1825,  and 
returned  the  following  December.  Most  of  his  time  was  spent  in 
England  and  Scotland.     He  procured  for  the  society  a  working 

*  These  were  principally  coal  companies.  See  Carey,  Brief  View  of  the 
System  of  Internal  Improvements  of  the  State  of  Pennsylvania,  p.  7. 

"At  a  meeting  of  the  'Pennsylvania  Societj''  for  the  promotion  of  Internal 
Improvements  in  the  Commonwealth'  held  at  Heiskell's  Hotel,  February  25, 
1825,  .  .  .  two  letters  were  read,  one  from  the  Lehigh  Coal  Navigation 
Company,  highly  ajiprobatory  of  the  objects  and  efTorts  of  the  society,  and 
tendering  a  donation  of  $200  as  their  contribution  towards  the  effectuation 
of  those  objects — the  other  of  similar  import,  with  a  donation  of  $100  from 
the  Schuylkill  NaA-igation  Company." — United  States  Gazette,  March 
1st,  1825. 


176  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

model  of  a  locomotive  engine  of  the  best  type  tlien  kno-mi,  having 
a  two-man  power.  His  report,*  which  was  soon  published,  con- 
tained a  collection  of  useful  information  concerning  the  various 
purposes  of  his  mission.  He  described  conditions  as  he  found  them, 
and  made  numerous  drawings  of  various  parts  of  railways,  canals, 
etc.  He  did  not  apply  the  information  received  to  American  con- 
ditions, nor  did  he  recommend  the  adoption  of  either  railways  or 
canals  in  Pennsylvania.  In  all  points  of  public  policy  he  was 
entirely  non-committal. 

Meanwhile  vigorous  efforts  were  being  put  forth  to  spread  the 
popular  movement.  At  a  meeting  of  the  Improvement  Society  held 
in  February,  1825,  a  committee  was  appointedf  to  prepare  an 
address^  to  the  citizens  of  the  state  concerning  the  urgent  need  of 
a  direct  line  of  communication  to  the  West.  Within  a  week  it  was 
ready  and  soon  it  was  widely  circulated.§  Its  framers  disclaimed  at 
the  outset  any  prejudice  for  or  against  any  particular  route.  The 
same  attitude  was  announced  regarding  the  adoption  of  a  railway 
or  a  canal.  Not  until  accurate  explorations  and  surveys  had  been 
made,  and  fuller  information  obtained  by  disinterested  parties, 
could  these  questions  be  properly  determined.  Waiving  these  minor 
considerations  for  the  time  being,  it  was  earnestly  hoped  that  there 
would  be  a  united  effort  on  the  part  of  all  the  people  of  the  state 
to  bring  about  a  transportation  line  to  the  West.  Three  principal 
arguments  were  brought  forward  to  justify  the  present  appeal  to 
the  people — the  financial  benefit ;  the  need  of  the  proposed  work 
to  preserve  the  commercial  life  of  Philadelphia;    and  the  effect  it 

*  Reports  on  canals,  railways,  roads,  etc.,  made  to  "The  Pennsylvania 
Society  for  the  Promotion  of  Internal  Improvement,"  by  William  Strickland, 
Architect  and  Engineer.     Philadelphia,  1826. 

f  The  committee  consisted  of  Messrs.  Samuel  Archer,  Stephen  Girard, 
Nicholas  Biddle,  John  Connelly,  Paul  Beck,  John  Moss,  E.  S.  Burd,  Nathan 
Sellers,  Samuel  Wetherill,  Thomas  Leiper,  John  Sergeant,  Nathaniel  Chap- 
man, Samuel  D.  Ingham,  Thomas  Cadvvallader,  and  Mathew  Carey. — United 
States  Gazette,  March  1st,  182.5. 

$A  brief  address  had  been  published  in  the  United  States  Gazette,  etc.,  on 
January  25th,  1825.  It  occupied  one  column  and  was  concerned  mainly  with 
showing  the  relative  decline  of  Philadelphia's  trade  as  compared  with  New 
York  and  Baltimore. 

§  "An  address  to  the  Citizens  of  the  Commonwealth  of  Pennsylvania  by  a 
Committee  of  the  Permsylvania  Society  for  the  Promotion  of  Internal 
.  Improvements  in  the  Commonwealth."  It  was  issued  in  the  form  of  a  pam- 
phlet of  ten  pages.     '.Fhe  newspapers  of  the  state  were  requested  to  copy  it. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  WorJcs  of  Pennsylvania.  177 

would  have  upon  tlie  economic  activity  of  tlie  state.    Let  us  briefly 
examine  the  case*  as  presented. 

The  financial  success  of  a  trunk  line  to  the  West  was  assured. 
The  tolls  of  the  Erie  canal  had  increased  from  $20,224  in  1821  to 
$340,642  in  1824.  .The  yearly  interest  on  the  capital  invested  in 
the  canal  was  $375,823 ;  and  even  before  its  completion  the  tolls 
were  almost  equal  to  this  sum.  ISTew  York  expected  to  liquidate  the 
entire  debt  in  ten  years,  and  then  the  canal  fund  would  defray 
all  the  expenses  of  government,  and  leave  an  annual  surplus  to 
extend  internal  improveonents  within  the  state.  If  this  could  be 
done,  surely  Pennsylvania,  a  richer  state,  and  one  better  situated 
for  controlling  the  trade  of  the  West,  had  ensured  to  her,  from  the 
start,  the  ultimate  success  of  a  similar  work.* 

Philadelphia's  peculiar  interest  in  the  proposed  improvement  was 
explained  by  the  fact  that  the  exertions  of  her  neighbors  on  the 
north  and  on  the  south  threatened  her  commercial  extinction.  The 
present  efforts  were  calculated  not  merely  to  regain  what  was  lost. 
The  struggle  was  of  a  more  serious  nature.  For  without  a  more 
rapid  and  less  expensive  route  than  then  existed,  not  even  the  trade 
with  the  western  part  of  Pennsylvania  could  be  retained. 

To  illustrate  the  general  economic  effect  of  internal  improve- 
ments, the  advantages  England  had  derived  from  her  canal  system 
were  outlined.  Reference  also  was  made  to  the  stimulating  effect 
of  the  Middlesex  canalf  upon  the  dormant  energies  of  JSTew  Hamp- 
shire. A  "more  recent  and  still  more  impressive"  instance  was 
found  in  N'ew  York.  Land  contiguous  to  the  Erie  canal  had  risen 
in  value  from  three  to  five  dollars  per  acre.  Towns  Avere  spring- 
ing up  along  its  banks  in  places  where,  a  few  years  previously, 
there  were  no  settlements  at  all.     Small  villages,  within  three  or 

*  "Though  it  may  at  first  appear  doubtful,  we  feel  confident,  that  immense 
as  are  the  benefits  secured  to  New  York  by  her  Erie  canal,  the  Pennsylvania 
canal  (or  railway  as  the  case  may  be)  to  connect  the  settlements  on  the 
Allegheny  with  those  on  the  Susquehanna,  the  Schuylkill,  and  the  Delaware, 
will  insure  to  this  state  more  solid  advantages." — Extract  from  the  address. 

f  Tlie  company  was  incorporated  in  1789,  although  the  canal  was  not 
completed  till  1808.  It  extended  from  Clielmsford  on  the  Merrimac,  two 
miles  above  Lowell,  to  one  of  the  inlets  of  Charles  river,  in  Charlestown. 
This  canal,  like  the  Boston  and  Lowell  railroad,  was  designed  to  facilitate 
intercourse  between  the  Merrimac  valley,  in  New  Hampshire,  and  Boston. — • 
Tanner,  Canals  and  Railroads  of  the  United  States,  p.  43. 


178  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worhs  of  Pennsylvania. 

four  years,  had  doubled  their  population  and  were  now  thriving 
towns. 

The  advantages  that  would  accrue  to  all  classes  from  improved 
transportation  methods  were  carefully  detailed.  The  farmer  would 
find  increased  demand,  brisker  sales  and  higher  prices  for  his 
produce;  the  merchant,  a  wider  field  for  his  business;  the  manu- 
facturer and  mechanic,  more  certain  employment  and  better  pay 
for  their  industry;  the  capitalist,  a  better  interest  on  his  money; 
and  the  owner  of  lands  and  houses,  a  rise  in  rents  of  25  or  30  per 
cent.  Since  every  class  participated  in  general  prosperity,  and 
suffered  in  general  depression,  the  movement  for  internal  improve- 
ments deserved  the  support  of  all. 

While  the  attention  of  the  public  was  being  directed  repeatedly  to 
the  subject  of  transportation,  the  Improvement  Society  was  occu- 
pied in  promoting  another  movement.  Its  purpose  was  to  impress 
the  legislature  with  the  strength  of  the  popular  movement.  At  the 
suggestion  of  the  society,  a  public  convention*  of  the  citizens  of  the 
city  and  county  of  Philadelphia  was  held  in  the  county  court  house 
on  January  24th,  1825. f  The  attendance  was  large  and  the  whole 
subject  of  internal  improvements  was  discussed  at  length.:]: 

A  -resolution  was  passed  to  the  effect  that  a  "water, communica- 
tion ought  to  be  opened  with  all  practical  expedition  between  the 
Susquehanna  and  Allegheny  rivers,  and  between  the  Allegheny 
river  and  Lake  Erie,  at  such  points  as  the  wisdom  of  a  suitable 
board  of  skilful  and  experienced  engineers  may  select" ;  also  that 
the  work  ought  to  be  built  and  paid  for  by  the  state.  A  committee 
of  twenty-four§  was  appointed  to  prepare  a  memorial  to  the  legis- 
lature embodying  the  opinions   of  the  convention.      The   "Acting 

*  A  full  account  of  the  proceedings  of  this  convention  is  given  in  the 
United  States  Gazette,  January  28th,  1825. 

t  The  meeting  adjourned  after  some  preliminary  discussion  and  reassem- 
bled three  days  later. 

$  Chief  Justice  William  Tilghman  was  president  of  tlie  meeting,  and  Nicho- 
las Biddle,  President  of  the  United  States  Bank,  was  secretary. 

§  The  following  gentlemen  composed  the  committee: — Chief  Justice  Tilgh- 
man, Judge  Duncan,  John  Sergeant,  N.  Biddle,  M.  Carey,  R.  Peters,  Jr.,  C.  J. 
Ingersoll,  W.  T.  Duane,  J.  Randall,  B.  Chew,  Jr.,  Manuel  Eyre,  Samuel  Weth- 
erill,  C.  Evans,  Samuel  Arohei-,  Daniel  W.  Coxe,  Thomas  Biddle,  Paul  Beck, 
Jr.,  George  Vaux,  Charles  Penrose,  T.  ^^■.  Morris,  Samuel  Mifflin,  James 
Eonaldson,  Daniel  Groves  and  -lolm  Nagle.  This  committee  contained  a 
number  of  members  of  the  Improvement  Society. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania.  179 

Committee"  of  the  Improvement  Society  rendered  valuable  assist- 
ance in  this  matter. 

The  memorial*  was  duly  prepared  and  the  organization  for  its 
extensive  circulation  was  carried  out  even  to  the  minutest  details. 
Ward  and  district  committees  in  every  county  in  the  state  were 
engaged  to  secure  signatures.  An  examination  of  the  county 
newspapers  of  this  date  shows  that  the  memorial  aroused  much 
interest.  Public  meetings  were  held  in  the  halls  or  schoolhouses  in 
many  communities  to  discuss  the  various  phases  of  the  question  at 
issue.  It  took  but  a  few  days  to  complete  the  canvass  in  some  dis- 
tricts, while  in  others  the  matter  required  more  time.  By  the 
middle  of  February,  the  memorials  began  to  be  presented  to  the 
legislature,  and,  for  some  weeks  afterwards,  they  continued  to  pour 
in.f  Their  effect  was  reflected  in  a  billlj:  reported  in  the  senate  on 
the  last  day  of  February,  1825,  entitled,  "An  Act  to  appoint  a  Board 
of  Canal  Commissioners."  It  passed  the  third  reading  on  the 
eighth  of  the  following  month  and  thenext  day  the  clerk  of  the 
senate  presented  it  to  the  legislature  for  concurrence.  With  vari- 
ous changes  and  amendments  it  passed  the  third  reading  in  the 
house  on  April  6th  by  a  vote  of  63  to  15.  A  compromise  on  the 
points  of  difference  was  easily  adjusted  and  on  April  11th  it  was 
duly  approved§  by  Governor  Shultze. 

This  act  repealed  the  one  of  March  27th,  1824,  and  now  empow- 
ered the  governor  to  appoint  five  canal  commissioners.  Their  duty 
was  to  take  all  necessary  steps  in  preparation  for  "the  establish- 
ment of  a  navigable  communication  between  the  eastern  and  western 
waters  of  the  state,  and  Lake  Erie."  The  board  was  to  choose  one 
of  their  number  for  a  president.  Also  the  appointment  of  a  suit- 
able secretary  with  an  adequate  remuneration  rested  in  their  hands. 

*  For  the  full  text  of  this'  niemoiial  see  Appendix  I,  p.  261. 

f  See  J.  H.  Rep.,  1824-25,  Vol.  I.  The  following  pages  contain  notices  of 
petitions,  as  above,  being  presented:  341,  344,  352,  358,  359,  364,  371  (eight 
different  ones,  Febrnary  16th,  1825),  376,  384  (five,  February  18th,  1825), 
391,  392  (ten,  February  lOth.  1825),  397  (fourteen,  Februaiy  21st,  1825), 
401,  416,  417,  424,  430,  435,  443,  454,  461,  467,  477,  482,  493,  499,  500, 
507,  515,  518,  523,  .529,  536,  547,  557.  574,  .586,  598,  619,  686.  716,  741  (April 
7t.h,  1825).     See  also  Senate  Journal,  1824-25. 

$  Senate  Journal,  1824-25,  p.  519. 

§  J.  H.  Rep.,  1824-25,  I,  p.  816.  Full  text  of  act  in  Pamphlet  Laws,  1824. 
25,  p.  238. 


180  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

1^0  compensation  was  to  be  allowed  for  their  services,  but  they 
were  to  be  reimbursed  for  all  reasonable  expenses  incurred  in  the 
execution  of  tlieir  duties.  Power  Avas  given  to  them  to  employ,  at 
reasonable  salaries,  engineers,  surveyors  and  draftsmen  to  assist  in 
making  examination  and  surveys.  After  this  work  had  been  done, 
the  commissioners  were  instructed  to  make  detailed  estimates  of 
the  sum  of  money  necessary  to  complete  the  canals,  feeders,  and 
reservoirs,  according  to  the  plan  they  should  recommend.  They, 
were  also  directed  to  inquire  how  a  canal  fund  to  build  the  works 
could  best  be  created;  to  ascertain  the  terms  upon  which  loans 
could  be  obtained;  and  to  devise  means  for  providing  for  the 
payment  of  the  interest,  and  for  the  ultimate  liquidation  of  the 
principal. 

Before  the  end  of  April  Governor  Shultze  had  appointed  as 
members  of  the  canal  board.  Dr.  Robert  M.  Patterson  and  John 
Sergeant  of  Philadelphia,  Dr.  William  Darlington  of  Chester 
county,  David  '  Scott  of  Luzerne  county  and  Albert  Gallatin  of 
Fayette  county.*  The  latter,  however,  declined  the  appointment 
and  his  place  was  taken  by  General  Abner  Laycock.  In  conse- 
quence of  the  delay  thus  incurred,  the  board  Avas  not  formally 
organized  until  July  4th,  when  John  Sergeant  was  elected  president 
and  Joseph  Mcllwaine  secretary,  and  the  notes,  papers,  etc.,  of  the 
late  commissioners  were  handed  over  to  the  new  board.  Vigorous 
efforts  were  at  once  undertaken  to  carry  into  execution  the  tasks 
set  for  them.  William  Wilson  was  selected  as  chief  engineer,  and 
at  a  meeting  held  on  October  26th,  reports  were  made  by  him  and 
also  by  John  Mitchell  on  surveys  made  during  the  preceding  months. 
In  December,  closely  following  his  arrival  from  England,  William 
Strickland  was  retained  as  consulting  engineer,  and  engaged  to 
prepare  maps  and  estimates  of  the  several  routes  already  surveyed. 

By  the  appointment  of  a  board  of  canal*  commissioners,  the  aims 
of  the  numerous  friends  of  internal  improvements  had  been  only 
partly  realized.  Some  more  impressive  influence  than  numerous 
petitions  must  be  brought  to  bear  upon  the  government  urging  it  to 
provide  for  the  immediate  commencement  of  the  canal.  This  was 
provided  for  in  the  movement  which  culminated  in  the  Harrisburg 
convention  held  from  August  4th  to  6th,  1825. 

*  Nilcs'  Reg.,  XXVIII  (April  :^ntli,,  1825),  p.  144.  This  journal  in  remark- 
ing upon  the  appointment  pronounced  it   "an  admirable  selection." 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania.  181 

At  a  public  meeting  of  tlie  citizens  of  the  city  and  county  of 
Philadelpliia  on  May  3d,  called  by  the  committee  of  twenty-four, 
the  preliminary  arrangements  were  made  for  this  gathering.  The 
"Acting  Committee"  of  the  Improvement  Society  was  directed  to 
second  the  movement.  A  large  number  of  influential  citizens  was 
present  and  after  a  good  deal  of  discussion  it  was  decided  to  call 
a  convention  at  Harrisburg,  on  August  4th,  to  discuss  the  whole 
subject  of  internal  improvements.*  It  was  believed  that  if  delegates 
from  all  quarters  of  the  state  could  thus  be  assembled,  and  if  a 
majority  of  them  endorsed  the  popular  movement  for  a  canal  to 
the  West,  the  government  then  would  have  no  reason  to  further 
delay  the  commencement  of  the  work.  Six  delegates  from  the  city 
and  seven  from  the  county  of  Philadelphia  were  appointed. f 
The  duties  of  the  committee  of  twenty-four  were  renewed,  and 
arrangements  were  made  for  a  systematic  canvass  so  that  every  part 
of  the  state  should  be  represented.  Within  two  weeks  several 
counties  had  appointed^  or  were  preparing  to  appoint  delegates. 
From  this  time  on  the  county  newspapers  contained  reports  of 
numerous  meetings  held  for  the  discussion  of  transportation 
improvements,  and  to  consider  the  advisability  of  sending  repre- 
sentatives to  the  proposed  convention. 

It  is  not  to  be  understood  that  there  was  no  opposition — far 
from  it.  Even  in  the  town  meeting  held  at  Philadelphia,  serious 
objection s§  were  raised  to  the  resolution  to  call  a  convention.  It 
was  urged  that  such  a  gathering  might  retard  the  movement  for 
putting  through  at  once  the  main  line  of  works;  that  it  might 
excite  angry  feelings ;  or  that  discord  in  the  convention  might 
produce  hostility  in  the  legislature.  As  would  naturally  be  expected, 
the  ai'guments  used  in  other  parts  of  the  state  were  of  a  diiferent 

■'  A  full  account  of  the  proceedings  of  the  meeting  is  given  in  the  United 
States  Gazette  of  May  10th,  1825. 

■j-  For  the  City.  For  the  County. 

J.  Sergeant,  •  J.  Holgate, 

W.  T.  Duane,  Daniel  Groves, 

M.  Carey,  Alex.  McCaraher, 

W.  Lehman,  Geo.  W.  Riter, 

M.  Eyre,  Samuel  Breck, 

C.  T.  Ingersoll.  Jam^s  Ronaldson, 

Samuel  Humphreys. 
J  United  States  Gazette,  May  24th,  1825. 
§  See  United  States  Gazette,  May  24th,  1825. 

Trans.  Conn.  Acad.,  Vol.  XIII.  14  Nov.,  1907. 


182  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

character.  The  Miners'  Journal*  of  Pottsville,  Schuylkill  county, 
was  perhaps  the  most  pronounced  and  hitter  in  its  criticisms.  It 
■was  urged  that  a  portion  of  the  state  would  he  injured  by  the 
improvements  that  were  in  contemplation,  and  that  superabundant 
advantages  would  accrue  to  Philadelphia  at  the  expense  of  the 
country  districts.  These  and  other  objections  were  due  largely 
to  sectional  jealousies  and  local  interests  prevailing  to  a  greater 
or  less  degree  in  various  parts  of  the  state.  Among  the  criticisms 
offered  at  this  time,  however,  were  some  that  proved  to  be  nothing 
short  of  sound  judgment.  Moreover  they  showed,  at  least  to 
unprejudiced  minds,  that  there  were  really  two  sides  to  the  canal 
project.  The  following  article  from  the  Erie  Gazette,  written 
when  the  popular  movement  was  nearly  at  its  height,  is  typical  of 
a  feeling  shared  by  a  conservative  element  in  various  parts  of  the 
state : — 

"The  advocates  of  a  grand  canal  in  this  state  have,  in  taking  the 
N'ew  York  canal  as  the  basis  of  their  calculations,  entirely  over- 
looked its  peculiar  advantages.  The  Clinton  canal  (it  may  with 
propriety  be  so  named)  traverses  a  country  so  level  that  the  amount 
of  its  lockage  does  not  much  exceed  the  height  of  Lake  Erie  above 
tide  water — passes  at  right  angles  to  the  course  of  numerous  rivers 
that  flow  from  the  south,  is  consequently  easily  and  abundantly 
supplied  with  water — possesses  along  its  whole  extent  a  fine  wheat 
country — terminates  in  Lake  Erie,  and  thus  connects  an  immense 
inland  navigation  with  the  ocean  at  the  city  of  N'ew  York,  the 
commercial  depot  of  America.  A  canal  through  Pennsylvania 
would  have  nothing  in  common  with  this,  excepting  its  termina- 
tion in  Lake  Erie.     How  far  it  might  compete  with  others  for  the 

*  "If  the  proposed  improvement  be  m.ade  at  the  expense  of  the  state,  each 
and  every  county  must  and  will  bear  their  equal  proportion  of  the  expense, 
the  benefit  of  which  will  be  received  entirely  by  the  city  and  county  of  Phila- 
delphia, and  those  counties  through  which  the  improvement  will  pass.  Hence 
the  counties  removed  from  the  line  of  communication  ^^^ll  be  paying  for  an 
-improvement  from  which  they  will  not  only  receive  no  benefit  whatever,  but 
by  which  they  will  be  very  materially  injured,  unless  measures  are  taken  to 
prevent  it." 

"All  that  the  city  cares  for,  is  to  get  the  proposed  improvements  made, 
and  that  at  the  expense  of  the  State;  when  these  are  accomplished  the 
counties  may  get  Avhat  they  can  .  .  .  The  country  has  nothing  to  expect 
from  the  liberality  of  the  city;  the  latter  will  get  all  they  can  and  then  be 
the  first  to  oppose  every  measure  calculated  to  promote  the  interests  of  the 
former." — See  letter  signed  "T'rindley"  in  the  United  States  Gazette  of  Jime 
3d,  1825,  which  contains  quotations  from  the  Miners'  Journal.  See  also  same 
paper  for  June  7th,  1825. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania.  183 

trade  of  that  lake,  may  iu  some  measure  be  estimated  by  the  fact 
that  before  it  could  advance  fifteen  miles  from  the  lake,  it  would 
require  a  lockage  almost  equal  to  the  whole  of  that  of  the  JSTew 
York  canal.  The  amount  of  the  whole  lockage  required  can  only 
be  known  when  surveys  are  completed,  probably  four  to  five  tinies 
that  of  ]^ew  York.  The  expense  of  constructing  such  a  canal 
ought  to  be  estimated,  not  from  the  average  of  the  other,  but  the 
most  expensive  part  of  it.     .     .     . 

It  is  not  intended  by  these  obser/vations  to  discourage  the  forma- 
tion of  canals  where  they  may  be  of  advantage.  No  objections 
occur  to  exploring  and  surveying  the  State  with  a  view  to  improve- 
ments. Information  will  be  gained,  and  if  it  is  found  to  be  imprac- 
ticable or  unadvisable  to  canal  its  whole  extent,  still  it  may  be  done 
partially  with  advantage  and  profit.  Our  State  possesses  many 
natural  advantages — let  us  improve  them.  We  will  certainly  fail 
to  compete  with  the  State  of  New  York  for  the  trade  of  the  West. 
Nature  has  given  her  advantages  in  such  a  competition  which  we 
cannot  overcome."* 

In  spite  of  opposition  and  objections  that  were  urged  against 
both  the  proposed  canal  and  the  convention,  the  movement  pro- 
ceeded apace.  Whether  on  account  of  interest  in  promoting  the 
cause  or  to  check  any  eifort  made  by  the  friends  of  the  movement, 
delegatesf  were  appointed  by  all  the  counties  of  the  state  except 
two.  At  ten  o'clock  Thursday  morning,  August  4th,  they  assembled 
in  the  hall|  of  the  house  of  representatives  at  Harrisburg.  A  com- 
mittee was  appointed  to  frame  a  set  of  resolutions  which  would 
bring  the  matters  for  consideration  properly  before  the  meeting. 
The  following  day,  when  they  reported  in  favor  of  the  state  build- 
ing a  canal  to  connect  the  Susquehanna  with  the  Ohio  and  Lake 
Erie,  a  storm  of  opposition  arose.  It  was  confidently  asserted  that 
the  measure  was  impracticable ;  that  the  movement  was  premature ; 
that  the  canal  would  injure  the  turnpikes;  that  the  resources  of 
the  state  were  inadequate  for  building  the  works;  that  it  would 
require  oppressive  taxation  to  which  the  people  would  not  submit; 

■""  This  article,  copied  from  the  Erie  Gazette,  appeared  in  the  Harrisburg 
Chronicle  on  March  10th,  1825. 

f  The  United  States  Gazette  of  August  19th,  1825,  in  commenting  upon 
this  convention  said:  "Tlie  convention  at  Harrisburg  for  internal  improve- 
ments was,  whether  in  reference  to  the  majority  or  minority,  superior  to  any 
body  of  the  same  number  which  has  assembled  in  this  state  for  many  years." 

:j;  Provision  had  been  made  for  the  meetings  of  the  delegates  to  be  held  in 
this  place,  by  Mr.  Lehman,  the  representative  for  Philadelphia,  submitting 
in  the  house  a  resolution  to  that  effect  on  April  11th,  which  passed  by  a  vote 
of  41  to  26.— See  J.  H.  Rep.,  182-4-25,  I,  p.  791. 


184  .4.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

that  i'liiladelpliia  Avas  llie  prime  mover  in  the  agitation  and  that 
she  would  receive  the  greatest  advantage  from  the  improvements; 
that  those  parts  of  the  state  through  which  the  canal  passed  would 
receive  undue  benefits  at  the  common  expense.  Among  those 
opposed*  to  the  scheme  were  all  the  delegates  from  Bedford,  Frank- 
lin, Cumberland,  York,  Lancaster,  Northampton,  Pike,  Wayne, 
Bradford  mid  Tioga  counties. 

The  cause  for  this  opposition  is  apparent.  An  examination  of 
the  accompanying  map  of  Pennsylvania  shows  that  the  first  five  of 
these  counties  are  situated  in  the  southern  part  of  the  state.  Their 
exports,  consisting  of  grain,  flour  and  other  farm  produce,  were 
marketed  principally  in  Baltimore  and  the  neigliboring  counties 
of  Maryland  and  Virginia.  The  turnpike  through  Lancaster  gave 
a  direct  communication  to  Philadelphia  satisfactory  to  the  inhabi- 
tants of  that  county.  The  other  district  whose  delegates  unani- 
mously opposed  the  resolutions  was  in  the  northeastern  part  of  the 
state.  These  counties  had  no  chance  of  sharing  the  benefits  of  the 
proposed  improvements.  Moreover,  those  on  the  northern  border 
of  the  state  carried  on  their  limited  trade  with  Wew  York.  With 
little  or  no  chance  of  participating  in  the  proposed  canal  to  the 
West,  except  to  help  pay  for  it,  it  is  no  wonder  that  the  representa- 
tives of  the  opposition  states  took  the  stand  they  did. 

The  friends  of  the  movement  were  in  the  majority,  however, 
and  ably  refuted  the  arguments  of  those  attempting  to  block  the 
passage  of  the  resolutions.  The  whole  case  for  the  proposed 
improvements  was  presented  in  a  way  that  could  not  fail  to  con- 
vince the  doubtful.  The  discussion  was  prolonged  until  the  third 
day;  and,  finally,  after  numerous  amendments  were  proposed  by 
the  minority  to  no  avail,  the  resolutionsf  as  framed  by  the  com- 
mittee were  adopted  by  a  large  majority.^ 

*  A  full  list  of  the  delegates  from  eacli  oomity,  showino-  the  way  they  voted, 
is  found  in  A]>|)en(li\'  II.  p.  264. 

•{•  For  the  full  text  of  the  resolutions  see  Appendix  III,  p.  26G. 

The  woi'ds  "within  her  borders"  in  the  first  resohition  were  struck  out, 
however,  since  it  was  urged  tliat  tliey  might  he  considered  as  aiming  a  blow 
at  the  proposed  canal  to  comiect  the  Potomac  and  the  Ohio. — ^Niles'  Reg., 
XXIX,  p.  62. 

Another  unimportant  resolution  was  added  to  those  reported  by  the  com- 
mittee, for  which  see  Niles'  Reg.,  XXIX,  p.  62. 

+  The  vote  on  the  liist  three  resolutions  was  approximately  87  ayes  and 
26  nays.  The  references  we  have  seen  differ  somewhat,  being  probably 
written  from  memory.  The  vote  on  the  fourth  resolution,  which  really  had 
no  bearing  on  the  important  objects  of  the  convention,  was  107  ayes  and 
6  nays. 


•   •    •    Ma?  or   ?ENNJYLVAtTIA     •     •     • 
vShowin^  population  by  covuxti&s  an.  l&ZO^ 
Total  population  of  the  ,3tate   at  this  date  ;     1,043,4^56. 
(7/bi!e  :   In  1620  /n/F/m   Qounty  included  t£e  terjvtorjr  ^Jiown  on  tAe 
map  a^  (Junzccta  Country. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania.  185 

The  Plarrisburg  convention  was  a  decided  victory  for  the  pro- 
gressive party.  It  was  now  felt  that  the  legislature  had,  in  the  pro- 
ceedings of  this  body,  the  fullest  evidence  of  the  wishes  of  the 
people.  To  its  action,  the  public  mind  was  now  directed  with  con- 
fidence   and    pleasing    anticipation. 

On  the  6th  of  December  the  legislature  convened.  With  refer- 
ence to  internal  improvements,  Governor  Shultze's  message*  was 
conservative ;  but  it  was  regarded  as  "susceptible  of  no  misappre- 
hension."f  Referring  to  the  much  agitated  canal,  he  stated : — 
'^Desirable  as  it  is  to  facilitate  intercourse  between  all  parts  of  our 
Commonwealth,  and  to  do  it  speedily,  still  this  desire  will  not 
induce  the  representatives  of  a  prudent  people  to  engage  in  such 
great  enterprises  without  having  before  them  all  the  information 
and  the  knowledge  which  are  essential  to  entering  upon  and  com- 
pleting the  work  in  the  best,  most  durable,  and  most  economical 
manner."  No  time  was  lost  in  bringing  to  the  attention  of  the 
legislature  the  wishes  of  the  populace.  The  day  after  the  opening 
of  the  session  a  resolutionlj:  was  introduced  in  the  house  looking 
towards  the  commencement  of  the  long-desired  canal.  The  manner 
was  afterwards  referred  to  from  time  to  time.  On  the  16th  of 
January,  1826,  the  "Committee  on  Inland  Navigation  and  Internal 
Improvement"  introduced  a  bill§  entitled,  "An  Act  to  Provide  for 
the  Commencement  of  a  Canal,  to  be  constructed  at  the  Expense 
of  the  State,  and  to  be  styled,  'The  Pennsylvania  Canal.'  "  It 
passed  the  third  reading  on  the  2d  of  February  by  a  vote  of  61  to 
32||.     The  bill  passed  the  senate|[  on  the  22d  of  the  same  month 

- 

*  See.  J.  H.  Rep.,  1825-26,  II,  No.  1. 

f  From  Editorial  in  United  States  Gazette  of  December  13th,  1825. 

t  See  J.  H.  Rep.,  1825-26,  I,  p.  11. 

§  See  J.  H.  Rep.,  1825-26,  I,  p.  192. 

II  See  J.  H.  Rep.,  1825-26,  I,  pp.  310-311.  Tlie  vote  shows  that  the  oppo- 
sition included  all  the  members  from  those  counties  that  voted  "nay"  at 
the  Harrisburg  convention,  also  the  representatives  of  several  counties 
between  the  Delaware  and  the  Susquehanna,  already  provided  with  adequate 
means  of  transportation.  All  the  members  from  Adams,  Bedford,  Cimiber- 
land,  Franklin,  Lancaster  ('vitli  one  exception),  Lehigh,  Lebanon,  Northamp- 
ton, Perry,  Pike,  Union,  Wayne,  and  York  counties  A'oted  against  the  bill. 
Berks,  JNIontgomery,  Schuylkill.  Westmoreland,  and  Philadelphia  counties 
were  divided.  Mr.  Heston,  one  of  the  members  for  Philadelphia  county, 
voted  in  the  negative,  in  opposition  to  his  colleagues,  and  to  the  sentiments 
of  his  constituency. — Caiey,  BriJ'f  View  of  the  System  of  Internal  Improve- 
ments of  the  State  of  Pennsylvania,  p.  xv. 

^  See  Senate  Journal,  1825,  p.  363.  Ilie  vote  was  nineteen  ayes — fourteen 
navs. 


186  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worhs  of  Pennsylvania. 

with  minor  amendments,  which  were  approved  of  by  the  house 
the  following  day;  and  two  days  later  by  the  approval  of  the 
Governor,  the  commencement  of  the  canal  to  connect  the  eastern  and 
western  waters  was  provided  for  by  an  Act  of  Assembly.  The 
indomitable  perseverance  of  the  advocates  of  the  scheme  in  Phila- 
delphia and  elsewhere  had  at  last  borne  fruit. 

The  Act  of  February  25th  provided  for  the  commencement  of 
the  canal  at  both  extremities  simultaneously.  The  parts  authorized 
to  be  put  under  contract  at  this  time  together  constituted  but  a 
small  fraction  of  the  total  length.*  They  were  as  follows : — From 
the  western  end  of  the  Union  canal  to  a  point  on  the  Susquehanna 
opposite  the  mouth  of  the  Juniata;  and  from  Pittsburg  to  the 
mouth  of  the  Kiskeminetas.  The  combined  length  of  these  sec- 
tions was  fifty-four  miles.  Since  they  were  common  to  all  the  routes 
proposed,  it  was  considered  safe  to  commence  them  before  it  was 
finally  decided  what  line  the  canal  should  follow  through  the 
center  of  the  state. 

This  view  was  the  result  of  three  reports  recently  made  to  the 
legislature.  The  recommendations  made  by  the  first  board  of 
commissioners  appointed  on  March  27th,  1824,  have  already  been 
examined.  Two  reportsf  made  by  the  board  of  canal  commissioners 
previous  to  the  passage  of  the  Act  of  February  25th,  1826,  demon- 
strated equally  well  the  practicability  of  building  a  canal  to  connect 
the  eastern  and  western  waters.  But  the  question  of  route  for  all 
the  sections,  excepting  limited  portions  at  either  end,  was  still  some- 
what in  dispute.  Accordingly,  more  accurate  and  detailed  sur- 
veys were  necessary  to  warrant  the  legislature  in  deciding  upon 
the  best  location  for  the  canal. 

In  view  of  the  policy  adopted  later,  it  is  important  at  this  point 
to  note  that  the  popular  movement  was  for  but  one  improved  line 
of  transportation.  The  various  reports  of  the  canal  commissioners, 
and  of  the  committee  on  roads  and  inland  navigation,  show  that 
their  efforts  had  been  directed  to  the  problem  of  discovering  which 
one  of  the  three  possible  routes  was  preferable.     Moreover,  the  Act 

*  This  act  also  provided  for  tlie  construction  of  a  navigable  feeder  of 
a  canal  from  French  creek  to  the  summit  level  at  Conneaut  lake  as  soon  as 
the  canal  commissioners  should  deem  it  expedient  and  practicable;  also  for 
the  surveying  and  locating  of  a  canal  from  Conneaut  lake  to  Lake  Erie. 

fl^ecembor  30th,  1825,  and  February  3rtl,  1826,— formd  in  J.  H.  Rep., 
1825-26,  II,  pp.  159-163  and  222-233. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worlxs  of  Pennsylvania.  187 

of  February  25th  made  no  reference  to  the  building  or  even  to  the 
surveying  of  lateral  lines.  The  title  of  the  act  (p.  185)  shows  that 
it  was  to  provide  for  a  canal  to  be  called  ''The  Pennsylvania  Canal" ; 
and  further  evidence  is  furnished  by  its  preamble  that  public  opin- 
ion called  for  the  construction  of  a  single  work  to  connect  the 
eastern  and  western  waters.  In  a  word,  the  whole  movement  for 
improvements  in  transportation  facilities  from  the  very  beginning 
until  legislation  was  secured  authorizing  the  commencement  of 
construction  had  been  for  a  direct  avenue  of  commerce  to  the 
"West.  That  it  should  be  pushed  through  at  once  with  all  consistent 
speed  was  the  programme  agitated;  for  in  no  other  way  might 
Philadelphia  have  a  fair  chance  with  New  York  and  Baltimore  in 
the  struggle  for  the  western  trade.  Lateral  lines  were  mentioned 
as  being  necessary  as  feeders  to  the  main  canal;  but  all  references 
to  them  indicated  that  the  intention  was  to  postpone  their  construc- 
tion at  least  until  the  main  line  should  be  built. 

In  conclusion,  a  word  is  necessary  as  to  why  the  state  itself 
undertook  to  build  the  work  rather  than  entrust  its  construction  to 
a  private  company.  It  does  not  appear  that  the  adoption  of  that 
policy  was  due  to  any  fear  of  corporate  power.  On  the  contrary, 
the  incorporation  of  companies  to  construct  and  operate  works 
of  public  utility  in  many  cases  was  considered  necessary.*  The 
creation  in  the  past  of  numerous  turnpike,  bridge  and  navigation 

*  "Tlie  incorporation  of  companies  to  carry  on  works  of  great  public  utility, 
such  as  canals  and  turnpike  roads,  which  necessarily  require  large  associa- 
tions to  furnish  the  capital,  which  the  finances  of  the  state  may  not  be  in 
a  situation  to  meet,  have  ever  been  found  useful  and  efficient  means  of 
accomplishing  these  important  public  ends;  and  banking  and  insurance  com- 
panies have  also  been  classed  with  these  objects  which  render  corporate 
power  necessary  to  conduct  their  operation  with  advantage  to  the  public. 
But  the  incorporation  of  associations  to  carry  on  a  business  within  the  reach 
of  individual  capital,  by  conferring  on  them  extraordinary  privileges  and 
exempting  them  from  the  ordinary  personal  liabilities,  is  not  only  incon- 
sistent with  the  dictates  of  sound  political  economy,  but  at  open  war  with 
the  principles  of  a  free  government.  This  sound  distinction  in  the  incoi*- 
porating  of  companies  to  accomplish  works  of  great  public  utility,  and  those 
for  the  mere  purpose  of  promoting  objects  within  the  sphere  of  individual 
enterprise,  has  happily  been  adopted  and  pursued  by  the  legislature  of  this 
state  with  few  exceptions,  and  the  instances  of  departure  from  this  whole- 
some discrimination,  furnish  the  strongest  evidence  in  favor  of  the  wisdom 
of  the  general  course  of  policy." — Report  of  Committee  of  the  Senate  of 
Pennsylvania,  regarding  corporations,  read   February  4th,  1825. 


188  .4.  L.  Bisliop — The  State  Worhs  of  Pennsylvania. 

companies  furnishes  conclusive  evidence  on  this  point.  Moreover, 
as  we  have  already  seen,  the  state  from  time  to  time  had  made  lib- 
eral subscrijitions  to  the  stocks  of  these  concerns.  Having  pursued 
a  policy  of  assistance  in  the  past,  it  was  no  radical  change,  at  this 
time,  for  the  energies  of  the  government  to  be  applied  directly  to 
matters  of  internal  improvement. 

But  there  seem  to  have  been  definite  reasons  why  the  Avork  was 
constructed  by  the  state  itself.  In  the  first  place,  the  era  of  large 
corporations  had  not  been  reached  by  1826,  and  there  was  not  the 
large  quantity  of  floating  capital,  such  as  exists  nowadays,  ready 
to  be  applied  to  the  purchase  of  stocks.  Moreover  individual  capital 
and  energy  were  not  considered  commensurate  with  such  an  exten- 
sive enterprise  as  that  proposed.*  Again,  even  though  sufficient 
private  capital  could  have  been  commanded  to  build  the  canal,  the 
advantages  to  be  derived  from  it  after  its  construction  were  regarded 
as  too  numerous  and  important  to  be  surrendered  to  a  corporation. 
It  was  believed  that  both  the  maximum  of  impartiality  and  the 
minimum  of  cost  of  operation  would  be  insured  by  state  control; 
and,  since  the  canal  was  essentially  a  state  object,  these  needed  to 
be  guaranteed  to  every  one  of  its  citizens.  Moreover,  the  work  was 
looked  upon  as  a  source  of  large  income  in  the  future.  This  point 
seems  to  have  been  hardly  doubted  by  the  majority.  Hence  the 
opportunity  to  fill  the  public  treasury  by  such  a  legitimate  source 
of  income  as  canal  tolls  should  be  seized  and  not  be  forfeited  to  a 
few  individuals.  In  view  of  the  general  acceptance  of  these  ideas, 
throughout  the  whole  popular  movement  the  question  as  to  who 
should  build  the  contemplated  improvement  was  discussed  but 
incidentally,  it  being  taken  for  granted  that  if  the  work  were  built 
at  all,  it  should  be  executed  and  operated  l>y  the  state. 

*  "Tlio  ])iil)lie  are  now  firmly  eonviiieod  tliat.  in  the  United  States,  where 
the  fortunes  of  private  individuals  are  limited  in  amount,  great  public  works 
can  only  be  accomplished  by  the  expenditure  of  the  public  treasury." — Facts 
and  arguments  in  favor  of  adopling  Railways  in  preference  to  Canals  in  the 
State  of  Pennsylvania,  p.  10. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Woi^ls  of  Pennsylvania.  189 

Chapter  III. — The  Construction  of  the  Public  Works. 

In  response  to  tiieir  new  duties  detailed  in  the  Act  of  February 
25tli,  1826,  the  canal  commissioners*  immediately  prepared  for  the 
work  of  construction.  On  April  5th,  ISTathan  S.  Roberts,  an  efficient 
engineer  formerly  employed  on  the  Erie  canal,  was  sent  to  locate 
the  line  between  Pittsburg  and  the  Kiskeminetas  river.  The  deter- 
mination of  the  other  section  between  the  Swatara  and  the  Juniata 
was  entrusted  to  William  Strickland,  and  on  the  19th  of  June  Gov- 
ernor Shultze  approved  his  location.     Accordingly,   on  July  4th, 

1826,  near  the  Capitol  at  Harrisburg,  the  ground  was  first  brokenf 
in  the  construction  of  the  Pennsylvania  canal. 

In  their  reports  of  December  11th,  1826,  and  of  February  6th, 

1827,  the  commissioners  stated  that  they  had  put  under  contract 
22  1/^  miles  of  work  along  the  Susquehanna  river,  and  24  along  the 
Allegheny.  A  large  force  of  laborers^  had  been  engaged  for  both 
sections,  and  construction  was  being  pushed  along  rapidly.  The 
surveys  made  during  the  preceding  year  had  convinced  the  board 

*  The  first  acting  commissioners  appointed  in  accordance  with  section  2  of 
the  Act  of  February  25th,  1826,  were  General  Abner  Laycock  and  Charles 
Mowry,  for  the  eastern  and  western  sections  respectively. 

By  Act  of  April  10th,  1826,  the  board  of  canal  ccmmissioners  was  aug- 
mented by  the  apjjointment  of  four  new  members,  making  a  total  of  nine, 
five  of  whom  constituted  a  qiiorum.  By  Act  of  April  16th,  1829,  the  power 
to  appoint  them  was  transferred  from  the  governor  to  the  legislature.  Their 
period  of  service  was  one  year.  By  Act  of  April  6th,  1830,  the  number  of  the 
commissioners  was  reduced  to  three,  and  the  go\ernor  was  again  authorized 
to  appoint  them.  Another  change  was  made  in  the  canal  board  in  1841  by 
which  each  branch  of  the  legislature  appointed  one  member  and  the  governor 
the  third.  The  appointments  to  this  office  were  largely  political.  See  Niles' 
Reg.,  XXXVI,  p.  268,  and  LIX,  p.  .359. 

t  J.  H.  Rep.,  1834-5,  III,  p.  3. 

X  Tlie  writer  made  a  careful  examination  of  the  reports  of  the  canal  com- 
missioners covering  the  whole  period  of  construction  of  the  public  works,  to 
discover  whether  or  not  any  'delay  was  caused  by  a  scarcity  of  laborers.  The 
conclusion  reached  was  that  at  no  time  was  there  any  serious  interruption 
of  work  due  to  this  cause.  The  delays  were  most  often  due  to  the  appro- 
priations becoming  exhausted,  or  to  timber  and  other  construction  materials 
running  out.  The  workmen  were  frequently  discharged  at  these  times,  and 
made  engagements  elsewhere,  so  that  wlien  work  was  ready  to  be  resumed  it 
required  some  time  to  get  laborers. — See  J.  H.  Rep.,  1827-28,  II,  pp.  99,  138  and 
216;  1828-29,  II,  p.  68;  1829-30  II,  p.  239;  1830-31,  II,  p.  222;  1833-34,  III, 
pp.  16,  45,  46  and  63.  Xumerous  references  in  Canal  Commissioners'  Report 
in  J.  H.  Rep.,   1831-32,  II. 


190  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worhs  of  Pennsylvania. 

that  of  the  three  possible  routes  to  the  West,  the  one  via  the  Juniata 
was,  by  far,  the  most  practicable.  In  recommending  its  adoption 
the  commissioners  stated  that  a  portage  wagon  road*  over  the  moun- 
tain should  connect  the  canal  sections  on  either  side. 

Since  the  Act  of  February  25th  provided  for  the  construction 
of  only  two  short  sections  of  the  canal,  in  order  to  avoid  delay,  it 
was  now  necessary  that  additional  legislation  should  be  passed. 
The  most  advantageous  route  having  been  determined  by  those  best 
calculated  to  pass  judgment  thereon,  there  was  no  further  need  of 
deferring  action.  Accordingly,  on  the  9th  of  April,  1827,  "An  Act 
to  provide  for  the  further  extension  of  the  Pennsylvania  canal"t 
received  the  governor's  approval.  It  required  the  commissioners  to 
locate  and  contract  for  making  a  canal  along  the  valley  of  the 
Juniata  from  the  Susquehanna  to  Lewistown;  to  build  a  canal, 
locks  and  other  necessary  works  from  the  western  section  to  Blairs- 
ville  via  the  Kiskeminetas  and  Conemaugh;  to  commence  work  on 
the  feeder  from  French  Creek  to  Conneaut  lake ;  to  contract  for  all 
sections  common  to  both  of  the  proposed  routes^  between  Pittsburg 
and  Lake  Erie;  to  build  the  works  necessary  for  a  canal  naviga- 
tion up  the  Susquehanna  from  the  Juniata  to  iSTorthumberland; 
and  to  expend  not  more  than  $100,000  for  the  construction  of  a 
canal  along  the  Delaware  river  between  Bristol  and  Easton.§  The 
same  act  of  legislature  required  the  commissioners  to  undertake  at 
once  numerous  surveys  extending  to  almost  every  stream  of  the 
commonwealth  and  to  nearly  every  section  of  the  state. 

An  analysis  of  the  above  shows  that,  of  the  six  different  parts  of 
the  improvement  system  whose  commencement  was  now  provided 
for,  only  two  were  on  the  main  line.||     These  were  along  the  Juniata 

*  At  this  time  the  prevailing  opinion  was  that  the  link  between  the  canals 
on  either  side  of  the  mountain  should  be  a  macadamized  road. 

fLaws  of  PennsylA'ania,  1826-27,  p.  192.  See  also  J.  H.  Rep.,  1830-31, 
II,  pp.  600-601. 

I  These  were,  first,  via  the  Allegheny  river  and  French  creek  to  Presque 
Isle;  second,  through  the  Ohio  river  to  Beaver,  thence  by  way  of  Beaver 
liver  and  French  creek  to  the  same  point  on  Lake  Erie. 

§  See  sections  6  and  7  of  the  act  on  page  273. 

II  The  main  line  when  referred  to  later  is  not  intended  to  include  the  sec- 
tions of  the  public  works  between  Pittsburg  and  Lake  Erie.  Tliesc  were 
never  completed  by  the  state,  and  once  the  work  of  construction  had  been 
undertaken,  contemporary  writers  rarely  spoke  of  them  as  being  a  part  of 
the  main  line. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania.  191 

and  the  Kiskeminetas.  '  Moreover,  of  the  surveys  authorized,*  those 
for  determining  the  remainder  of  the  Juniata  route  werfs  only  a 
small  fr/iction  of  the  elaborate  list.     A  general  extension  of  the 

*  Surveys  were  required  to  be  made  from  Frankstown  on  the  Juniata,  to 
Johnstown  on  the  Conemaugh,  across  the  Allegheny  mountain,  such  as  might 
enable  them  to  determine  in  what  manner  and  by  what  kind  of  works, 
whether  by  a  smooth  and  permanent  road  of  easy  gradation,  or  by  a  rail- 
road with  locomotive  or  stationary  engines,  or  otherwise,  the  portage  or 
space  between  the  above  mentioned  points  might  be  passed  so  as  to  ensure 
the  greatest  public  advantage.  The  board  was  also  to  cause  further  examina- 
tions, surveys,  and  levels  to  ascertain  the  practicability  and  cost  of  a  naviga- 
ble communication  between  the  west  branch  of  the  Susquehanna  and  the 
Allegheny  rivers;  also  a  similar  examination  on  the  route  from  Northumber- 
land up  the  north  branch  of  the  Susquehanna  to  the  state  line;  from  the 
western  section  of  the  Pennsylvania  canal  near  the  mouth  of  the  Kiskemine- 
tas to  a  point  on  Lake  Erie,  via  the  Allegheny  river  and  French  creek,  at  or 
near  the  borough  of  Erie;  and  from  the  city  of  Pittsburg  to  the  said  point 
on  Lake  Erie,  by  the  route  of  Beaver  and  Shenango;  also  an  examination, 
survey,  and  estimate  of  the  route  for  a  canal  and  also  for  a  railway  with 
locomotive  or  stationary  engines  from  Philadelphia,  through  Chester  and 
Lancaster  counties,  so  as  to  connect  by  the  nearest  and  most  practicable  route 
with  the  eastern  section  of  the  Pennsylvania  canal;  also  surveys,  examina- 
tions, and  estimates  for  a  canal  dowTi  the  Brandywine  river  to  a  point  north 
of  the  Delaware  state  line,  thence  across  tlie  dividing  ridge  between  that  river 
and  Chester  creek,  thence  dowTi  the  same  to  the  river  Delaware.  The  com- 
missioners were  alf?o  required  to  make  an  examination  to  ascertain  the 
practicability  and  cost  of  forming  a  connection  of  the  north  branch  of  the 
Susquelianna  and  the  river  Lehigh  by  means  of  a  canal  or  railway,  also 
surveys  and  estimates  from  the  termination  of  the  Pennsylvania  canal  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Swatara  down  the  east  and  west  sides  of  the  Susquehanna  to 
the  Maryland  line,  and  to  make  report  to  the  next  legislature  of  the  expense 
and  practicability  of  extending  the  Pennsylvania  canal  to  the  intersection  of 
the  Mai-yland  line  and  the  said  river.  Examinations  were  also  to  be  made 
from  the  mouth  of  French  creek,  by  way  of  Waterford,  to  the  bay  of  Presque 
Isle,  and  from  Conneaut  lake  to  Lake  Erie;  also  examinations  along  the 
valley  of  the  Delaware  from  Philadelphia,  or  from  Bristol  or  any  intermedi- 
ate point  between  Bristol  and  the  head  of  tide  water  to  Carpenter's  point, 
to  effect  a  navigable  canal  communication;  also  surveys  and  estimates 
through  the  valleys  of  the  Conodogwinet,  Yellow  Breeches,  and  Conococheague 
creeks,  for  the  connection  of  the  rivers  Susquehanna  and  Potomac  by  a 
canal ;  also  from  the  west  end  of  the  Harrisburg  bridge  to  Chambersburg, 
and  from  the  west  end  of  the  Columbia  bridge  through  York  and  Gettysburg 
to  Chambersburg;  also  the  proposed  route  for  a  canal  between  the  Schuylkill 
and  the  Delaware. — See  sections  1,  3  and  11  of  the  act  in  Appendix  V. 


193  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worls  of  Pennsylvania. 

public  improvements  was  thus  foreshadoAved.  We  have  already  seen, 
however,  that  the  original  plan  was  to  build  the  main  line  first.  If 
lateral  branches  were  to  supplement  it,  they  were,  at  least,  for  the 
time  being,  minor  considerations.  But  noAv,  scarcely  more  than  a 
year  after  this  scheme  had  been  launched,  it  was  supplemented  by 
another  which,  when  developed,  provided  the  state  with  an  extensive 
and  unconnected  system  of  transportation.*  Hence  it  is  clear  that 
the  Act  of  April  9th  marks  the  commencement  of  a  complete  change 
of  policy;  and  later  developments  showed  plainly  that  the  course 
to  which  the  state  was  then  committed  was  consistently  pursued 
until  1834,  when  the  main  line  and  most  of  the  lateral  works  were 
completed.  Let  us  now  see  how  the  work  of  construction  progressed 
under  the  new  policy-. 

The  first  report  of  the  canal  boardf  after  the  passage  of  the  Act 
of  April  9th,  1827,  was  made  the  following  December.  It  shoAved 
that  during  the  year  they  had  placed  under  contract  18  miles  of 
canal  on  the  Delaware  division  from  Bristol  upwards;  40  miles  on 
the  Susquehanna  between  the  Juniata  and  Northumberland ;  9  miles 
of  the  French  Creek  feeder;  44yo  miles  along  the  Juniata  between 
its  mouth  and  Lewistown;  and  51  miles  between  Blairsville  and 
Pittsburg.  This  made  a  total  of  1621/2  miles  of  canal  contracted 
for  in  1827.  Of  this,  95%  miles  were  on  the  main  line,  leaving  a 
balance  of  67  miles  for  local  works.  Numerous  surveys  had  been 
made  although  the  most  strenuous  eiforts  had  failed  of  accomplish- 
ing all  of  this  work  required  by  the  Act  of  April  9th. 

In  March  of  the  following  year  another  act  of  legislature:!:  was 
passed  relative  to  the  extension  of  the  public  improvements.  It 
■authorized  the  construction  of  not  more  than  45  miles  of  canal  along 
each  of  the  following  rivers — the  Delaware,  Conemaugh,  Juniata 
and  the  north  branch  of  the  Susquehanna.  Along  the  west  branch  of 
the  last-mentioned  waterway,  25  miles  of  canal  were  provided 
for,  as  also  10  miles  along  its  course  between  Middletown  and 
Columbia.     Recent   surveys   had   convinced   the   canal  board   that 

*  "I  have  been  tlnis  particular  in  referring  to  the  several  works  directed 
to  be  j)ut  under  contract  hy  the  Act  of  1827,  because  it  was  the  commence- 
ment of  a  scheme  of  difVusive  and  unconnected  works  of  improvement." — 
Exti-act  from  Gov.  Wolfs  message,  December  7th,  1831,  in  J.  H.  Hep.,  1831-2, 
II,  p.  17. 

fSee  J.  IJ.  Rep.,  1827-28.  II,  p.  93,  and  1831-32.  p.  132. 

$Act  of  March  24th,  1828,  in  Laws  of  Pennsylvania,  1827-28,  p.  221. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worls  of  Pennsylvania.  193 

the  topography  of  the  country  between  Philadelphia  and  the  eastern 
section  of  the  Pennsylvania  canal  was  better  adapted  to  railroad 
than  to  canal  construction.  In  accordance  with  this  suggestion,  the 
legislature  now  provided  for  the  commencement  of  a  railroad 
between  Philadelphia  and  Columbia.  By  the  same  act,  many  local 
surveys  omitted  from  the  elaborate  list  of  the  previous  year  were 
now  required  to  be  made. 

The  report  of  the  commissioners  for  1828*  furnished  a  good 
illustration  of  the  working  out  of  the  new  policy.  Contracts  had 
been  let  for  40yo  miles  of  the  roadbed  of  the  Philadelphia  and 
Columbia  raih'oad,  and  for  1951/4;  miles  of  canal.  The  following  is 
a  classified  statementf  of  the  latter : — • 

23  miles  along  the  west  branch  of  the  Susquehanna. 

45  miles  along  the  north  branch  of  the  Susquehanna. 

351/2  miles  along  the  Delaware. 

101/2  miles  of  the  French  Creek  feeder. 

26I/2  miles  from  Blairsville  up  the  Conemaugh. 

45  miles  along  the  Juniata. 

10  miles  between  Middleto^vn  and  Columbia. 


I95I/2  miles  in  all. 

By  referring  to  the  map  (p.  196)  it  is  seen  that  only  the  last  three 
items  refer  to  contracts  along  the  trunk  line.  They  represent  a 
total  of  but  8II/2  miles,  against  114  for  purely  lateral  works. 

On  the  22d  of  April,  1829,  "An  Act  relative  to  the  Pennsylvania 
canal  and  railroad"^  was  passed.  It  gave  the  canal  board  the  power 
to  enter  into  contracts  for  those  sections  of  the  improvements  along 
the  Delaware  and  the  north  branch  division  not  yet  commenced. 
They  were  also  directed  to  complete  during  the  ensuing  year,  if 
possible,  all  the  works  then  in  progress.  The  following  December 
they  were  able  to  report§  that  195  miles  of  canal  were  finished. 
Only  151/2  miles  of  new  work  had  been  arranged  for,  but  all  of  it 
was  for  extending  local  lines.  During  this  year,  rates  of  tolls  were 
established  and  a  code  of  rules  to  govern  the  operation  of  the  public 
works  was  drawn  up  and  adopted.  The  first  revenue  was  collected 
in  1830  upon  portions  of  the  trunk  line  near  Pittsburg  and  Middle- 
town. 


*  J.  H.  Eep.,  182S-9,  II,  p.  07,  and  1831-2,  II,  p.  133. 

t  J.  H.  Rep.,  1831-2,  II,  p.  133. 

J  Laws  of  Pennsylvania,  1829,  p.  251. 

§  J.  H.  Rep.,  1829-30,  II,  p.  225. 


194  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

Although  the  Avork  of  construction  had  now  been  in  progress  for 
more  than  three  years,  and  although  many  surveys  had  been  made 
previous  to  the  commencement  of  operations,  yet  neither  the  route 
nor  the  method  of  crossing  the  Allegheny  mountain  had  been 
definitely  determined.  The  dissipation  of  the  energies  of  the  state 
upon  so  many  works  caused  serious  delay  in  the  settlement  of  these 
problems.  By  1830,  however,  the  negligence  of  the  canal  board 
in  this  respect  was  the  subject  of  a  good  deal  of  discussion  both 
within  and  without  the  legislature.  It  was  urged  that  all  other 
parts  of  the  trunk  line  were  now  nearing  completion.  Until  the 
links  of  canal  on  either  side  of  the  mountain  were  joined,  however, 
the  maximum  advantage  could  not  be  obtained.  For,  as  yet,  they 
could  be  used  only  for  local  traffic,  whereas  the  chief  purpose  in 
constructing  the  works  was  to  provide  a  through  route  to  command 
western  trade.  Accordingly,  on  the  27th  of  March,  1830,  legisla- 
tive provisions*  were  made  for  a  thorough  survey  of  the  passes  of 
the  mountain  by  three  competent  engineers. 

"When  the  commissioners  sent  in  their  reportf  in  December,  1830, 
their  recommendation,  based  upon  the  recent  surveys,  was  for  a 
railroad  rather  than  for  a  macadamized  road  to  make  the  necessary 
connection.  This  matter  was  finally  arranged  for  by  an  Act|  of 
March  21st,  1831, — over  five  years  after  the  first  work  on  the  main 
line  tad  been  authorized.  Sylvester  Welch,  one  of  the  most  com- 
petent engineers  in  the  service  of  the  state,  was  given  full  charge, 
and  under  his  direction  the  route  was  determined,  and  the  road 
finally  constructed. 

In  their  report§  of  December  15th,  1831,  it  appeared  that,,  during 
the  year,  the  conmiissioners  had  arranged  for  the  construction  of 
155%  miles  of  canal  and  feeder.  An  analysis  of  the  "lettings" 
reveals  the  significant  fact  that  only  5OI4  miles  were  on  the  main 
line.  The  remainder,  105^  miles,  or  more  than  two-thirds  of  the 
total  length  contracted  for,  represented  extensions  of  lateral  works. 
In  the  meantime,  arrangements  had  been  made  for  the  formation  of 
the  road-bed  of  a  part  of  both  the  Allegheny  portage  and  the  Phila- 

*Laws  of  Pennsylvania,  1829-30,  p.  129. 

f  J.  H.  llep.,  18.30-31,  II,  p.  139.  Tliis  report  showed  that  water  had  been 
admitted  into  406  miles  of  canal.  Also  40^  miles  of  the  bod  of  the  Philadel- 
phia and  Columbia  railroad  were  graded  and  ready  for  the  rails. 

JLaws  of  Pennsylvajiia,  1830-31,  p.  194. 

§  J.  H.  Rep.,  1831-32,  II,  p.  107,  and  1833-.34,  III,  pp.  4-5. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worhs  of  Pennsylvania.  195 

delphia   and  Columbia   railroads,   also   for  laying  the   rails  along 
about  40  miles  of  the  latter  line. 

During  the  next  two  years  75  miles  of  new  canal  and  railroad 
work  were  commenced.  All  of  the  canal  work  was  on  local  lines. 
The  railroad  contracts  were  necessarily  connected  with  the  trunk 
line.  Vigorous  efforts  were  made  to  complete  all  the  improvements 
in  progress;  and^  when  the  canal  commissioners  made  their  report 
in  December,  1834,  they  proudly  announced  that  all  the  lines  of 
canal  and  railway  authorized  by  law  were  so  far  completed  as  to 
admit  of  transportation  throughout  their  whole  length.*  The  main 
line  between  Philadelphia  and  Pittsburg,  though  hampered  in  its 
construction  by  the  dissipation  of  the  energies  of  the  state  upon  so 
many  lateral  and  local  works,  had  been  completed  in  March,  1834. 
On  account  of  the  lack  of  facilities  for  handling  traffic,  very  little 
business  was  done,  however,  until  the  following  spring. 

The  total  length  of  the  through  line  was  394.54  miles.  When  it 
was  ready  for  use,  the  state  had  undertaken  and  completed  637 
miles  of  public  improvements. 

But  the  work  did  not  end  here.  The  faith  of  the  state  had 
already  been  pledged  to  several  of  its  districts  as  yet  not  provided 
with  their  quota  of  improvements.  Within  two  years,  a  renewed 
expansion  of  the  system  began.  Liberal  appropriations  were  made 
from  time  to  time  for  the  extensionf  of  the  north  and  west  branch 
divisions  along  the  Susquehanna,  the  line  between  Pittsburg  and 
Erie,  the  Wiconisco  canal,  and  the  Gettysburg  railroad.  The  new 
movement  continued  with  occasional  interruptions  until  1842.  Dur- 
ing this  time,  135  miles  of  work  were  completed  and  162  more 
undertaken.  This  made  the  total  length  of  the  public  improve- 
ments 934  miles.  After  1842,  the  only  important  activity  of  the 
state  in  the  matter  of  transportation  improvements  was  directed  to 
the  furtherance  of  the  north  branch  extension,  and  to  avoiding  the 
inclined  planes  on  the  railways  of  the  main  line.:]: 

In  order  to  form  any  correct  estimate  of  the  location  and  extent 
of  the  state  works,  it  is  necessary  at  this  point  to  consider  the  sev- 
eral divisions  separately.     Turning  our  attention  to  the  trunk  line, 

■^  J.  H.  Rep.,  1834-35,  II   (Appendix),  p.  3. 
t  J.  H.  Rep.,  1840,  II,  p.  8. 
X  J.  H.  Rep.,  1842,  III,  p.  4. 


196  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

let  us  begin  at  its  eastern  terminus  and  examine  the  various  sec- 
tions in  order.* 

llie  Philadelphia  avd  Columbia  railroad  was  the  first  link  in  the 
western  chain.  It  commenced  at  the  intersection  of  Vine  and  Broad 
streets,  Philadelphia,  and  terminated  at  Columbia  on  the  Susque- 
hanna, a  distance  of  81.6  miles,  opening  a  direct  communication 
between  the  valleys  of  the  Delaware  and  the  Susquehanna,  and 
intersecting  those  of  the  Schuylkill,  Brandywine  and  Conestoga. 

As  originally  built,  the  road  had  two  inclined  planes.  At  a  dis- 
tance of  about  two  miles  from  its  point  of  commencement  it  crossed 
the  Schuylkill  by  a  viaduct  984  feet  in  length,  and  immediately 
ascended  an  inclined  plane  of  2,805  feet  in  length  and  187  in  height. 
Another  inclined  plane  1,800  feet  in  length  and  90  in  height  was 
descended  immediately  before  joining  the  canal  basin  at  Columbia. 
The  planes  were  never  satisfactory,  being  slow  and  expensive  in 
their  operation,!  and  they  were  scarcely  finished  before  efforts  were 
made  to  avoid  them.  On  the  30th  of  N^ovember,  1836,  a  contract 
was  entered  into  for  the  construction  of  a  road  six  and  one-half 
miles  long  to  avoid  the  one  at  Columbia.  At  its  completion  in 
March,  1840,  the  plane  was  abandoned.  One  track  of  the  Schuylkill 
plane  was  avoided  in  October,  1850,  and  the  other  the  following 
December,  by  the  construction  of  the  West  Philadelphia  railroad 
from  a  point  near  the  present  Ardmore  station  to  the  Avest  end 
of  the  Market  Street  bridge.  Various  lateral  extensions  of  this 
road  were  made,  the  two  most  important  of  which  were  those  to 
York  and  Gettysburg.  The  legislature  authorized  the  construction 
of  this  section  of  the  main  line  of  works  on  the  24th  of  March,  1828, 
and  in  March,   1834,  a  single  track  along  the  entire  route  from 

*  Most  of  the  facts  found  in  the  following  description  of  the  public 
improvements  were  taken  directly  from  the  reports  of  the  canal  commis- 
sioners, and  from  Tanner's  Canals  and  Railways  of  the  United  States. 

f  Tliey  were  operate<l  by  stationary  engines  located  at  the  head  of  the 
planes.  When  open  for  use  the  prevailing  opinion  regarding  its  method 
of  operation  Avas  that  the  farmers  and  other  citizens  along  the  line  should  use 
the  railroad  the  same  as  they  used  the  turnpikes,  i.  e.,  purchase  suitable 
wagons  to  be  hauled  by  animal  power  and  pay  a  certain  toll  to  the  state 
foi-  tlu'  use  of  tlie  roadway.  This  method  of  operation  was  put  into  practice 
for  a  time.  The  demonstration  of  the  practical)ility  of  steam-enginos  for 
motive  power  resulted  in  the  ado])tion  of  locomotive  engines  in  a  short  time. 
The  state  supplied  the  motive  power  for  the  transportation  of  goods  and 
passengers,  while  the  cars  were  owned  by  individuals  or  companies. 


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A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  WorJcs  of  Pennsylvania.  197 

Philadelpliia  to  Columbia*  was  opened  for  travel.  In  October  of 
the  same  year,  the  second  track  was  completed  and  the  road  opened 
for  public  use. 

The  Eastern  and  Juniata  divisions  of  the  Pennsylvania  canal 
extended  from  Columbia  to  Hollidaysburg,  at  the  base  of  the  Alle- 
gheny mountains,  a  distance  of  172  miles.  From  the  western 
terminus  of  the  Philadelphia  and  Columbia  railroad,  the  canal 
followed  the  east  bank  of  the  Susquehanna,  passed  through  the  vil- 
lages of  Maytown,  Bainbridge,  and  Falmouth,  and  intersected  the 
Union  canal  at  Middietown.  After  uniting  with  the  Susquehanna 
at  this  point  by  a  series  of  locks,  it  continued  along  the  east  bank 
of  that  river,  through  Highspiretown  and  Harrisburg  to  Duncan's 
Island,  where  it  was  intersected  by  the  Susquehanna  and  entered  the 
valley  of  the  Juniata  river.  It  then  followed  along  its  north  or  left 
bank,  and  passing  Millerstown,  Mexico,  Mifflintown,  Lewistown  and 
Huntingdon,  terminated  at  Hollidaysburg.  Here  it  met  the  Portage 
railroad  across  the  Allegheny  mountains.  At  the  mouth  of  the 
Raystown  branch  of  the  Juniata  was  the  Raystown  feeder,  one 
mile  in  length.  ISTearly  16  miles  of  these  divisions  consisted  of 
slack  water  navigation. 

The  Allegheny  Portage  railroad^  commenced  at  the  termination 
of  the  Juniata  division  at  Hollidaysburg  and,  pursuing  a  north- 
westerly course  to  Blair's  Gap  summit,^  descended  the  valley  of 
the  mountain  branch  of  the  Conemaugh  to  Johnstown.  There  it 
joined  the  western  division  of  the  canal.  The  rise  from  Hollidays- 
burg to  the  summit  was  1,398.71  feet  in  a  distance  of  10.1  miles. 

*  The  Susquehanna  or  "Tide  water  canal"  extended,  from  Wrightsville, 
opposite  Columbia,  to  Havre  de  Grace  in  Maryland,  thus  affording  an 
additional  outlet  to  the  main  line  of  the  state  works.  It  was  a  private 
entei-prise. 

f  The  report  of  tlie  commissioners  who  made  the  original  survey  for  the 
canal  connecting  the  eastern  and  western  water  proposed  a  continuous  water 
route,  by  continuing  the  canals  by  means  of  numerous  locks  and  dams  as  far 
as  possible  on  both  sides  of  the  mountain,  then  piercing  it  by  a  tunnel  rather 
less  than  four  miles  in  length. 

J  This  point  is  almost  due  east  from  Pittsburg.  The  cut  made  to  reduce 
the  summit  was  only  about  twelve  feet,  the  natural  summit  being  rather 
flat  and  wet.  As  ascertained  by  later  railroad  surveys,  it  was  2,322  feet 
above  mean  tide,  or  161  feet  higher  than  Gallitzen  station  on  the  Penn- 
sylvania railroad. — Eoberts,  Pi,eminiscences  of  the  First  Railroad  over  the 
Allegheny  mountains,  in  Pennsylvania  Hist.  Mag.,  II,  p.  386. 

Trans.  Conn.  Acad.,  Vol.  XIII.  15  Nov.,  1907. 


198  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

From  there  to  Johnstown,  the  fall  was  1,171.58  feet  in  a  distance  of 
26.59  miles.*  The  principal  part  of  the  elevation  was  overcome  by 
ten  straight  inclined  planes,  operated  by  stationary  engines.  There 
were  five  of  them  on  either  side  of  the  mountain  with  a  total  length 
of  about  4^/2  miles.  Their  angles  of  inclination  ranged  from  four 
degrees  and  nine  minutes  to  five  degrees  and  fifty-one  minutes.  A 
tunnel  at  the  Staple  Bend  of  the  Conemaugh,  4  miles  east  of  Johns- 
town, attracted  great  attention.  It  was  901  feet  long,  20  feet  wide, 
and  19  feet  high  within  the  arch.  It  was  the  first  tunnel  built  in 
America. f  The  first  track  was  ready  for  use  in  1834,  although  it 
was  then  in  a  very  imperfect  condition.  It  Avas  not  until  late  in 
the  spring  of  the  following  year  that  the  second  track  was  com- 
pleted. At  first  the  state  furnished  the  motive  power  only  on  the 
inclined  planes  and  the  road  was  used  as  a  public  highway.  The 
dissatisfaction  accompanying  this  method  of  operation  soon  resulted 
in  the  state  also  furnishing  locomotive  power  on  the  grade  lines 
between  the  planes. 

As  on  the  Philadelphia  and  Columbia  railroad,  the  operating  of 
the  planes  on  the  first  portage  line  was  not  satisfactory,  neither 
were  they  considered  safe.  Consequently  suggestions  for  avoiding 
them  were  made  immediately  after  the  opening  of  the  road.  It  was 
not  until  the  construction  of  the  Pennsylvania  system  began  in 
1847,  however,  that  the  state  authorities  gave  serious  attention  to 
this  matter.  After  encountering  many  difficulties,  and  the  expendi- 
ture of  several  times  the  amount  of  money  estimated  as  necessary 
for  building  it,  a  new  Portage  railroad  was  completed  on  July  1st, 
1855.  Although  in  an  imperfect  condition,  it  was  then  put  into 
operation,  and  the  old  line,  though  somewhat  shorter  than  the  new 
one,  ceased  to  be  used. 

The  Western  division  of  the  Pennsylvania  canal  extended  from 
Johnstown  to  Pittsburg,  a  distance  of  104  miles,  traversing  the 
valleys  of  the  Conemaugh,  Kiskeminetas,  and  Allegheny  rivers. 
After  leaving  Johnstown  it  passed  the  towns  of  Fairfield,  Lock- 
port,  Blairsville  and  Warren,  crossed  the  Allegheny  above  the  mouth 
of  the  Kiskeminetas,  and  followed  it  for  some  distance.  Again 
recrossing  that  river,  the  canal  entered  and  passed  through  the  city 

*  Tanner,  Canals  and  Railroads  of  the  United  States,  p.  126. 

t  Wilson,  The  Allegheny  Portage  Railroad,  in  Annual  Report  of  Secretary 
of  Internal  Aflfairs,  Part  IV,  1898-99,  p.  Ixiii.  This  is  doubtless  the  best  and 
fullest  history  of  the  Portage  road  ever  written. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Wor-lcs  of  Pennsylvania.  199 

of  Pittsburg  and  terminated  at  the  Monongahela  river.  In  connec- 
tion witli  this  division  two  feeders  may  be  mentioned;  the  Johns- 
town feeder,  at  the  eastern  terminus,  having  a  length  of  one  and 
one-half  miles,  and  the  Allegheny  feeder  from  Alleghenytown  to 
the  western  division,  three-quarters  of  a  mile  long. 

The  entire  distance  between  Philadelphia  and  Pittsburg  by  the 
main  line  was,  it  will  be  recalled,  394.54  miles.  The  canals  were 
four  feet  deep,  twenty-eight  feet  wide  at  the  bottom,  and  forty  at 
the  water  line.  The  locks  were  ninety  feet  long  and  from  fifteen 
to  seventeen  feet  wide.  , 

A  summary  of  the  lateral  works  undertaken  by  the  state  is  next 
in  order. 

The  Susquehanna  division,  thirty-nine  miles  in  length,  com- 
menced at  the  outlet  lock  on  Duncan's  Island,  where  it  joined  the 
eastern  division  of  the  Pennsylvania  canal,  crossed  the  northern 
outlet  of  the  Juniata,  and  entered  Buffalo  township,  in  Perry 
county.  It  then  pursued  a  course  almost  due  north,  along  the  right 
bank  of  the  Susquehanna  to  the  town  of  Northumberland.  Here 
it  intersected  the  canals  that  extended  along  the  north  and  west 
branches  of  that  river. 

The  West  Branch  division  connected  with  the  above  canal  at 
JSTorthmnberland,  and  passed  along  the  left  bank  of  the  west  branch 
of  the  Susquehanna,  through  Northumberland  and  Lycoming 
counties  to  Farrandsville  creek.  Its  length,  including  several  sec- 
tions of  pool  navigation,  was  72  miles.  An  extension  of.  this  divi- 
sion to  the  mouth  of  the  Sinnemahoning  creek,  a  distance  of  about 
33  miles,  was  undertaken  and  abandoned  in  1841. 

The  Bald  Eagle  side  cut  extended  from  the  pool  at  Dunnstown 
dam,  on  the  above  division,  to  Bald  Eagle  creek,  a  distance  of 
3.62  miles. 

The  Lewishurg  side  cut  extended  from  Lewisburg  in  Union 
county  to  the  West  Branch  division,  a  distance  of  slightly  more 
than  half  a  mile. 

The  North  Branch  division  commenced  at  the  basin  which  united 
the  Susquehanna  and  the  West  Branch  division  at  Northumberland. 
This  canal  pursued  a  northeasterly  course  through  the  towns  of 
Danville,  Bloomsburg  and  Berwick  and  terminated  at  Lackawanna 
creek,  a  distance  of  72%  miles. 

.  In  connection  with  this  division  was  tHe  North  Branch  Extension, 
upon  which  a  large  amount  of  money  was  expended,  although  it  was 


202  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

the  direct  interests  of  their  constituency.*  The  following  extract 
from  a  contemporary  writer,!  who  observed  the  change  of  policy 
we  have  spoken  of,  sheds  light  upon  the  situation : — 

"When  provision  was  to  be  made  for  the  further  extension  of 
the  canal  from  the  mouths  of  the  Juniata  and  the  Kiskeminetas,  the 
Juniata  route  being. found  the  shortest  and  most  eligible,  public 
attention  was  dii-ected  to  it.  To  establish  this  route  and  provide  for 
its  execution  was  the  great  object  for  which  the  friends  of  internal 
improvement  in  the  east  and  west  had  to  contend.  Those  who  were 
opposed  to  the  entire  project  as  premature,  hazardous,  extravagant, 
and  partial,  conceived  that  to  successfully  resist  the  adoption  of  this 
most  popular  route  was  the  defeat  or  the  delay  of  the  whole,  and, 
accordingly,  directed  their  united  force  to  oppose  the  passage  of  a 
law  in  favor  of  the  Juniata  route.  The  strength  of  the  opposition, 
with  the  aid  of  those  dissatisfied  on  the  other  explored  routes,  pre- 
sented a  vote  that  could  not  be  overcome  by  the  friends  of  the 
Juniata  route.  To  break  and  divide  the  vote  of  the  opposition 
became  the  object  of  the  friends  of  a  canal,  and  it  would  seem  that 
at  once  the  legislative  hall  became  a  market-place,  wherein  canals 
were  to  be  bartered  for  a  few  years.  A  few  members  were  to  be  con- 
ciliated and  brought  into  the  measure  by  appropriations  to  their 
district  of  country,  and  by  such  management  or  'log-rolling,'  as  it 
is  called,  millions  of  dollars  were  disposed  of  in  projects  not  then 
required  for  public  accommodation,  and  the  Commonwealth,  in 
place  of  one  canal,  was,  by  the  log-rolling,  rolled  into  three  or  more, 
at  an  expense  we  think,  now  (1829)  alarming  to  many  of  those 
friends  who  in  their  zeal  were  carried  along  with  the  general 
current." 

Another  writer,  in  commenting  upon  the  legislative  provisions 
made,  from  time  to  time,  for  commencing  works  contrary  to  every 
dictate  of  sound  policy,  summarized  the  case  as  follows: — 

"This  course  was  the  more  imperative  because  there  was  a  minor- 
ity, respectable  in  point  of  zeal  and  numbers,  and  formidable  by 
talents,  who  were  "hostile  to  the  measures  in  toto,  either  from  nar- 

*  "Your  committee  regard  the  plan  of  the  original  improvement  system  of 
the  state  as  founded  in  wisdom;  and  the  only  subject  of  regret  is  that  its 
friends,  from  time  to  time,  in  the  legislative  councils  of  the  state  have  been 
obliged  to  vote  for  other  purposes,  and  for  local  canals  and  railways  till  it 
has  become  involved  in  a  heavy  and  oppressive  debt.  This  fact  cannot  be 
explained  away  or  denied." — From  proceedings  of  an  Improvement  Conven- 
tion of  delegates  from  Lu/.erne,  Susquehanna  and  Bradford  counties  held  at 
Tunkhannock,  May  5th,  18-10. 

f  Inland  Navigation  and  Internal  Improvements  as  now  prosecuted  in 
Pennsylvania   (1829),  by  a  freeholder  of  Franklin  county,  p.  4. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  WorJcs  of  Pennsylvania.  203 

row,  contracted  views,  from  doubts  of  the  practicability  of  the 
measure  on  the  large  scale  contemplated,  or  from  dread  of  the 
enormous  expense  with  which  it  must  be  attended.  If  to  this  minor- 
ity, any,  even  a  small  number,  of  the  friends  of  internal  improve- 
ments were  to  be  added,  who  might  oppose  the  system,  if  their 
interests  were  not  properly  and  promptly  provided  for,  the  measure, 
which  at  best  was  far  from  being  quite  certain  of  success,  would 
have  been  inevitably  prostrated.  It  was  therefore  imperiously 
necessary  to  conciliate  these  members  as  the  sine  qua  non  of  suc- 
cess. This  is  what  is  vulgarly  called  'log-rolling,'  the  result  of  a 
spirit  of  compromise."* 

Again,  the  evidence  of  Governor  Ritner  is  to  the  point.  Refer- 
ring to  the  public  works  in  his  messagef  to  the  legislature  of  Decem- 
ber 6th,  1836,  he  said  :— 

"Pennsylvania  has  600  miles  of  completed  canal  and  120  of  fin- 
ished railroad.  Yet  such  has  been  the  ruinous  and  detached  system 
pursued  in  their  construction,  that  only  455  miles  of  this  whole 
length  are  now  to  any  useful  extent  in  operation.  The  Susque- 
hanna division  from  Duncan's  Island  to  IN^orthumberland,  39  miles, 
the  whole  of  the  North  Branch,  73%  miles,  the  "West  Branch,  72 
miles,  the  Beaver  division,  24%  miles,  the  Prench  Creek  division, 
221/4  miles,  and  the  French  Creek  Feeder,  23  miles,  forming  a 
length  of  canal  2541/4  miles,  as  will  appear  by  the  report  of  the 
canal  commissioners,  scarcely  pay  their  lock-keepers,  though  a  great 
portion  of  them  have  been  completed  for  years."$  Reference  was 
then  made  by  contrast  to  the  main  line,  whose  revenue  was  more 
promising.  The  conclusion  is : — -"The  difference  arises  from  the 
fact  that  the  one  class  of  improvements  are  not  only  complete  in 
themselves,  but  have  completed  the  object  of  their  construction; 
while  the  others  are  mere  disjointed  beginnings  of  an  immense 
whole,  whose  plan  was  never  perfected,  and  whose  present  con- 
dition is  a  sad  proof  of  the  selfishness  of  sectional  jealousy  and 
log-rolling  legislation." 

It  seems  hardly  necessary  to  supplement  these  quotations  by 
others  that  are  available§  in  order  to  arrive  at  the  correct  reason 

*  Ca-rey,  Brief  View  of  the  System  of  Internal  Improvements  of  the  State 
of  Pennsylvania  (1831),  p.  13. 

t  J.  H.  Rep.,  1836-7,  II,  pp.  28-29. 

J  The  canal  commissioners  in  their  report  for  1836  stated  that  the  revenue 
from  the  public  works  was  derived  almost  entirely  from  the  main  line. 

§Niles'  Eeg.,  XXXVII,  p.  212;  Publius,  The  State  Debt,  p.  11;  Report  on 
Inland  Xa^igation  and  Internal  Improvement  read  in  the  House  of  Represen- 
tatives, Feb.  2(jth,  1820,  p.  5;  Report  of  House  Committee  relative  to  the 
Gettysburg  Railroad,  in  J.  H.  Rep.,  1838-9,  II,  Part  II,  p.  16. 


204  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worhs  of  Pennsylvania. 

for  the  adoption  of  the  improvement  policy  of  1827.  The  shape  of 
the  State  of  Pennsylvania  and  the  wide  distribution  of  its  inhabi- 
tants were  such  that  no  one  leading  line,  sufficiently  far  reaching  in 
its  benefits,  could  be  selected  upon  which  the  concentration  of  the 
energies  of  the  commonwealth  might  be  exclusively  directed  to 
the  entire  satisfaction  of  all  the  districts.  The  natural  outcome  of 
this  was  exactly  what  took  place,  viz. — the  adoption  of  a  policy  of 
mutual  accommodation.  The  case  is  clear  that  this  programme  was 
forced  upon  the  party  in  favor  of  first  building  the  main  line.  Once 
adopted,  however,  its  continuance  was  regarded  as  essential  to  the 
preservation  of  the  public  faith;  and  the  inevitable  outcome  was 
the  chain  of  log-rolling  legislation  which  marked  the  progress  of  the 
public  works  until  their  completion. 

In  conclusion,  a  work  is  necessary  regarding  the  causes  for  the 
renewed  expansion  commencing  in  1836.  At  this  time,  the  fever 
of  internal  improvements  was  raging  throughout  many  states  in  the 
Union,*  and  Pennsylvania  was  no  exception.  Moreover,  as  will 
be  seen  later,  as  extensive  patronage  had  now  grown  up  under  the 
past  'expenditure  of  nearly  $23,000,000  upon  the  public  works. 
Again,  in  addition  to  the  fact  that  the  faith  of  the  state  had  been 
pledged  already  to  those  districts  in  which  new  works  now  were 
undertaken,  two  other  events  occurred  about  this  time  profoundly 
influencing  the  situation.  These  were  the  distribution  of  the 
surplus  revenuef  and  the  chartering  of  the  Bank  of  the  United 
States.  By  these  events,  between  five  and  six  million  dollars  were 
thrown  into  the  public  treasury.t     All  these  conditions  combined 

*  Bounio,  ^History  of  the  Surplus  Revenue  of  1837,  p.  126.  Xiles'  Reg., 
XLVllI  (Juno  6th,  18.35),  p.  2.SS,  says: — "Canals  and  railways  are  multiply- 
ing with  such  rapidity  over  the  country  that  it  is  next  to  impossible  to  keep 
pace  with  them." 

f  The  bill  for  the  distribution  of  the  surplus  revenue  of  the  United  States 
wiis  signed  by  the  President  on  the  2.3d  of  June,  1830.  In  accordance  with 
this  law,  Pennsylvania  received  .$2,807,514.78.  Some  of  this  money  was  used 
for  educational  pui-poses.  The  )-est  was  placed  in  the  public  treasury  and 
used  largely  for  paying  the  interest  on  the  public  debt  and  for  the  extension 
of  the  transportation  improvements. 

T  "Unfortunately  for  Pennsylvania,  two  circumstances  occurred  about  this 
time  [1836]  which  in  their  consequences  have  been  more  disastrous  to  her 
best  interests  than  all  the  other  evils  which  she  has  been  subjected  to.  It 
will  easily  be  perceived  that  the  circumstances  alluded  to  were  the  distribu- 
tion of  the  surplus  revenue,  and  the  chartering  of  the  Bank  of  the  United 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania.  205 

to  extend  the  improvement  system,  and  the  most  extravagant 
schemes  were  at  once  undertaken.  When,  in  the  face  of  impending 
bankruptcy,  a  halt  had  to  be  called,  no  revenue  could  be  expected 
from  the  new  ventures  without  a  further  expenditure  of  many 
millions  of  dollars.  The  influence  of  the  chartering  of  the  Bank  of 
the  United  States  will  be  more  fully  considered  in  connection  with 
the  financing  of  the  public  works,  and  it  is  to  this  aspect  of  our 
subject  that  attention  will  now  be  given. 

Chapter  IV. — Finance. 

The  Act  of  April  lltli,  1825,  which  created  the  first  board  of 
canal  commissioners,  was  the  first  also  to  provide  for  the  prelimin- 
ary arrangements  in  the  financing  of  the  public  works.  By  it,  the 
new  board  Avas  directed  to  inquire  into  the  means  most  suitable  for 
establishing  a  canal  fund;  to  ascertain  the  terms  upon  which  loans 
could  be  obtained ;  and  to  devise  means  for  meeting  the  interest  and 
for  the  final  payment  of  the  principal. 

Their  report  of  February  3d,  1826,*  upon  these  various  matters, 
contained  numerous  recommendations  which  were  embodied  in  an 
Act  of  legislature  of  April  1st,  1826.t  This  date,  it  will  be  recalled, 
was  about  a  month  after  the  construction  of  the  first  sections  of 
the  trunk  line  had  been  authorized.  This  initial  financial  legisla- 
tion provided  for  the  establishment  of  an  "internal  improvement 

States.  By  these  two  ti'ansactions,  between  five  and  six  million  dollars  were 
thrown  into  her  coffers.  Intoxicated  by  the  sudden  acquisition  of  so  large  an 
amount  of  money,  instead  of  husbanding  it  Avith  proper  care,  as  she  should 
have  done,  the  most  extravagant  schemes  of  improvement  were  undertaken, 
which  now  involve  us  in  the  difficulties  with  which  we  find  ourselves  sur- 
rounded, and  which  yet  require  the  expenditure  of  millions  upon  millions  to 
ensure  completion." — Minority  Report  of  Committee  on  Inland  Navigation 
and  Internal  Improvements,  in  J.  H.  Rep.,  1840,  II   (Part  II),  p.  255. 

"These  habits  of  lavish  and  ill-judged  appropriations,  engendered  by  the 
sudden  and  unexpected  acquisition  of  public  money,  through  means  which  can 
seldom  if  ever  happen  again,  must  be  promptly  corrected.  It  is  frequently 
observed  in  the  case  of  private  individuals,  that  the  sudden  acquisition  of 
wealth  is  fatally  injurious  to  the  prudent  habits  and  sound  morals  of  the 
possessor.  It  is  more  emphatically  true  in  the  case  of  governments.  .  .  . 
The  enormous  and  imprecedented  deficit  in  the  trea.suiy  now  to  be  supplied  is 
an  instructive  commentaiy  on  its  practical  results." — Extract  from  Governor 
Porter's  Message,  in  J.  H.  Rep.,  1838-39,  II   (Part  I),  p.  521. 

*  See  J.  H.  Rep.,  1825-26,  II,  p.  232. 

fLaws  of  Pennsylvania,  1825-26,  p.  168. 


206  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works,  of  Pennsylvania. 

fund"  of  which  the  secretary  of  the  commonwealth,  the  auditor 
general,  and  the  state  treasurer  were  made  commissioners.  All 
sums  vested  in  them  were  to  be  used  to  pay  the  interest  on  loans* 
contracted  for  building  the  canal,  to  purchase  the  principal  of  such 
debts,  and  to  defray  all  expenses  incident  to  tlie  management  of 
the  fund.  The  sources  of  the  latter  were  as  follows:  "All  appro- 
priations, grants,  and  donations"  made  by  the  state  legislature,  by 
the  Congress  of  the  United  States,  by  corporations  or  individuals; 
an   annual   appropriationf   of  $30,000  from   the   auction  duties  ;:j: 

« 

*  The  practice  of  borrowing  on  the  credit  of  the  state  had  commenced  pre- 
vious to  the  perio<l  under  discussion,  although  to  a  very  limited  extent.  In 
the  year  1826,  when  the  commonwealth  commenced  the  sjstem  of  internal 
impix>vements,  the  debt  was  $1,840,000.^  The  report  of  the  committee  on 
ways  and  means'  made  to  the  legislature  in  1823  expressed  the  regret  that 
Pennsylvania  has  adopted  a  system  of  borrowing.  The  time  was  anxiously 
anticipated  when  the  state  should  be  free  from  debt.  If  the  policy  of  spend- 
ing more  than  the  legitimate  revenues  supplied  were  continued,  the  result 
must  be  taxation  or  a  state-debt-  They  believed  "that  neither  our  form  of 
government  nor  the  habits  or  disposition  of  our  citizens  is  calculated  for 
either  debt  or  taxation;  but  if  one  or  the  other  must  be  adopted  they  would 
prefer  taxes  rather  tlian  debt."'  This  preference,  however,  was  not  embodied 
in  their  recommendations  of  ways  and  means  since  they  advised  "the  passage 
of  a  law  authorizing  the  governor  to  obtain  on  loan  from  the  Philadelphia 
Bank  the  sum  of  $100,000  ...  to  renew  the  loans  with  the  Pennsylvania 
Bank  as  they  shall  fall  due,  and  to  make  such  other  loans  as  the  exigencies 
of  the  state  may  require  .  .  .  for  any  time  not  exceeding  four  years."  The 
reason  for  recommending  the  continuance  of  a  policy  adverse  to  their  con- 
victions was: — "The  great  scarcity  of  a  circulating  mediimi  in  the  interior 
of  the  state  woTild  make  it  very  diflleult  if  not  impracticable  to  raise  money 
by  any  general  system  of  ta.vation."' 

f  During  the  year  1826,  however,  the  state  treasurer  was  authorized  to 
pay  the  coimmissioners  of  tlie  fund,  out  of  the  receipts  from  duties  on 
auctions,  such  sums  as  might  be  necessary  to  meet  the  interest  on  loans 
autliorized  duiing  that  year .  for  canal  construction.  After  December  1st, 
1826,  $30,000  annually  were  to  be  paid  into  the  improvement  fund  out  of 
the  auction  duties. 

J  Auctioneers  were  required  to  be  licensed.  They  were  allowed  a  fixed 
percentage  on  their  sales,  and  along  with  this  commission  they  had  to  collect 
for  the  use  of  the  state,  an  additional  one  per  cent.  The  bonds  given  by  the 
auctioneers  were  security  for  the  payment  of  the  collections  made  for  the 
state.  Four  times  a  year  the  duties  thus  collected  were  paid  intx)  the 
treasury. — See  General  Index  to  the  Laws  of  Pennsylvania,  1700-1812,  p.  47. 


^  Report  of  Joint  Committee  on  Pennsylvania's  finances  from  1838-43,  read 
ill  the  House,  May  15th,  1878. 
==  See  J.  H.  Rep.,  1822-23,  p.  820. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania.  207 

the  net  proceeds  of  escheats;  the  dividends  accruing  on  the  canal, 
road,  and  bridge  stock  owned  by  the  state;  also  the  tolls  to  be 
taken  on  the  public  works  when  built.  Let  us  now  endeavor  to 
make  a  fair  estimate  of  the  yearly  revenue  thus  diverted  into  the 
improvement  fund. 

In  any  safe  system  of  finance,  the  "appropriations,  grants  and 
donations"  could  scarcely  be  regarded  as  sources  of  any  sure  revenue. 
Hence  it  seems  fair  to  say  that  such  contingent  contributions  should 
have  little  or  no  weight  in  computing  the  strength  of  the  fund  in 
question.  The  second  item,  viz.,  $30,000  from  the  auction  duties, 
could  be  depended  upon  as  always  forthcoming,  since  this  was  only 
a  small  fraction  of  the  yearly  revenue  derived  from  that  tax.* 
The  net  proceeds  of  escheats  was  but  a  minor  fund,  also  uncertain. 
In  1827,  it  amounted  to  $2,040.35,  but  for  the  next  three  years  it 
averages  only  $485.  One  thousand  dollars  per  year  was  certainly 
as  much  as  could  reasonably  be  expected  from  this  source. f  Tor 
a  number  of  years  following  1826,  the  dividends  on  the  state  stock 
diverted  to  the  improvement  fund  averaged  $29,000,  and  as  the 
yearly  income  from  this  source  had  usually  approximated  this 
figure  it  could  quite  safely  be  depended  upon  as  forthcoming. 
Finally,  the  revenue  to  be  derived  from  tolls  depended  wholly  upon 
the  future.  The  fund  could  not  be  augmented  from  this  source  for 
several  years,  however  great  might  be  its  contribution  in  time  to 
come.  Consequently  we  find  that  the  sums  that  might  reasonably 
be  collected  yearly  to  constitute  an  interest  fund  were  approximately 
as  follows: — 

Auction   duties    $30,000 

Escheats    1,000 

Dividends  on  canal,  road  and  bridge  stock 29,000 

Total    $60,000 

Computing  interest  at  five  per  cent.,  the  market  rate  when  pre- 
vailing, this  sum  was  sufficient  to  pay  the  interest  upon  loans  of 

$1,200,000.     The  estimated  cost  of  constructing  the  through  line 

*  In  1826,  the  auction  duties  amounted  to  $108,820.06  and  for  several  years 
afterwards  they  were  never  less  than  this  sum.  See  Hammond,  Tabular 
View  of  the  Financial  Affairs  of  Pennsylvania,  p.  14. 

I  The  average  yearly  income  from  this  source  for  the  twelve  years  follow- 
ing 1827  was  $1,061. — Hammond,  Tabular  View  of  the  Financial  Affairs 
of  Pennsylvania,  p.  17. 


208  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worhs  of  Pennsylvania. 

from  Middleto-\vn  to  Pittsburg  as  originally  designed  was,  as  has 
been  shown,  $3,000,000.  Moreover,  the  time  to  construct  the  works 
was  put  down  as  six  years.  Hence  it  is  clear  that  the  provisions 
made,  at  this  time,  for  financing  the  Pennsylvania  canal  were 
entirely  inadequate  and  unsafe,  even  though  the  original  plan  of 
construction  had  been  adhered  to,  and  the  estimated  cost  had  been 
correct. 

Since  j^cav  York's  canal  had  been  completed  before  Pennsyl- 
vania's works  were  commenced,  and  since  both  states  depended  upon 
loans  to  pay  the  cost  of  construction,  the  question, naturally  arises 
at  this  point  as  to  whether  the  latter  state  modelled  its  system  for 
financing  the  public  works  iipon  that  of  the  former.  In  order  to 
answer  this  question  it  may  be  well  before  entering  upon  a  con- 
sideration of  the  actual  working  out  of  Pennsylvania's  financial 
arrangements  to  compare  the  "internal  improvement  fund"  with 
the  "canal  fund"  of  New  York. 

In  1817,  when  the  construction  of  the  Erie  and  Champlain  canals 
was  about  to  be  commenced,  a  sound  policy  for  financing  the  works 
was  adopted.*  It  appears  that  no  reliance  whatever  was  placed 
upon  prospective  tolls.  But  a  fund  was  constituted  which,  without 
possibility  of  failure,  should  meet  the  interest  on  the  loans  con- 
tracted to  construct  the  public  works.  To  this  end,  the  taxes  on 
steamboats,  on  salt,  on  goods  sold  at  auction,  and  some  other  minor 
dues  were  diverted  from  the  "general  fund"  to  a  special  "canal 
fund."  The  latter  was  placed  under  the  charge  of  the  canal  com- 
missioners, who  were  expressly  required  to  limit  their  loans  so  that 
the  total  annual  interest  should,  in  no  case,  exceed  the  income  of  that 
fund.  Again,  after  the  canals  were  constructed,  and  when  tolls  were 
coming  in  freely,  the  latter^  along  with  the  salt  and  auction  duties, 
were  put  into  a  sinking  fund,  for  the  extinguishing  of  the  debt  of 
$7,737,771  incurred  in  building  the  canals.  Moreover,  it  was 
definitely  provided  that  no  use  should  be  made  of  these  revenues  for 
any  other  purpose  whatsoever.  In  making  these  arrangements  it 
was  generally  understood  that  the  object  was  to  discharge  the  debt, 
to  restore  to. the  "general  fund"  the  moneys  diverted  from  it,  and 
to   remove  forever   all   danger   of   a   resort   to   taxation.      Thus   it 

*  The  facts  given  here  regarding  the  provisions  made  for  finajicing  the 
Erie  and  Champlain  canals  are  found  in  Hunt's  Merchants'  Magazine,  Vol. 
XVIII,  1848,  p.  245,  and  in  a  Report  of  the  Ways  and  Means  Committee  of 
the  Assembly  of  New  York,  March,  1838. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Woi-ks  of  Pennsylvania.  209 

is  evident  that  a  clear,  safe  and  well-defined  policy  was  laid  out 
and  pursued,  viz. — to  contract  no  debts  without  arranging  before- 
hand, beyond  the  possibility  of  doubt,  the  ways  and  means  of 
paying  the  interest  and  later  the  principal  itself. 

In  accordance  with  these  plans,  the  funds  for  meeting  interest 
payments  were  always  ample,  and  the  part  of  the  improvement 
debt  falling  due  in  1836  was  easily  paid..  The  balance  remaining 
in  the  sinking  fund,  at  this  time,  was  $3,931,132,  and  the  remainder 
of  the  debt  which  did  not  mature  until  1845  was  only  $3,762,256. 
The  latter  would  have  been  discharged  at  once,  had  it  been  possible 
to  get  the  state's  creditors  to  surrender  their  certificates  at  a  reason- 
able figure.  There  being  no  longer  any  need  of  augmenting  the 
sinking  fund,  legislation  was  passed  in  1836  providing  for  the  res- 
toration to  the  "general  fund"  of  the  salt  and  auction  duties,  also 
for  diverting  $200,000  annually  from  the  canal  revenues  to  the 
same  fund. 

It  thus  seems  clear  that  the  meagre  provisions  made  by  Pennsyl- 
vania for  financing  the  trunk  line  were  not  copied  from  J^ew  York. 
On  the  contrary,  the  sound  policy  of  the  latter  state  affords  a 
striking  contrast  to  that  of  the .  former.  The  inevitable  result  of 
such  negligence  of  duty  on  the  part  of  Pennsylvania  was  that, 
within  a  short  time,  the  interest  fund  was  exhausted.  An  acknowledg- 
ment of  this  fact  by  the  commissioners*  resulted,  as  we  shall  soon  see, 
in  a  temporary  decline  of  the  credit  of  the  state. 

The  first  loanf  negotiated  to  secure  funds  to  commence  the  con- 
struction of  the  public  works  was  for  the  sum  of  $300,000,  author- 
ized by  an  Act  of  April  1st,  1826.|  From  this  time  until  1842,  the 
period  of  the  active  "  prosecution  of  the  state  improvements, 
$53,352,648.72  were  expended  by  the  commissioners  of  the  internal 
improvement  fund.  Indeed,  within  two  years  from  the  date  when 
the  first  ground  was  broken,  permanent  loans  had  been  floated 
amounting  to  $3,300,000  and  the  work  of  construction  was  only 
fairly  under  way.  As  early  as  1829,  the  confidence  of  "capitalists 
and  moneyed  institutions"  had  become  shaken  respecting  the  suffi- 
ciency of  the  fund  pledged  for  the  payment  of  interest.     So  great 

*■  See  Report  of  the  Commissioners  of  the  Internal  Improvement  Fund  for 
February  19th,  1829,  in  J.  H.  Rep.,  1828-29,  II,  p.  589. 

f  The  rate  of  interest  was  5  per  cent.,  and  the  stock  sold  at  a  premium 
of  31  per  cent.     • 

J  Laws  of  Pennsylvania,  1825-26,  p.  168. 


210  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

was  the  alarm  at  this  time,  that  not  a  single  bid  was  made  for  a 
permanent  loan  for  $2,200,000  authorized  by  an  Act  of  April  22d, 
1829.*  This  was  not  due  to  any  tightness  in  the  money  market,  for, 
in  the  words  of  Governor  Shultze,  "the  canal  stock  of  a  neighboring 
state  commands  a  premium  abroad,  while  that  of  this  no  less  worthy 
commonwealth  is  in  no  demand  and  will  not  sell  at  all."t  More- 
over, it  was  only  with  great  difficulty  that  money  could  be  obtained 
on  temporary  loan  to  meet  the  urgent  demands  on  the  improvement 
fund.J  The  suspicions  of  the  "capitalists  and  moneyed  institutions" 
concerning  the  sufficiency  of  the  fund  for  interest  payments  were 
not  without  foundation.  The  commissioners,  in  their  report  of 
February  19th,  1829,  made  no  attempt  to  conceal  the  actual  con- 
ditions when  they  predicted  a  "deficiency  of  money  belonging  to 
the  fund  on  the  1st  of  February,  1830,  to  meet  the  semi-annual 
payment  of  interest  on  loans  due  on  that  day,  of  $53,880."  On 
the  date  mentioned,  the  amount  of  interest  to  be  paid  was  $157,500, 
and  had  not  $100,000  then  been  transferred§  from  the  state  treas- 
ury to  the  internal  improvement  fund,  there  would  have  been  a 
deficit  of  $70,338.81.  Again,  on  the  1st  of  August  of  the  same 
year  the  deficit  was  $77,838.81,  although  in  the  meantime  a  similar 
transfer  of  $25,000  had  been  made.  Furthermore,  in  the  face  of 
these  difficulties  a  temporary  loan  was  authorized  on  November 
17th,  1829,  to  provide,  among  other  things,  for  the  payment  of  matur- 
ing interest.  This  one  act  of  emergency  legislation  would  not  be 
considered  unfavorably  had  not  this  make-shift  policy  for  a  number 
of  years  afterwards  been  frequently  repeated.  || 

The  failure  to  negotiate  the  loan  of  April  22d,  1829,  and  the 
increasing  deficit  in  the  interest  fund  were  the  cause  of  serious 
thought  on  the  part  of  the  executive  and  the  legislative  officers  of 
the  state.  Moreover,  at  the  close  of  1829,  the  sum  of  $1,398,790.67 
was  due  to  various  contractors,  many  of  whom,  on  account  of  delay 

*  See  Gov.  Wolf's  message  in  J.  H.  Rep.,  1831-32,  II,  p.  19. 

t  Message  of  November  4th,  1829,  in  J.  H.  Rep.,  1829-30,  II,  p.  5. 

$See  Gov.  Wolf's  message  in  J.  H.  Rep.,  1831-32,  II,  p.  19. 

§.By  an  Act  of  April  22n(i,  1829,  the  state  treasurer  was  authorized  to  pay 
to  the  commissioners  of  the  internal  improvement  fund  to  be  applied  to  the 
interest  account  any  money  not  othermse  appropriated,  which,  in  the  opinion 
of  the  commissioners,  could  l>e  done  without  embarrassing  the  ordinary 
operations  of  the  treasury. 

|]  See  J.  H.  Rep.,  1836-37,  II,  p.  22. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Woyhs  of  Pennsylvania.  211 

in  obtaining  their  pay,  were  in  distressing  conditions.*  In  his  mes- 
sage of  January  14th,  1830,  Governor  Wolf  discussed  at  length  the 
whole  situation.  He  pointed  out  the  complete  inefficiency  of  the 
improvement  fund  to  meet  the  interest  on  the  existing  loans  of 
$8,300,000,  and  on  the  additional  sums  that,  sooner  or  later,  must 
be  borrowed  to  complete  the  works.  In  order  to  create  an  interest 
fund  Avhich  should  be  both  ample  and  permanent,  he  strongly 
advised  taxation.  Again,  in  their  report  of  February  22d,  1830,  the 
house  committee  on  ways  and  means  stated  that  it  was  "the  imper- 
ative duty  of  the  present  legislature  to  adopt  effective  measures  to 
guard  against  any  possible  deficiency  to  meet  the  engagements  of 
the  state. "t  Furthermore,  they  mentioned  that,  in  view  of  the 
rapidly  increasing  interest  charges  on  the  loans,  which  then  aggre- 
gated nearly  $10,000,000,$  they  would  recommend,  later,  a  system 
of  taxation  to  supplement  the  present  sources  for  interest  payment. 
The  effect  of  these  and  other  expressions  of  determination  to 
strengthen  the  interest  fund  was  shown,  even  before  any  action  was 
taken  in  this  direction,  in  the  rise  of  the  credit  of  the  state.  For 
between  March,  1830,  and  December,  1831,  $386,989.71  were  paid 
into  the  treasury  as  premiums  on  stock  loans, §  and  diverted  to  the 
fund  for  interest  payment.  During  this  time,  to  use  the  words  of 
Governor  Wolf,   "capitalists   and  moneyed   institutions   vied   with 

each  other  as  to  which  of  them  should  obtain  the  state  loans, 

in  the  entire  confidence  that  an  adequate  fund  for  the  punctual 
semi-annual  payment  of  the  interest  would  be  established."  || 

In  this  matter,  however,  they  were  over-sanguine.  For  the  taxa- 
tion bills  reported  by  the  committee  on  ways  and  means  were  by  no 
means  as  extensive  as  had  been  assured,  nor  were  they  adequate  to 
the  ever-increasing  demands  for  interest  money.  They  were  as  fol- 
lows : — First,  a  tax  of  one  mill  on  the  dollar  upon  personal  property 
not  subject  to  county  rates  and  levies ;    second,  an*  increase  of  one 

*  See  J.  H.  Rep.,  1829-30,  II,  p.  574. 
t  J.  H.  Rep.,  1829-30,  II,  p.  663. 

I  The  whole  amount  of  money  appropriated  for  the  stale  works  up  to 
December  10th,  1830,  was  $10,288,309.69.     See  Haz.  Reg.,, VII,  p.  12. 

§  The  permanent  loans  upon  which  this  amount  of  premiums  was  paid 
aggregated  $6,783,101.88.     They  were  placed  at  5  per  cent,  and  all  sold  at  a 
'  premium.     See  Hammond,  Tabular  View  of  the  Financial  Affairs  of  Penn- 
sylvania, p.  9. 

II  J.  H.  Rep.,  1831-32,  II,  p.  19. 


212  .1.  L.  Bishop — T]ic  State  Worli.s  of  Pennsylvania. 

mill  on  the  dollar  on  all  county  rates  and  levies;  third,  a  tax  on 
inns  and  taverns,  expected  to  add  $40,000  yearly  revenue;  fourth, 
a  tax  on  judicial  proceedings  such  as  recording  deeds  and  mortgages, 
estimated  as  capable  of  swelling  the  annual  revenue  by  $50,000; 
fifth,  an  alteration  of  the  law  concerning  the  retailing  of  mer- 
chandise, so  as  to  give  an  increase  of  $40,000  annually. 

By  the  time  the  above  recommendations  had  been  fully  discussed 
in  both  houses  of  the  legislature,  items  three,  four,  and  five  were 
cancelled,  and  only  the  first  two  were  included  in  the  tax  laws  of 
March  25th,  1831.  These  were  to  be  kept  in  force  for  five  years, 
and  would  therefore  have  expired  by  limitation  in  March,  1836,  had 
they  not  been  repealed  previously.*  They  were  designed  to  help 
replenish  the  interest  fund,  only  until  the  revenue  expected  from  the 
public  works  should  be  ample  to  meet  this  and  many  other  purposes. f 

It  is  hardly  necessary  to  say  that  the  above  tax  laws  were  unim- 
portant and  entirely  insufficient.  In  fact  they  may  have  been 
designed  by  the  legislature  rather  to  raise  credit  than  actual  rev- 
enue. During  the  period  of  almost  five  years  in  which  they  were 
in  force,  the  total  amount  of  revenue  collected  was  only 
$1,052, 650. 78. 1  By  1835,  the  last  year  these  laws  were  in  force, 
the  yearly  interest  on  the  improvement  loans  slightly  exceeded  this 
figure. §  Certainly  no  further  facts  are  necessary  to  demonstrate 
the  futility  of  the  taxation  policy  of  1831. 

In  spite  of  the  failure  of  the  legislature  to  create  an  interest 
fund  Avhich  should  be  "both  ample  and  permanent,"  no  further 
trouble  was  experienced  for  some  time  in  securing,  upon  easy  terms, 
the  money  necessary  to  carry  on  the  public  works.  In  fact,  all  the 
loans  floated  for  the  purpose  of  bringing  the  improvements  to  com- 
pletion in  1834  bore  a  substantial  premium. ||  Por  instance,  the  5 
per  cent,  stocks  of  1832-33,  to  the  amount  of  $2,500,000,  redeemable 
in  1860,  sold  at  almost,  15  per  cent,  above  par.|f  The  reasons  for 
this  are  apparent.  In  the  first  place,  the  expressions  of  determina- 
tion to  preserve  the  credit  of  the  state,  at  the  time  of  its  temporary 
decline  in  1829,  tended  to  make  the  money  lenders  confident  regard- 

*  They  were  repealed  on  Febriiaiy  18th,   1836. 

fSee  J.  H.  Rep.,  1831-32,  II,  pp.  20-21. 

:|:  Hammond,  Talnilnr  View  of  the  Financial  Afl'airs  of  Pennsylvania,  p.  14. 

§lbid.,  p.   11. 

11  Ibid.,  p.  9. 

U  Hunt's  Mer.  Mag.,  XX,  1849,  p.  260. 


.4.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania.  213 

iug  the  security  of  their  loans.  But  of  no  less  importance  than  this 
was  the  influence  of  the  general  financial  condition  of  the  country. 
Both  at  home  and  abroad,  money  was  abundant  and  the  expansion 
of  state  and  individual  credits  was  exceedingly  popular.*  The 
spirit  of  speculation  was  by  no  means  confined  to  this  state,  but  it 
was  raging  all  over  the  country.  Banks  were  created  in  great  num- 
bersf  and  became  the  instruments  of  the  expanding  credit  mania. 
Under  these  conditions,  Pennsylvania  had  no  trouble  to  sell  her 
stock  profusely  to  provide  means  for  completing  her  extensive 
system  of  public  improvements.  Moreover,  the  funds  thus  secured 
were  from  time  to  time  freely  drawn  upon  to  pay  the  interest  on 
previous  loans. 

As  a  result  of  this  policy,  when  the  main  line  and  lateral  works 
had  been  completed  and  were  coming  into  general  use  in  1835, 
the  state  debt  was  $24,589,743.32.$  The  greater  part  of  this 
($22, 420,003. 32)§  had  been  incurred  in  the  construction  of  canals 
and  railways.  The  whole  of  this  sum  had  been  borrowed  at  5  per 
cent,  and  had  yielded  to  the  treasury  in  premiums  on  the  respective 
loans  the  sum  of  $1,356,653. 36. ||     Moreover  in  this  year,  the  ordi- 

*  "States,  banks,  corporations  and  individuals  all  moved  forward  in  har- 
monious unison,  borrowing  all  they  eould  and  wherever  they  could,  without 
reference  to  their  future  ability  and  means  of  repayment." — Extract  from 
Governor  Porter's  Message,  in  J.  H.  Rep.,  1840,  11,  p.  19. 

"During  the  ten  years   following   1820,  public   stocks  were  authorized  in 

the  various  states  to  the  amount  of  $26,000,000,  of  which  nearly  $18,000,000 

were  held   against   the    three    states,   Xew   York,     Pennsylvania     and   Ohio. 

Between  the  years  1830  and  1835,  $40,000,000  were  added  to  the  obligations 

of  the  states,  while  the  three  years  previous  to  1838  witnessed  an  increase 

of   local   indebtedness  to  the   amount   of  $107,000." — Adams,   Public  Debts, 

p.  318. 

f  Banks  in  the  United  States. 

Loans  and 
Number  Capital  Discounts  Circulation  Specie 

1820         303        $137,110,611        $189,2.52,422        $  44,863.344  19,820,240 

1830         330  145,192,268  200,451,214  61,323,896  22,144,917 

1837         634  290,772,091  525,115,702  149,185,890  37,915,340 

— See  Governor  Porter's  message  of  January  8th,  1840,  in  J.  H.  Rep.,  1840, 
II,  p.  15. 

I  See  Governor  Shmik's  message  in  Exec.  Docs.,  1845,  p.  6. 

§  See  Governor  Wolf's  aimual  message  of  Dec.  2d,  1835,  in  J'.  H.  Rep., 
1835-36,  II,  p.  11. 

]|Ibid.,  p.  11. 

Trans.  Conn.  Acad.,  Vol.  XIII.  16  Nov.,  1907. 


214  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  WorJcs  of  Pennsylvania. 

nary  revenue,  exclush'e  of  loans,  was  $1,643,923.21,  of  which 
$562,690  was  from  taxes,  and  $684,357.77  from  canal  and  railroad 
tolls.  The  interest  payments,  in  1835,  totalled  $1,169,455.69,  a  sum, 
as  will  be  seen,  nearly  equal  to  the  entire  revenue.  In  the  face  of 
such  unsound  financial  conditions,  economy  in  all  matters  of  public 
policy  and  a  reinforcement  of  the  tax  laws  of  1831  would  naturally 
have  been  expected.  On  the  contrary,  however,  a  wide  extension 
of  the  internal  improvement  system  was  commenced,  and  the  above- 
mentioned  laws  were  repealed.  Let  us  now  examine  the  circum- 
stances giving  rise  to  such  action. 

The  charter  of  the  Bank  of  the  United  States  was  to  expire 
March  3d,  1836.  As  early  as  ISTovember  preceding  this  date,  proj- 
ects began  to  be  discussed  for  getting  from  Pennsylvania  a  state 
charter.  This  scheme  soon  became  popular,  for  it  appeared  that 
there  would  be  obtained  in  this  way  by  the  state  a  large  sum  of 
ready  money,  as  well  as  the  means  for  placing  loans  upon  easy 
terms.  Furthermore,  the  extensive  patronage  which  had  already 
grown  up  under  the  past  expenditvire  of  nearly  $23,000,000  among 
jobbers  and  contractors,  as  well  as  under  the  appointment  of 
numerous  operators  on  the  public  works,  naturally  produced  a 
strong  party  in  favor  of  any  movement  which  would  provide  for 
their  extension.  Besides,  many  could  be  found  anxious  to  endorse 
any  reasonable  plan  to  avoid  paying  taxes.  Accordingly,  on  Feb- 
ruary 18th,  1836,  a  bill  was  passed  entitled  "An  act  to  repeal  the 
state  tax  on  real  and  personal  property,  to  continue  and  extend 
the  improvements  of  the  state  by  railroads  and  canals,  and  to 
charter  a  state  bank  to  be  called  the  United  States  Bank."*  This 
act,  then  considered  the  means  for  effecting  the  financial  redemp- 
tionf  of  the  state,  has  been  justly  characterized  as  follows : — 

"The  act  of  the  Pennsylvania  Legislature,  by  which  the  United 
States  Bank  of  Pennsylvania  was  chartered,  is,  on  its  face,  a  piece  | 

*  Laws  of  Poimsylvania,  183ri-36,  p.  .3G. 

f  Governor  Rilner,  in  his  annual  message  for   1836,  in   speaking  of  this 
act  said:    "Tlie  increase  of  the  state  debt  is  arrested.     Tlie  state  tax  has  been  ■ 
permanently   repealed.     Loans   for   the  payment   of   interest,   that  infallible 
precursor  of  private  as  well  as  public    bankruptcy,  liave,   I   trust,   forever  I 
ceased.     .     .     .     .     The   whole   of   this   healthful   and   cheering   change  was  j 
produced  by  one  well-time,  wise  and  truly  Pennsylvanian  act  of  legislation. 

The  Bank  of  the  United  States became,  as  a  State  institution, 

the  means  of  .producing  for  Pennsylvania  that  financial  redemption  which  it 
had  formerly  effected  for  the  Union."— J.  H.  Rep.,  1836-37,  II,  p.  22. 


A.  L.  Bisliop—The  State  Worhs  of  Pennsylvania.  215 

of  corrupt  legislation.  Its  corruption  was  addressed  to  the  people 
of  the  state,  not  to  private  individuals.  It  comprised  three  projects 
in  an  obvious  log-rolling  combination, — remission  of  taxes,  public 
improvements,  and  bank  charter."* 

The  first  section,  as  before  mentioned,  repealed  the  tax  laws 
of  1831,  and  thus  left  the  state  almost  taxless.  By  other  sections, 
more  than  two  millions  of  dollars  were  appropriated  at  once,  for 
the  extension  of  the  transportation  improvements.  Furthermore, 
in  consideration  of  the  privileges  conferred  upon  the  bank  by  this 
act,  and  in  lieu  of  all  taxes  on  dividends,  it  was  to  pay  into  the 
treasury  of  the  commonwealth  the  sum  of  $2,500,000,  and  a  further 
annual  sum  of  $100,000  for  twenty  yearsf  for  common  school  pur- 
poses. It  was  also  pledged  to  advance  on  permanent  loan  any  sum 
or  sums  not  exceeding  in  the  whole  $6,000,000,  in  return  for  which 
the  state  was  to  issue  negotiable  certificates  of  stock,  reimbursable 
in  1868,  bearing  interest  at  4  or  5  per  cent,  per  annum  payable  half 
yearly.  It  was  provided  that,  if  the  interest  should  be  at  4  per 
cent.,  the  loan  was  to  be  taken  at  par;  but  if  at  5  per  cent.;  the 
bank  must  pay  a  premium  of  10  per  cent.  Again,  the  bank  was 
obliged  to  advance  to  the  commonwealth,  as  a  temporary  loan,  at 
4  per  cent,  any  sum,  not  exceeding  $1,000,000  a  year,  reimbursable 
at  the  pleasure  of  the  commonwealth,  within  twelve  months  from 
the  date  of  the  loan;  also  it  was  to  subscribe  $675,0,00  to  the  stock 
of  certain  railroad  and  turnpike  companies.  Such  were  the  con- 
siderations deemed  equivalent  to  the  privileges  granted  to  the 
bank  by  its  new  charter. 

The  rechartered  bank,  which,  at  best,  was  a  most  unstable  insti- 
tution, now  entered  upon  a  period  of  intimate  relationship  with 
the  state's  finances.  It  attended  to  the  transfer  of  state  stocks,  was 
by  law  the  depository  of  the  state's  funds  and  was  the  agency 
through  which  the  semi-annual  interest  payments  were  made.J  The 
rapid  extension  of  the  public  improvements  which  now  followed 
made  it  necessary  that  the  state,  in  accordance  with  the  conditions  of 
the  charter,  should  draw  heavily  from  the  bank.  But,  soon  after 
the  latter  undertook  to  make  these  large  payments,  the  money  mar- 
ket throughout  the  country  began  to  tighten,  and  increasing  strin- 

"  Siimner,  Andrew  Jackson  as  a  Public  Man,  p.  338. 
f  The  charter  was  granted  for  a  period  of  thirty  years. 
$See  J.  H.  Rep.,  1836-37,  II,  p.  22,  and  1837-38,  II,  pp.  33  and  82;  also 
Hunt's  Mer.  Mag.,  XX,  p.  261. 


210  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Woi-ls  of  Pennsylvania. 

gency  was  followed  by  the  universal  suspension  of  1837.  This  was 
not  without  eifect  upon  the  state's  credit  abroad.  For  a  large  pro- 
portion of  the  state's  stock  was  held  by  foreign  stockholders,*  and, 
oAving  to  the  generally  deranged  state  of  credit  in  1837,  the  August 
interest  payment  was  delayed.  This  was  inevitable  since  the 
United  States  Bank  of  Pennsylvania,  which  Avas  now  the  state's 
banker,  had  failed  on  the  18th  of  May.  Most  of  the  foreign  credi- 
tors usually  authorized  the  bank  to  transmit  the  amounts  due  to 
them  semi-annually  to  Baring  Brothers  and  Company,"}*  who 
credited  these  sums  to  their  respective  accounts  in  London.  Remit- 
tances Avere  made  customarily  in  bills  of  exchange,  but  at  this  time 
no  satisfactory  bills  could  be  procured. |  Accordingly,  it  was  not 
until  the  16th  of  December  that  the  August  interest  Avas  for- 
AA^arded.§ 

This  delay  occurring  at  the  very  time  AA'hen  financial  embarrass- 
ment was  becoming  general,  and  when  the  stocks  of  numerous  states 
were  flooding  the  foreign  markets,  ||  was  soon  followed  by  a  decline 
of  the  state's  credit  abroad.  By  1839,  Pennsylvania's  5  per  cent, 
stocks,  which,  in  1833,  had  sold  in  Europe  for  115,  would  not  sell 
at  all.|[     Before  the  close  of  the  year  1838,  the  extraordinary  rcA'- 

*  In  July,  1842,  according  to  a  letuni  submitted  to  the  Senate  of  Penn- 
sylvania by  the  Auditor  General,  the  distribution  of  the  state  debt  Avas  as 
follows: — -Held  by  citizens  of  Pennsylvania,  $9,635,613.47;  by  citizens  of 
other  states  of  the  United  States,  $1,080,537;  by  subjects  of  Great  Britain, 
$20,026,458;  by  subjects  of  other  foreign  states,  $3,711,748;  total, 
$34,454,356.47. 

f  Tliis  firm  Avas  the  agent  for  a  large  pereent.age  of  the  foreign  holders  of 
Pennsylvania's  stocks. 

$  See  J.  H.  Rep.,  1837-38,  II,  pp.  33  and  82. 

§  Tlie  bank  allowed  interest  at  4  per  cent,  for  four  months  on  the  delayed 
interest  payment  and  12*  per  cent,  premium  Avas  paid  for  the  bill  of  exchange 
on  London.     See  J.  H.  Rep.,  1840,  II,  p.  45. 

II  The  amomit  of  the  state  stocks  authorized  to  be  created  by  eighteen 
states,  in  each  period  of  five  years,  from  1820  to  1838,  was  as  follows: — 
From  1820  to  182.5,  $12,790,728;  1825  to  1830,  $13,679,689;  1830  to  1835, 
$40,002,769;     1835  to  1838    (say  3^  yrs.),  $108,223,808;    total  $174,696,994. 

The  above  is  taken  from  Governor  Porter's  message  of  January  8th,  1840, 
in  J.  H.  Rep.,  1840,  II,  p.  17,  and  agrees  substantially  Avith  footnote  (*), 
on  page  213.  Note  that  the  greater  proportion  of  the  stocks  A\'as  created 
after  1835.,  Nearly  two-thirds  of  Pennsylvania's  stocks  were  held  abroad 
and  large  quantities  of  those  of  other  "states  were  similarly  held. 

^  See  Govei-nor  Porter's  message  for  Jan.  8th,  1840,  in  J.  H.  Rep.,  1840,  II, 
p.  19.  See  also  Governor  Ritner's  message  for  December  27th,  1838,  and 
Hunt's  Mer.  Mag.,  XX,  1849,  p.  261. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania.  217 

enue,  including  the  bonus  received  from  rechartering  the  Bank  of 
the  United  States,  and  the  surplus  revenue,  had  all  been  spent.* 
Moreover,  in  his  report  of  December  8th,  1838,  the  state  treasurer 
estimated  that  on  October  31st,  1839,  there  would  be  a  deficit  of 
over  $3,000,000.  To  meet  this  emergency  new  loans  were  offered 
in  1839,  but  no  bids  were  received.  So,  in  accordance  with  the 
conditions  of  the  charter,  the  United  States  bank  was  forced  tq 
take  them.  With  no  market  at  home  or  abroad  for  these  stocks 
received  in  exchange  for  its  own  notes,  the  bank,  in  October,  1839, 
was  obliged  again  to  fail.f  With  $1,800,000  interest  to  be  paid  per 
year,  with  large  sums  due  the  contractors  on  the  works,  with  little 
or  no  credit  abroad,  and  with  its  own  financial  institution  bank- 
rupt, the  legisl9,ture  at  last  was  forced  to  take  action.  This  was 
not,  however,  until'it  was  too  late  to  avert  a  crisis.  Consequently, 
for  nearly  three  years  following  the  date  of  the  second  failure  of 
the  bank,  the  state  was  engaged  in  a  desperate  struggle  to  avoid 
defaulting  its  interest.  Let  us  now  see  what  efforts  were  made  to 
preserve  its  credit. 

As  early  as  December,  1838,  the  state  treasurer,  in  discussing 
various  financial  matters, :|:  recommended  as  desirable,  in  accord- 
ance with  the  soundest  principles  of  public  policy,  the  adoption  of 
an  adequate  system  of  taxation.  This  plan,  however,  was  not 
endorsed  by  Governor  Eitner  in  his  message§  three  weeks  later. 
The  following  January,  Governor  Porter,  in  drawing  the  atten- 
tion of  the  legislature  to  the  big  deficit  inevitable  in  1839,  stated 
that  two  alternatives  were  open  to  them  to  secure  the  necessary 
funds,  viz. — taxation  and  loans.  "Of  the  two,"  he  said,  "the  latter 
appears  least  objectionable  because  productive  of  least  hardship  to 
the  people,  is  less  expensive,  and  can  be  carried  into  effect  with 
greater  facilitj."-  In  January,  1840,  the  state  treasurer  again 
pointed  out  the  necessity  of  checking  the  ruinous  policy  of  finance, 
and  resorting  to  taxation.  ||     By  this  time  Governor  Porter's  views 

*  See  J.  H.  Rep.,  1S38-39,  II,  Part  II,— Report  of  the  State  Treasurer. 

t  This  was  on  the  9th  day  of  the  month.  On  Feb.  4t.h,  1841,  it  failed  for 
the  third  time. 

X  See  Report  of  State  Treasurer  for  Dec.  8th,  1838,  in  J.  H.  Rep.,  1838-39, 
II,  Part  I. 

§  J.  H.  Rep.,  1838-39,  II,  Part  I,  pp.  6-18. 

II  See  Report  of  State  Treasurer  for  Jaji.  9th,  1840,  in  J.  H.  Rep.,  1840,  II. 


218  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  WorJcs  of  Pennsylvania. 

had  completely  changed,  for  now  he  sounded  aloud  the  cry  for  finan- 
cial reform.* 

He  seems  to  have  been  the  first  public  man  of  prominence  to 
call  attention  to  the  fact  that,  financially,  the  state  works  had  been 
a  failure;  accordingly,  he  now  felt  it  his  duty  to  exhibit  their 
actual  productivity  in  a  manner  somewhat  less  flattering  than  that 
usually  represented.  Hitherto  it  had  been  the  custom  to  state  the 
gross  amount  of  the  tolls  as  if  the  works  had  yielded  that  amount 
clear  of  all  expenses.  The  fact  was  that  the  yearly  revenues  for  the 
last  five  years  had  exceeded  the  expenditures,  on  the  average,  only 
$139,697.43.  During  the  same  period,  however,  the  average  yearly 
interest  on  the  sums  borrowed  to  construct  the  works  had  exceeded 
$1,200,000.  Governors,  legislators  and  the  people  had  all  deceived 
themselves  concerning  the  public  works,  yet  they  had  embarked  in 
them  too  deeply  to  turn  back.  Their  speedy  completion  was  urged 
in  the  hope  that  soon  the  brilliant  anticipations  of  the  early  friends 
of  the  system  might  be  realized. 

With  reference  to  the  general  financial  aifairs  of  the  common- 
wealth, the  governor  did  not  hesitate  to  reveal  the  exact  conditions. 
The  public  debt  had  reached  the  enormous  sum  of  $34,141,663.80, 
while  the  ordinary  expenditures  for  the  past  year  had  exceeded 
the  ordinary  revenues  from  all  sources  to  the  amount  of 
$1,087,743.63.    He  said:— 

"The  affairs  of  the  commonwealth  have  been,  for  several  years, 
gradually  verging  towards  deeper  and  deeper  embarrassment,  until 
we  have  at  length  reached  this  unexpected  deficiency  of  funds  in  the 
treasury  to  meet  the  demands  upon  it.  The  people  have  been 
told  again  and  again  that  our  fiscal  condition  was  flourishing  and 
prosperous,  while,  in  fact,  our  prosperity  was  all  based  on  paper 
calculations  and  loans,  which  loans,  we  are  just  now  beginning  to 
perceive,  bear  interest,  and  are  some  day  to  be  paid.  We  are  now 
compelled  to  forego  all  temporary  expedients,  and  to  look  the  true 
state  of  things  in  the  face.  We  must  resort  to  taxes,  the  sale  of  the 
public  improvements,  or  to  further  loans.  The  public  improvements 
cannot  be  sold  but  at  a  most  ruinous  sacrifice ;  and,  as  to  loans,  it  is 
doubtful  whether  we  can  procure  them  at  all  unless  at  an  unwar- 
ranted rate  of  interest.  ISTotwithstanding  all  these  difliculties,  the 
sum  duo  by  the  state  must  be  paid.  To  obtain  the  means,  we  have 
at  best  a  choice  of  evils,  and  we  ought  to  select  that  which  will 

*  See  his  message  of  Jan.  8tli,  1840,  in  J.  H.  Rep.,  1840,  II,  pp.  19,  20,  21, 
et  seq. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worlds  of  Pennsylvania.  219 

impose  on  the  people  of  the  commonwealth  the  least  inconvenience 
and  detriment.     .     .     . 

Until  with  the  last  year  we  have  been  able,  not  only  to  borrow 
money  without  difficulty  on  state  stock  in  Europe,  but  to  pay  the 
interest  arising  on  former  loans  by  new  ones.  We  felt  little  of  the 
inconvenience  of  this  bloated  system  of  credits,  and  seldom  reflected 
that  a  day  of  reckoning  would  come,  when  we  could  thus  pay  our 
debts  no  longer.  The  delusion  is  at  last  over.  .  .  The  time  for 
sober  reflection  has  arrived.  .  .  The  question  is  presented  to  the 
consideration  of  the  legislature,  how  is  the  money  to  be  procured 
to  pay  the  interest  on  the  state  debt,  to  meet  the  loans  falling  due, 
and  to  defray  the  other  necessary  expenditures  of  the  common- 
wealth? The  sum  of  $2,000,000  must  be  obtained  for  the  ensuing 
year,  .  .  .  My  own  deliberate  opinion  is  that,  resort  to  taxa- 
tion, provided  that  it  shall  be  so  regulated  as  to  bear  with  as  little 
hardship  as  possible  on  the  people,  is  the  only  possible  remedy  to 
extricate  the  commonwealth  from  the  embarrassments  by  which  we 
find  her  surrounded.  The  state  has  actually  been  compounding,,  for 
years  past,  from  a  million  to  a  million  and  a  half  of  interest  annu- 
ally ;  and  the  question  is  now  submitted  whether  we  are  thus  to 
continue  adding  half-yearly  this  enormous  amount  of  interest  to 
the  principal  of  our  state  debt,  and  continue  in  this  course  of 
policy,  from  year  to  year,  of  shuffling  off  the  evil  day,  and  entailing 
this  frightful  legacy  on  posterity.  .  .  Taxation  would  pay  the 
interest,  it  would  eventually  constitute  a  sinking  fund  to  pay  off 
the  principal  of  the  state  debt  and  should  be  continued  until  the 
income  of  the  public  improvements  would  render  longer  taxation 
unnecessary." 

The  committee  on  ways  and  means,  to  whom  was  referred  the 
above  sections  of  the  message,  recommended  an  immediate  resort 
to  taxation.  Accordingly,  on  the  11th  of  June,  1840,  a  law*  was 
passed,  to  continue  in  force  for  five  years,  imposing  a  tax  of  one 
mill  on  the  stock  of  banks  or  other  institutions  making  or  declar- 
ing dividends;  half  a  mill  on  certain  personal  property;  a  small 
tax  on  household  furniture,  pleasure  carriages  and  watches;  and 
a  tax  on  the  salaries  of  state  employees. 

It  was  computed  that  the  revenues  to  be  collected  according  to 
the  provisions  of  this  act  would  amount  to  $600,000  annually.f  It 
was  found  very  difficult,  however,  to  put  the  taxing  machinery  at 
once  into  operation,  so  that  the  law  of  1840  failed  to  become  really 
effective  until  the  state  had  defaulted  its  interest.  Thus,  for  the 
fiscal  year  ending  November  30th,  1841,  although  the  amount  of 

*  Laws  of  Pennsylvania,  1840,  p.  612. 
t  See  J.  H.  Rep.,  1841,  II,  p.  7. 


220  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

tax  assessed  was  $416,794.85,  only  $33,292.77  were  collected.  Again, 
in  1842,  but  $486,635.85,  including  arrears,  were  received,  while 
for  the  fiscal  year  1844  out  of  $751,210.11  paid  into  the  treasury 
only  $143,099.06  Avere  collected  from  the  assessments  of  that  year. 
But,  Imd  the  full  $600,000  been  collected  annually,  this  amount 
would  have  been  entirely  inadequate  to  preserve  the  state's  credit. 

The  Act  of  May  4th,  1841,*  entitled  "An  Act  to  provide  revenue 
to  meet  the  demands  of  the  treasury,  and  for  other  purposes"  was 
a  new  device  to  help  meet  the  pressing  needs  of  the  time.  By  it 
provisions  were  made  for  borrowing  not  more  than  .$3,100,000  under 
the  following  prescribed  conditions : — Certain  banks  in  the  state 
were  authorized  to  subscribe  to  the  stocks  issued.  The  amount  of 
these  subscriptions,  in  notes  of  the  respective  banks  of  the  denomina- 
tions, one,  two  and  five  dollars,  was  to  be  placed  in  the  state 
treasury.  The  paper  thus  authorized  to  be  issued  was  to  be  with- 
drawn from  circulation  on  or  before  May  4th,  1844.  These  notes 
were  exchangeable,  upon  presentation  to  the  bank  of  issue  in  amounts 
of  not  less  than  $100,  for  an  order  on  the  auditor  general  for  a 
certificate  of  an  equal  amount  of  stock  created  for  their  redemp- 
tion. The  banks  got  one  per  cent,  interest  on  the  notes  until  they 
were  redeemed.  Moreover,  they  were  to  be  received  in  payment 
of  debts  due  to  the  commonwealth,  they  could  be  re-issued,  and 
each  bank  issuing  them  was  required  to  receive  its  own  notes  at  par 
in  payments  due  to  it.  It  was  thought  that,  by  making  the  redemp- 
tion of  the  new  issue  depend  upon  the  good  faith  of  the  state  as 
well  as  upon  that  of  the  banks,  a  safe  and  reliable  currency  would 
be  constituted. t  The  amount  of  this  paper,  popularly  known  as 
"relief  notes,"  that  was  issued  originally  was  $2,220,265.  As  might 
be  expected,  it  rapidly  depreciated^  and  soon  became  the  only 
medium  in  which  the  state  received  its  revenue.  Consequently, 
instead  of  helping  the  state  out  of  its  financial  embarrassment,  the 
.  relief  notes  made  matters  worse. 

And  now  came  the  climax  to  the  steady  progress  towards  state 
bankruptcy.     By  resorting  to  the  various  expedients  already  men- 

*  See  Laws  of  Pennsylvania,  1841,  p.  307.  This  act  was  passed  over  the 
governor's  veto. 

t  Hunt's  Mcr.  IMag.,  XX,  1849,  p.  261. 

fin  1842  the  notes  were  at  a  discount  of  from  10  to  20  per  cent.  For 
ilieii-  later  history  see  Worthington,  Hist.  Sketch  of  tlie  Finances  of  Penn- 
sylvania, p.  56. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania.  221 

tioned,  the  semi-annual  interest  payments  had  been  met  until 
August  1st,  1842.*  At  that  date,  however,  the  treasury  was  without 
funds,  and  witli  no  means  of  securing  them!  Accordingly  interest 
certificatesf  were  authorized  to  be  issued  to  the  amount  due  each 
holder  of  state  stocks.  They  bore  6  per  cent,  interest,  and  were 
redeemable  one  year  from  date  of  issue.  At  the  same  time  provi- 
sions Avere  made  for  the  payment  of  a  percentage  of  the  debts 
owing  to  contractors,  employees,  etc.,  on  the  public  works.  The  lat- 
ter were  known  as  the  "domestic  creditors."  On  November  30th, 
1842,  the  books  of  the  auditor  general  showed  that  the  various 
amounts  due  them  totalled  $1,191,710,  and,  of  this  sum,  $597,- 
461.74  was  for  work  done  prior  to  May  4th  of  the  previous 
year.  Again,  on  the  1st  of  February,  1843,  more  interest  certifi- 
cates had  to  be  issued,  as  also  for  the  payments  that  fell  due  the 
folloAving  August,  and  for  the  whole  of  the  next  year.| 

In  the  meantime,  such  serious  financial  embarrassment  had 
started  an  agitation  for  the  sale  of  certain  stocks  held  by  the 
state. §  To  this  end,  by  an  Act  of  April  8th,  1843,  the  necessary 
legislation  was  secured,  and  at  once  stocks  having  a  par  value  as 
follows  were  disposed  of: — 1| 

Bank    stocks    $2,108,700.00 

Bridge   stocks    524,350.00 

Turnpike  stocks    803,833.00 

Canal,  Railroad  and  Navigation  stocks 755,500.00 

Total    $4,192,388.00 


*  The  interest  due  on  February  1st  of  this  year  was  delayed  somewhat. 
f  See  J.  H.  Rep.,  1843,  II,  p.  8,  and  Laws  of  Pennsylvania,  1842,  p.  441. 
$See  Exec.  Docs.,  1854,  p.  96. 

§  At  this  time  the  state  held  stock  in  incorporated  companies  as  follows : 
86  Turnpike  companies   $2,313,275.00 

3  Banking  companies    ^ 2,108,700.00 

9  Canal  and  Navigation  companies   852,778.66 

4  Railroad  companies    395,276.90 

21  Bridge  companies    524,350.00 

Total    (par   value) $6,194,3S0..56 

Ij  Other  stocks  in  canal,  railway,  turnpike  and  navigation  companies  to  the 
amount  of  $1,986,797.56  Avere  \mi  up  for  sale,  but  as  the  offers  were  small 
they  were  not  disposed  of.  For  some  holdings  no  offers  were  received.  See 
Report  of  Commissioners  for  Sale  of  State  Stocks  in  J.  H.  Rep.,  II,  1844, 
p.  28. 


222  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

The  sales  were  made  at  a  low  figure,  for  all  of  the  ahove  realized 
but  $1,319,730.65.  Notwithstanding  this  fact,  however,  the  bank 
stock,  at  least,  had  been  a  good  investment,  since  between  1821  and 
1844  it  had  yielded  on  an  average  5.7  per  cent.  On  the  other  hand, 
the  rest  of  the  holdings  had  returned  less  than  one  per  cent.* 

On  November  30th,  1843,  the  close  of  the  last  fiscal  year  before 
financial  reform  was  commenced,  the  total  amount  expended  by 
the  commissioners  of  the  internal  improvement  fund  for  the  various 
purposes  of  the  state  works  was  $53,352,648.72.  The  cost  of  the 
latter  to  this  date  had  been  $28,616,375,  and  they  had  yielded 
$9,286,644.26  revenue.  The  interest  payments  on  loans  pertaining 
solely  to  the  improvements  totalled  $16,230,597.15.  The  balance  in 
the  treasury  was  only  $115,466.91,  while  the  debt  still  outstanding 
for  loans  was  $39,240,461.40.t 

As  already  intimated,  the  year  1844  saw  the  commencement  of 
radical  measures  of  financial  reform.  Rigid  economy  was  now 
introduced  in  all  lines  of  public  expenditure.  On  the  29th  of  April, 
Governor  Porter  sanctioned  an  Actt  providing  among  other  things 
for  an  extensive  system  of  taxation.  This  policy,  hitherto  adopted 
always  as  a  temporary  makeshift,  now  that  the  financial  failure 
of  the  public  works  was  recognized,  was  viewed  in  an  entirely 
different  manner.  The  provisions  for  taxation  applied  to  all  real 
estate  not  exempt  by  law;  all  personal  estate;  mortgages;  money 
owing  by  solvent  debtors,  whether  by  promissory  note  or  otherwise ; 
with  minor  exceptions,  all  articles  of  agreement  and  accounts  bear- 
ing interest;  all  shares  or  stock,  in  any  bank,  institution  or  com- 
pany; all  shares  of  stock  in  unincorporated  saving  fimd  institutions  ; 
all  salaries  from  professions,-  trades,  and  occupations  excepting 
farming.  The  same  act  also  made  adequate  provisions  for  equal- 
izing the  assessments  and  taxes  in  the  different  counties,  and  created 
the  machinery  for  imposing  the  provisions  of  the  act  and  for  making 
.collections.§     Anyone   holding  interest   certificates   or   claims   for 

*  Worthingtoii,  Hist.  Sketch  of  the  Finanees  of  Pennsylvania,  p.  57. 

f  Tlie  debt  contracted  solely  for  public  works  and  for  paying  interest 
amounted  on  Jan.  6th,  1S42,  to  $33,350,313.  See  J.  11.  Rep.,  1S42,  II, 
p.  4. 

$  Laws  of  Pennsylvania,  1844,  p.  497. 

§  Governor  Porter  estimated  that  the  new  assessments  authorized  by  the 
Act  of  April  29th,  1844,  would  yield  $1,500,000  yearly.  "This  sum,"  he  said, 
"with  the  other  resources  of  the  commonwealth,  will  be  entirely  adequate  to 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania.  223 

certain  unpaid  appropriations  issued  during  tlie  years  of  financial 
embarrassment,  miglit  surrender  them  and  receive  in  their  stead 
stock  certificates  bearing  5  per  cent,  interest.  By  the  concluding 
clause  it  was  enacted, — "That  the  whole  amount  of  revenue  to  be 
raised  under  the  provisions  of  this  act  shall  be  irrevocably  appro- 
priated to  the  payment. of  the  interest  on  the  public  debt;  and  the 
said  appropriation  shall  not  be  withdrawn  or  repealed  by  any 
general  words  or  repealing  clauses,  in  any  appropriation  bill  or 
other  act."* 

The  tax-payers  were  quick  to  respond  to  the  provisions  of  this 
bill,  and,  in  some  instances,  the  assessments  apportioned  to  certain 
counties  were  paid  into  the  treasury  several  months  before  they 
were  due.f  Accordingly,  it  was  possible  in  February,  1845,  to 
resume  the  interest  payments,  and,  at  no  period  since  that  date  has 
the  treasury  department  been  without  means  to  meet  every  obliga- 
tion. 

Having  now  examined  the  manner  in  which  the  public  works  were 
financed,  the  embarrassments  experienced  from  time  to  time,  and 
the  struggle  made  to  preserve  the  credit  of  the  state,  let  us  consider 
the  reasons  for  adopting  this  policy  as  well  as  the  causes  for  the 
serious  financial  embarrassment  during  the  years  1839-44.  The 
latter  of  these  two  points  will  be  discussed  first. 

In  general,  it  may  be  said  that  the  spirit  of  wild  speculation  was 
common  to  many  of  the  states  during  a  large  part  of  the  time  the 

furnish  the  necessary  amount  to  discharge  the  interest  upon  the  public  debt, 
and  thus  ensure  the  fidelity  of  the  state  to  her  engagements." — Extract  from 
message  of  Jan.  8,  1845,  in  Exec.  Docs.,  184.5,  p.  5. 

*  The  amount  of  the  state  debt  on  April  1st,  1844,  was  .$40,051,794.18,  dis- 
tributed as  follows: — • 

6  per  cent.  Stocks   .$  4,331,013.99 

5     "        "         "  32,934,763.73 

4i  "        "         "  200,000.00    $37,465,777.72 

Relief    notes    in    circulation    bearing 

one  per  cent,  interest 1,292,449.68 

Relief    notes    in    circulation    bearing 

six  per   cent,   interest 171,636.00        1,464,085.68 

Domestic  creditors,   script  outstanding 166,504.65 

Interest  on  loans  due  1st  Feb.,  1844 955,426.13 

Total $40,051,794;i8 

f  See  Gov.  Shunk's  Message  in  Exec.  Docs.,  1845,  p.  3. 


224  .1.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

public  works  were  being  constructed;  luid  that  the  uccomi)unying 
bloated  system  of  credil;s  had  considerable  influence  in  bringing 
about  the  subsequent  general  collapse  affecting  alike  govejnments 
and  private  concerns.  Moreover,  the  disturbed  condition  of  the 
money  market  in  Great  Britain,*  Avhei-e  large  blocks  of  the  state 
stocks  Avere  held,  helped  to  make  the  situation  in  America  all  the 
more  strained.  jSTot  to  underestimate  the  influence  of  any  or  all 
of  the  foregoing  and  other  factors,  it  seems  fair  to  say  that  Penn- 
sylvania's financial  embarrassment  at  this  time  was,  at  least  to  a 
large  extent,  the  resiilt  of  three  circumstances  all  of  which  w^ere 
more  or  less  related  to  one  another.  These  were, — first,  too  exten- 
sive a  system  of  internal  improvements;  second,  alliance  with  an 
unsound  banking  system,  especially  with  the  United  States  Bank  of 
Pennsylvania ;   third,  unsound  financial  legislation. 

The  way  in  which  the  wholesale  building  of  public  w^orks  con- 
tributed to  state  bankruptcy  is  apparent.  The  more  works  under- 
taken, the  faster  the  loans  had  to  be  floated,  with  the  result  that  the 
public  debt  soon  became  a  serious  burden,  and  the  semi-annual 
interest  payment  constituted  an  enormous  drain  upon  the  treasury. 
Had  it  been  possible  to  limit  the  improvenient  system  to  the  main 
line  and  one  or  t^vo  of  the  more  important  branches,  it  seems 
highly  probable  that  the  interest  payments,  during  the  years  of 
financial  embarrassment,  could  have  been  met.  On  the  other  hand, 
had  all  or  even  the  larger  part  of  the  various  divisions  been  as 
productive  as  the  works  in  the  original  system  were  expected  to  be, 
the  more  widely  the  system  was  extended,  the  greater  would  have 
been  the  income  therefrom.  But,  as  has  alread}^  been  indicated, 
even  the  divisions  that  earned  the  largest  revenues  fell  far  short 
of  the  expectations  of  the  friends  of  the  public  works.  Conse- 
quently, during  the  years  of  financial  embarrassment,  when  the  great 
problem  was  to  secure  sufficient  funds  to  pay  the  enormous  interest 
on  the  loans  contracted  for  constructional  purposes,  the  receipts 
from  canal  tolls  helped  but  little  to  ward  off  bankruptcy. 

With  regard  to  the  part  played  by  the  banks  in  causing  state 
insolvency,  it  seems  fair  to  say  that  it  was  not  inconsiderable.  They 
were  intimately  connected  with  the  whole  subject  of  finance,  and 
their  influence  in  bringing  about  an  inflated  system  of  credits  was 

*  See  Dewey,  Financial  History  U.  S.,  p.  230;  and  Governor  Porter'3 
message  in  Exec.  Docs.,  1844,  p.  4. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania.  225 

far-reaching.  Hence,  tlie  banks  indirectly  helped  on  the  embar- 
rassment, by  making  it  easy  to  secure  funds  to  expand  the  public 
works.  But  it  was  more  particularly  by  the  alliance  with  the 
United  States  Bank  of  Pennsylvania  that  the  way  was  opened  for 
numerous  unwise  practices  which,  in  due  course,  tended  to  make 
more  intense  the  troubled  monetary  conditions.  In  this  connection, 
the  repeal  of  the  tax  laws  of  1831,  the  immediate  appropriation,  for 
an  unwarranted  extension  of  the  public  works,  of  over  two  millions 
of  dollai's  from  the  bonus  received  for  the  charter;  the  handing 
over  to  the  bank  of  the  management  of  interest  payments  on  the 
state  loans ;  the  forcing  upon  the  bank  of  heavy  loans  when  no 
bids  whatsoever  could  be  obtained  for  them  in  the  open  market; 
and  the  repeated  failure  of  the  institution  at  critical  times, — all 
these  factors  combined  either  to  make  the  already  intricate  finan- 
cial affairs  of  the  state  more  complex,  or  they  offered  the  means  for 
extending  still  further  obligations  which  had  already  become  too 
great. 

But  more  closely  connected  with  the  financial  embarrassment  dur- 
ing the  period  1839-44  than  either  of  the  factors  already  discussed, 
was  the  unsound  financial  legislation  which  not  only  covered  these 
years  but  also  reached  back  to  the  very  inauguration  of  the  public 
works.  It  will  be  remembered  that  the  Act  of  April  1st,  1826,  in 
endorsing  a  resort  to  loans  to  secure  funds  for  building  public 
works,  left  the  payment  of  interest  on  the  estimated  sum  for  trunk 
line  construction  inadequately  provided  for.  Again,  somewhat 
later,  when,  in  order  to  secure  the  completion  of  the  main  line, 
a  general  expansion  of  the  improvement  system  was  found  neces- 
sary, the  interest  fund,  contrary  to  every  dictate  of  prudence  or 
sound  policy,  was  not  reinforced.*  Moreover,  beginning  as  early 
as  1829,  loans  were  floated  for  the  purpose  of  meeting  the  interest 
paymentSjf  and,  from  this  time  until  the  commencement  of  finan- 
cial reconstruction  in  1844,  the  general  improvement  fund  was 
dra'ttTi  upon  freely  for  the  same  purpose.  In  fact,  almost  every 
possible  expedient,  excepting  adequate  taxation,  was  brought  into 
play  to  secure  revenue  to  meet  the  ever-increasing  demands  upon 
the  treasury, 

*  It  should  be  said,  however,  that  the  Act  of  April  9th,  1827,  made  pro- 
\asions  (sec.  17)  for  paying  the  interest  on  a.  loan  of  $1,000,000  authorized 
by  tlie  same  act  (sec.  15).  TTie  interest  was  to  be  paid  out  of  the  auction 
duties. 

t  Authorized  by  Act  of  November  17th,  1820. 


220 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 


In  view  of  what  lias  been  said,  tlie  unsoundness  of  tlie  policy 
adopted  and  perpetuated  by  Pennsylvania  iu  the  financing  of  the 
public  works  is  now  apparent.  For  the  above  contains  numerous 
instances  of  lines  of  policy  pursued  which  were  contrary  to  the 
principles  of  any  safe  system  of  finance  such  as  was  adopted  in 
New  York.  As  a  natural  result  of  almost  a  complete  dependence 
upon  loans  to  build  the  works,  and  to  pay  the  interest  on  the 
ever-increasing  debt,  serious  complications  arose.  So  long  as  the 
money  market  was  easy,  and  the  credit  of  the  state  was  unques- 
tioned, there  Avas  no  need  of  any  apprehension  concerning  the 
prompt  payment  of  the  interest.  But  Avhen  these  conditions  no 
longer  existed,  there  could  be  no  doubt  as  to  what  must  be  the  out- 
come. With  a  constituency  almost  wholly  unaccustomed  to  pay- 
ing taxes,  with  no  well-organized  system  of  taxation  ready  to  be 
put  into  operation  in  case  of  emergency,  bankruptcy  was  thus 
inevitable. 

It  now  remains  to  examine  the  influences  which  determined  the 
adoption  and  persistent  carrying  out  of  this  financial  policy.  While 
•not  overlooking  in  this  connection  the  influence  of  the  easy  money 
market,  it  seems  fair  to  say  that  this  course  was  due  to  two  princi- 
pal causes,  viz. — the  reluctance  of  the  people  to  pay  taxes,  and  a 
general  overestimation  of  the  potential  productivity  of  the  public 
works.  The  evidence  presented  by  contemporary  writers  indicates 
that  taxation  on  general  principles  was  peculiarly  odious  to  the 
people  of  Pennsylvania,  and  that  the  legislators,  from  the  dread 
of  unpopularity,  hesitated  to  resoi't  to  this  method  of  raising 
revenue.*  Moreover,  it  was  confidently  believed  that  if,  in  one 
way  or  another,  sufiicient  money  could  be  raised  to  defray  interest 
charges  until  the  works  were  completed,  then  the  treasury  certainly 
would  be  filled  to  overflowing  with  the  revenue  from  canal  and 
railroad  tolls.  In  referring  to  the  tax  laws  of  March  25th,  1831, 
Governor  Wolf  shed  much  light  upon  the  question  under  considera- 


*  "No  adequate  funds  were  provided  for  tlie  payment  of  tlie  interest  on  the 
loans.  In  some  cases  new  loans  were  negotiated  for  that  purpose.  Hence, 
the  credit  of  the  state  suflfered  severely,  and  money  was  sometimes  borrowed 
on  disadvantageous  terms.  This  unmanly  and  discreditable  conduct  arose 
from  a  paltry  dread  of  unpopularity,  the  imposition  of  taxes  being  at  all 
times  and  in  all  countries  viiipopular;  and  thus  the  public  interest  was 
sacrificed  to  this  unworthy  motive. — Carey,  Brief  View  of  the  System  of 
Internal  Improvements  in  Pennsylvania,  pp.  15-16. 


A.  L.  BisJiop—The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania.  227 

tion.  He  urged  tlie  people  calmly  to  submit  for  a  short  time  to 
taxation;  cited  such  tax  laws  as  provided  interest  money  in  other 
states,  especially  in  Ohio ;  and  stated  with  all  assurance  possible 
that,  on  account  of  the  prospectively  abundant  revenue  from  the 
improvements,  taxation  could  be  done  away  with  entirely  in  five 
years.*  In  fact,  in  all  cases  where  taxes  were  imposed  previous  to 
1844,  this  was  the  reason  why  five  years  was .  the  limit  set  for 
their  collection.  Again,  we  find  the  commissioners  of  the  internal 
improvement  fund  stating: — "In  looking  for  relief  from  taxation, 
and  ultimately  of  furnishing  an  ample  fund  for  education  and  for 
the  extinction  of  the  public  debt,  the  committee  mainly  rely  upon 
the  productiveness  of  the  canals  and  railroads."!  Even  as  late  as 
1839,  it  would  appear  that  this  confidence  was  still  unshaken.  Por 
Governor  Porter,  in  his  message  of  January  26th,  stated: — "It 
cannot  be  long  before  the  ordinary  revenue  arising  from  the  tolls 
of  the  canals  and  railways  of  the  commonwealth  will  defray  all 
the  expenses  necessary  to  keep  them  in  repair,  and  pay  the  inter- 
est on  the  money  expended  in  their  construction."^  Also,  a  month 
later  the  house  committee  of  ways  and  means,  in  discussing  the 
subject  of  taxation,  voiced  the  same  sentiment  when  they  said: — 
"A  well-founded  hope  is  entertained  that,  in  a  few  years,  the 
increased  value  of  the  improvements  of  the  state,  now  rapidly  devel- 
oping, will  add  sufficiently  to  the  permanent  revenue  to  meet  the 
demands  upon  the  treasury." 

The  above  expressions  of  confidence  in  the  future  earning  power 
of  the  public  works  are  but  samples  of  the  numerous  cases  that 
could  be  cited.  The  sentiment  contained  therein,  originating  even 
before  the  improvements  had  been  undertaken,  seems  scarcely  to 
have  been  questioned  until  Governor  Porter's  message  in  1840. 
Even  then  it  took  the  friends  of  the  improvement  system  some  time 
to  become  convinced  of  its  financial  failure.  The  brilliant  success 
of  the  ]^ew  York  works  in  yielding  revenue  doubtless  was  the  main 
and  visible  cause  of  such  unshaken  confidence.  This  delusion,  how- 
ever, and  the  people's  aversion  to  paying  taxes  were,  it  is  believed, 
the  chief  influences  causing  the  adoption  and  persistent  continua- 
tion of  that  unsound  financial  policy  which  was  a  strong  factor  in 
bringing  the  state  to  bankruptcy. 

*  See  J.  H.  Rep.,  1831-32,  II,  p.  20. 
t  Niles'  Reg.,  XXXIV,  1828,  p.  39. 
i  J.  H.  Rep.,  1838-39,  II,  Part  I,  p.  518. 


228  .1.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worls  of  Pennsylvania. 

As  frequent  reference  has  been  made  above  to  the  financial  failure 
of  the  public  works,  it  seems  necessary,  in  conclusion,  to  give  a 
detailed  statement  of  their  financial  operations.  The  latter  is 
shown  in  full  in  Appendix  VI.  The  results  there  set  forth  in 
tabular  form  were  compiled*  from  the  successive  reports  of  the 
auditor  general  and  the  state  treasurer.  From  these  have  been 
determined  the  cost,  revenue,  and  expenditures  of  the  several  fin- 
ished lines  of  canals  and  railroads  included  in  the  public  improve- 
ments of  Pennsylvania  for  each  financial  year,  from  their  opening 
until  their  disposal  to  incoi'porated  companies.  Owing  to  the 
absence  of  sufficient  and  accurate  data,  it  did  not  seem  possible, 
without  completing  this  statistical  work,  to  arrive  at  any  satisfac- 
tory conclusion  respecting  the  financial  operations  of  the  works 
throughout  their  whole  history.  The  amount  of  money  spent  on 
unfinished  improvements  was  determined  as  above  instanced,  like- 
wise all  the  expenditures  for  the  board  of  canal  commissioners, 
appraisers,  collectors,  weighmasters,  and  lock-keepers  and  the 
various  other  items  shown  on  page  284  which  do  not  appear 
in  the  cost,  revenue  or  expenditures  of  the  works.  In  order  to 
render  all  the  above  results  applicable  to  the  calculation  of  profit  or 
loss  resulting  from  public  ownership  of  the  works,  they  have  been 
consolidated  into  a  single  table  found  on  page  286.  From  this  it 
appears  that  the  cost  of  the  finished  and  unfinished  improvements 
during  the  whole  period  of  state  OAvnership  was  $33,464,975.  If 
from  this  figure  we  deduct  the  amount  added  to  their  original  cost 
by  improper  charges  made  to  construction,  viz. :  $5,270,397  (of 
which  $4,365,928  was  on  the  main  line,  and  $904,469  on  lateral 
lines),  we  get  $28,194,578  as  the  actual  cost.  The  gross  revenue 
amounted  to  $32,505,553.  If  there  be  added  to  this  sum  the  total 
amount  received  from  the  sale  of  the  works,  viz. — $11,281,000,  we 
find  that  $43,786,553  represents  the  gross  amount  of  income  to 
the  treasury  on  their  account  during  the  whole  period  of  ownership. 
The    expenditures     amounted     to     $24,471,225,     and    by     adding 

*  A  similar  tabular  compilation,  although  more  extensive,  since  it  extended 
to  all  the  financial  affairs  of  the  state,  was  made,  in  1843,  by  J.  W.  Ham- 
iihiikI,  at  one  time  chief  cloi  k  in  the  auditor'  general's  office.  The  tables 
found  therein  applicable  to  the  present  purpose  have  been  extended  from 
1843  to  1858,  and  they,  together  Avlth  other  results  incident  to  the  finan- 
cial operations  of  the  works,  have  been  consolidated,  as  shown  on  page  286,  to 
determine  the  results  there  set  forth,  and  to  furnish  the  data  for  determining 
other  questions  that  might  arise. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania.  229 

$5,270,397,  the  deduction  made  from  cost  on  account  of  improper 
charges  to  construction  as  mentioned  above,  we  get  $29,741,622  as 
representing  the  total  expenditures  incident  to  the  operations  of 
the  works.  The  interest  payments  on  account  of  loans  contracted 
between  1826  and  1858  solely  for  the  construction  of  the  wbrks 
amounted  to  $43,675,034.  The  latter,  it  will  be  seen,  exceeded  the 
gross  revenue,  apart  from  the  sum  received  for  the  sale  of  the 
Avorks,  by  over  $10,000,000.  Moreover  the  figure  for  revenue, 
including  the  receipts  of  sales,  exceeded  the  total  interest  payments 
by  only  $111,519. 

The  total  outgo  to  the  state  on  account  of  the  internal  improve- 
ments, including  cost,  expenditures,  and  interest,  up  to  the  time  of 
their  sale  was  $101,611,234.  Deducting  the  gross  income  to  the 
treasury  during  the  same  period  plus  the  amount  received  from 
their  sale,  viz. — $43,786,553,  it  appears  that  the  total  financial  loss 
to  the  state  on  account  of  the  public  works  was  $57,824,681,  to  say 
nothing  of  a  debt  of  $40,000,000*  which  remained  unpaid  at  the 
time  of  the  sale,  and  which  was  incurred  largely  for  the  construc- 
tion of  transi^ortation  improvements.f 

Chapter  V*. — Cokrupt  Practises  connected  with  the  Building 
AND  Operation  of  the  Public  Works. 

It  has  already  been  shown  that  the  Act  of  April  9th,  1827,  marks 
the  commencement  of  the  policy  of  expanding  the  state  works ;  also 
that  this  legislation  was  the  dii-ect  result  of  log-rolling.  This  form 
of  corruption  thus  imprinted  upon  the  improvement  system  early 
in  its  iiistory  was  not  easily  removed.  It  continued  to  be  prac- 
ticed from  time  to  time  until,  owing  to  financial  embarrassment, 
the  building  of  more  works  was  made  impossible.  JSTor  was  this  the 
only  corrupt  influence  to  pervade  the  public  works.  Others  soon 
appeared  in  connection  with  their  building  and  operation  and 
extended  into  nearly  every  field  it  was  possible  to  reach.  Before 
entering  upon  a  consideration  of  the  latter,  however,  it  seems  neces- 
sary to  mention  a  particular  instance  of  corrupt,  legislation  which 
differed  materially  from  the   ordinary.     The   case  in  question  is 

*  At  the  end  of  the  fiscal  year  1843,  the  state  debt  was  $.39,240,461.40  (see 
p.  222).     Between  1844  and  18.58  it  remained  at  approximately  $40,000,000. 

•j-  See  Report  of  the  Auditor  General  in  Exec.  Does.,  1844,  p.  40.  As 
already  indicated  in  a  footnote,  p.  222,  the  debt  contracted  solely  for  the 
public  works  on  January  6th,  1842,  amounted  to  $33,359,313. 

Trans.  Conn.  Acad.,  Vol.  XIII.  17  "     Nov.,  1907. 


230  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worl:s  of  Pennsylvania. 

that  of  the  Gettysburg  Extension  railroad,  a  work  undertaken 
ahnost  exclusively  for  the  advantage  of  a  single  individual,  whereas 
other  works  of  doubtful  utility  were  provided  for  in  order  to 
satisfy  sectional  interests.* 

A  very  prominent  and  influential  friend  and  political  supporter 
of  the  governor  of  the  state,  who  also  at  one  time  was  a  member 
of  the  lower  house  of  the  legislature,  owned  valuable  iron  mines 
in  Franklin  and  Adams  counties.  To  facilitate  their  development, 
he  conceived  the  idea  of  having  a  branch  of  the  public  works 
extended  through  his  property  to  connect  with  the  Baltimore  and 
Ohio  railroad.  Having  been  appointed  to  the  office  of  canal  com- 
missioner early  in  1838,  he  was  made  president  of  the  canal  board 
on  May  17th,  of  the  same  year.  In  this  influential  position,  he 
was  able  to  secure  legislative  sanction  to  employ  the  funds  of  the 
state  to  commence  the  Gettysburg  Extension  railroad. f  Fortunately 
a  change  of  administration  occurred  before  nauch  work  had  been 
done,  but  not,  however,  until  $682,846  had  been  squandered. 

The  circumstances  in  the  above  case  were,  on  their  face,  so  ques- 
tionable that  a  committee  of  the  house  of  representatives  was 
appointed  to  make  an  investigation  of  the  matter.  After  making 
a  thorough  examination  of  all  the  facts  the  committee  reported: — 
"Of  all  the  works  of  doubtful  expediency  constructed  by  the  state, 
in  the  opinion  of  your  committee,  thei'e  is  none  so  useless,  so  expen- 
sive, or  of  so  little  value  as  the  Gettysburg  railroad.  It  was  com- 
menced by  fraud  and  intrigue,  and  will  end  in  disgrace  and  loss 
to  the  commonwealth.    The  means  of  the  commonwealth  are  inade- 


*  Deception  seems  to  have  been  employed  in  submitting  the  cost  of  certain 
contemplated  improvementp,  to  the  legislature.  A  "Grand  Committee" 
appointed  by  the  house  to  investigate  tlie  internal  improvement  system 
reported,  in  part,  as  follows:  "From  the  deception  that  was  practiced  upon 
the  people  at  the  commencement  of  the  system,  the  great  excess  of  the  actual 
expenditures  over  the  original  estimates,  from  undertaking  at  the  sa^me  time 
several  distant  and  unconnected  improvements  of  great  magnitude,  the  com- 
mittee have  reason  to  believe  that  our  system  of  internal  improvement  has 
sufTered  in  public  estimation.  It  has  been  proved  to  the  committee,  that  the! 
estimate  of  the  cost  of  at  least  one  branch  of  our  canal  improvement,  made 
by  the  engineer,  was  by  liim  reduced  to  one-half  the  amount  ascertained  by 
his  calculations,  because,  as  was  alleged,  the  work  never  would  be  authorized, 
if  the  true  estimate  was  made  known  to  the  legislature." — J.  H.  Rep.,  1832- 
33,  II,  p.  749. 

t  See  Wilson,  Hist,  of  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad  Co.,  I,  pp.  385-389,  for  a 
full  account  of  the  case. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  WorTcs  of  Pennsylvania.  231 

quate  to  its  completion,  and  if  completed  it  could  never  be  pro- 
ductive of  general  benefit.  ,  .  .  The  committee  express  their 
belief  that  a  total  abandonment  of  this  work  involves  the  least 
sacrifice  of  public  funds  the  state  can  make  upon  it."* 

The  following  year  the  canal  commissioners  endorsed  the  above 
report.  They  regarded  the  money  already  expended  upon  the 
branch  in  question  as  literally  thrown  away.  Further  they  con- 
curred in  the  general  belief  that  the  work  ought  not  to  have  been 
undertaken,  also  that,  if  it  were  completed,  the  road  would  be  a 
source  of  continual  expense  and  entirely  worthless  to  the  state. 
Accordingly,  by  an  Act  of  Legislature  approved  on  February  19th, 
1839,  provision  was  made  for  its  abandonment. f 

Proceeding  now  with  the  consideration  of  corrupt  practices 
other  than  those  connected  with  the  procuring  of  legislation,  atten- 
tion will  be  given  first  to  the  matter  of  "letting"  contracts  for 
building  the  works.  Here  the  canal  commissioners  found  a  wide 
field  for  partisan- favoritism  and  political  corruption.  Some  inter- 
esting information  in  these  particulars  is  given  in  the  report  of  a 
committee  appointed  to  look  into  these  matters,  and  submitted  to 
the  legislature  on  June  15th,  1839. |  A  state  election  campaign  had 
been  in  progress  during  the  period  investigated  by  the  committee. 
The  two  candidates  for  governor  were  Joseph  Kitner,  a  repre- 
sentative of  the  political  party  then  in  power,  and  David  R. 
Porter.  A  court  of  inquiry  was  held  by  the  committee  and  some 
startling  disclosures  were  made.  Although  the  main  facts  brought 
to  light  at  this  time  were  confirmed  by  several  witnesses,  the  most 
important  one  was  James  Bradley.  The  latter  had  been  the  prin- 
cipal assistant  engineer  on  the  Wiconisco  division,  and,  for  refus- 
ing to  assist  in  the  corrupt  practices  of  his  colleagues,  he  was 
discharged.  "While  yet  in  the  service  of  the  state,  he  had  attended 
a  letting  of  contracts  at  Halifax  on  the  8th  of  August,  1838.  All 
the  canal  commissioners  were  present.  Before  the  court  of  inquiry, 
Mr.  Bradley  testified  that  at  the  above  letting  one  of  the  com- 
missioners said  that  the  bids  of  the  "Porter  men"  should  be  "sent 
endways";  that  certain  bids  to  be  considered  later  were  laid  on 
the  table,  while  others  were  thrown  on  the  floor.     Furthermore,  he 

*  J.  H.  Rep.,  1838-39,  II,  Part  II,  pp.  16-18. 

fj.  H.  Rep.,   1840,   II    (Appendix),   p.   43;     and    Wilson,   History   of   the 
Pennsylvania  Railroad  Co.,  I,  p.  389. 

t  See  J.  H.  Rep.,  1838-39,  II,  Part  II,  pp.  4,  5,  et  seq. 


233  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worls  of  Pennsylvania. 

learned  at  this  time,  from  the  conversation  of  the  members  of  the 
canal  board,  that  the  rejected  bids  were  those  of  "Porter  men,"  and 
that  they  were  thrown  out  on  that  account.  Other  evidence  taken 
by  the  court  revealed  practices  equally  as  culpable.  For  example, 
when  a  person  unknown  to  the  canal  board  had  made  a  bid  for 
a  certain  section  of  work  at  a  fair  price,  the  superintendent  was 
instructed  to  inquire  into  liis  ''moral  character  or  religious  prin- 
ciples." This  meant  nothing  more  nor  less  than  the  determination 
of  his  politics.  If  the  person  in  question  were  found  to  be  a  sup- 
porter of  the  political  party  in  power,  his  bid  would  be  considered 
favorably,  otherwise  it  was  likely  to  be  rejected.  Moreover,  it  hap- 
pened sometimes  that,  in  case  the  commissioners  desired  to  award 
certain  contracts  to  their  political  friends  who  had  bid  too  high, 
their  papers  were  sent  back  for  alteration.  In  one  instance,  it 
was  proved  beyond  question  that  the  commissioners  themselves 
altered  the  figures  in  a  certain  bid  without  consulting  the  party 
who  made  it. 

As  a  result  of  all  the  evidence  taken  by  the  court  of  inquiry, 
the  committee  reported : — * 

"From  this  inquiry  into  the  religious  principles  or  political  char- 
acter of  bidders,  and  declaration  that  their  own  friends  alone  were 
to  have  work,  it  would  be  fair  to  infer  that  some  improper  purpose 
Avas  to  be  accomplished.  But  it  is  not  left  to  inference, — Mr. 
Bradley  and  other  witnesses  clearly  proved  the  object.  The  former 
testified  that  about  two  weeks  previous  to  the  inspector's  election, 
Mr.  Rutherford,  the  superintendent,  received  a  letter  from  Mr. 
Stevens  ;t  that  Mr.  Rutherford  after  having  read  the  letter  him- 
self handed  it  to  him  [Mr.  Bradley]  to  read;  that  it  contained 
instructions  in  regard  to  conducting  the  election  at  Halifax;  that 
it  stated  five  hundred  men  ought  to  be  on  the  works  by  the  time 
of  the  election;  and  that  he  must  be  careful  to  have  'no  Porter 
bosses'  on  the  line;  that  the  contractors  must  bring  their  men  up 
to  the  polls  and  see  that  they  deposited  their  ballots ;  and  that  he 
well  recollected  this  expression  in  the  letter — tal^e  care  of  the 
missionary  fund. 

"On  the  28tli  of  September,  the  day  of  the  inspector's  election, 
Mr.  Bradley  testified  that  Mr.  Rutherford,  the  superintendent, 
brought  to  him  the  subscription  to  the  missionary  fund,  signed  by 
eighteen  contractors,  and  the  sum  subscribed  was  $1,240.  The  writ- 
ing to  which  the  contractors  subscribed  was  of  the.  following  import : 
'We  the  undersigned  agree  to  pay  John  P.  Rutherford  the  sums  set 
opposite  our  names  for  the  purpose  of  diffusing  useful  knowledge 

*  See  J.  H.  Rep.,  1838-39,  II,  Part  II,  p.  5. 
•j-  Mr.  Stevens  was  a  canal  eonimissioner. 


J 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worl's  of  Pennsylvania.  233 

among  the  people.'  Mr.  Rutherford  stated  to  Mr.  Bradley  that  this 
was  the  missionary  fund;  that  it  was  to  pay  for  handbills,  circu- 
lars, etc. ;  that  each  contractor  Avas  to  subscribe  a  sum  equal 
to  one  per  cent,  upon  the  amount  of  his  contract;  and  that  he  [the 
engineer]  was  to  allow  it  in  the  estimate,  i.e.,  allow  so  much  more 
than  the  amount  of  their  work,  and  that  this  was  the  only  way  they 
could  get  at  the  state  treasury.  Mr.  Bradley  refused  to  add  this 
amount  to  the  estimates  and  was  discharged. 

''Mr.  !N^.  F.  Jones,  who  was  a.rodman  on  the  canal,  confirmed  the 
statement  of  Mr.  Bradley  in  relation  to  the  receipt  of  the  letter 
from  Mr.  Stevens  to  Mr.  Rutherford;  saw  the  subscription  to  the 
'missionary  fund'  in  the  hands  of  Rutherford;  heard  him  say  that 
that  was  the  only  way  they  could  get  at  the  big  purse ;  and  that  a 
larger  sum  than  was  then  subscribed  to  the  paper  had  already  gone 
into  Berks  county.  James  M.  Foster  was  present  at  a  meeting  of 
the  contractors,  which  Rutherford  attended.  The  object  of  the 
meeting  was  to  obtain  more  men  on  the  canal,  and  to  raise  money. 
The  men  were  to  be  obtained  in  the  county  of  Philadelphia, — Porter 
men ;  they  were  to  be  brought  up  and  then  made  to  vote  for  Ritner." 

In  the  matter  of  "re-letting"  contracts,  also,  the  canal  commission- 
ers from  time  to  time  were  found  guilty  of  illegal  and  fraudulent 
practices.  The  law  required: —  "In  all  cases  where  a  contract  on 
the  canal  or  railroad  shall  be  abandoned,  it  shall  be  the  duty  of  the 
superintendent  or  acting  canal  commissioner  to  give  at  least  two 
weeks  public  notice  of  re-letting  the  same,"*  This  law  was  violated 
at  times,  however,  when  the  canal  board  in  the  re-letting  desired 
to  favor  their  political  friends.  How  this  was  done  is  shown  in 
the  following  extractf  from  the  minutes  of  the  board  of  canal 
commissioners.  May  21st,  1839,  who  were  investigating  the  conduct 
of  their  predecessors: — 

"It  conclusively  appears  to  the  board,  that,  on  the  24th  day  of 
October  last,  a  notice  was  published  in  the  bqrough  of  Wilkes-Barre, 
of  which  the  following  is  a  copy : — 

Canal  Office,  Tunkhannock, 

October  16,  1838. 
Canal  Letting 

Section  132,  on  the  Tunkhannock  line  of  the  Pennsylvania  Canal,  and  all 
other  abandoned  sections  on  said  line,  will  be  re-let  at  Tunkhannock,  on 
Wednesday,  the  7th  day  of  November  next.  Specifications  of  the  work  may 
be  seen  at  the  canal  office  in  Tunkhannock,  on  the  day  of  letting. 

E.  Harding,  Jr.,  Sup't. 

*Laws  of  Pennsylvania,  1828-29,  p.  255. 

fSee  J.  H.  Rep.,  1838-39,  III,  pp.  607-8.  This  is  also  confirmed  by  the 
report  of  a  committee  appointed  to  investigate  the  conduct  of  that  same 
board  of  canal  commissioners  read  in  the  House  of  Representatives  on  June 
15th,  1838,  and  found  in  J.  H.  Rep.,  1838-39,  II,  Part  II,  pp.  7-9. 


234  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

That  on  the  said  7th  day  of  November,  sections  65,  67,  98,  108,  110, 
111,  112,  113,  114,  132,  133,  147,  149,  155,  159,  and  174  on  the  said 
Tunkhannock  line,  were  re-let  under  the  foregoing  notice.  That 
none  of  the  said  sections  were  specified  in  the  notice  published 
except  K"o.  132,  and  that  no  notice  of  their  abandonment,  or  that 
the.y  were  to  be  re-let,  was  ever  published  in  any  form  whatever, 
until  late  in  the  day  on  which  they  were  to  be  allotted.  That  all 
of  the  said  sections  were  re-let  to  the  very  identical  persons  Avho  had 
abandoned  them,  and  who  had  upon  the  same,  large  forces  of 
hands  employed,  who  were  neither  discharged  nor  stopped  in 
their  operations  for  a  single  day,  insomuch,  that  from  ought  that 
appeared,  either  from  the  operations  on  the  jobs  themselves,  or 
from  any  public  notice  which  had  been  given,  the  citizens  of  this 
commonwealth  had  no  reason  to  suppose  that  said  contracts  either 
had  been,  or  would  be  abandoned  and  re-let,  until  the  very  hour 
when  bids  for  them  were  to  be  received.  *  .  .  .  From  the  above 
statements  it  conclusively  appears  that  the  foregoing  sixteen  sec- 
tions were  re-let  at  the  enormous  advance  of  $103,336.18f  above 
the  price  at  which  they  were  bid  for  by  men  equally,  if  not  more 
responsible,  than  those  to  whom  the  work  was  re-allotted." 

This  gross  violation  of  the  law  governing  the  re-letting  of  con- 
tracts becomes  all  the  more  culpable  since  the  contracts  were 
re-assigned  at  a  considerable  advance  in  price  to  the  very  persons 
who  had  not  abandoned  the  work  of  construction  under  the  original 
arrangements.  As  to  whether  the  contractors  alone  were  to  profit 
by  the  deal,  or  whether  a  part  of  the  differences  between  the  old 
and  the  new  prices  was  to  be  refunded  to  the  higher  officials  or  be 
used  for  campaign  funds,  does  not  appear  in  the  evidence.  The 
fact  remains,  however,  that  by  such  practices  the  state  was  robbed 
and  the  debt  correspondingly  increased. 

It  is  of  course  impossible  to  make  any  estimate  of  the  extent  to 
which  the  state  debt  was  augmented  on  account  of  political  favorit- 
ism. The  inference  is,  however,  that  the  increase  was  considerable. 
A  committee  appointed  on  the  18th  of  January,  1841,|  to  investi- 
gate the  expenditures  upon  the  canals  and  railroads  belonging  to 

*  Here  follows  a  tabular  statement  of  the  names  of  the  contractors  who 
abandoned  and  retook  the  same  contracts;  the  prices  under  the  former  con- 
tracts; the  prices  under  the  new  contracts;  the  names  of  the  competent  and 
responsible  bidders;  and  the  amounts  which  they  bid. 

f  The  combined  prices  of  the  first  letting  on  these  sections  was  $339,535.62. 
Tlie  advance  in  price  at  the  ro-letting  was  .$03,770.63  above  this  figure,  or 
$103,336.18  above  the  price  of  the  rejected  bids. 

i  See  J.  H.  Rep.,  1841,  II,  p.  591. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  WorJcs  of  Pennsylvania.  235 

the  state  brought  to  light  some  interesting  information  concerning 
this  point.  The  period  examined  extended  from  the  middle  of  the 
year  1839  to  the  end  of  1840.  The  evidence  taken,  which,  in  the 
opinion  of  the  committee,  unearthed  only  a  small  proportion  of  the 
abuses  actually  existing,  revealed,  in  the  few  cases  examined,  the 
following : — * 

That  the  state  lost  through  the  superintendent  of  motive 
power  on  the  Philadelphia  and  Columbia  Railroad  not    - 
less  than    $    6,000 

That  the  construction  of  a  certain  division  of  railway 
track  cost  the  public  more  than  it  would  have  cost,  had 
the  contracts  been  given  out  fairly  to  the  lowest  good 
bidders,  not  less  than    18,000 

Tliat  through  favoritism  the  supervisors  of  the  Juniata 
di%'1sion  of  the  canal  had  exceeded  the  necessiary  expendi- 
tures not  less  than .' ■ 6,000 

That  the  allotment  of  the  contract  for  the  Eastern  reservoir 
was  at  a  price  above  those  tendered  by  good  bidders,  not 
less  than 20,000 

That  the  allotment  of  the  contract  for  the  Western  reservoir 
was  at  a  price  above  those  submitted  by  good  contractors, 
not  less  than    30,000 

That  the  price  allowed  for  clearing  400  acres  of  land  for 
the  latter  was  more  than  the  work  was  worth,  not  less 
than    10,000 

Tliat  in  the  allotment  of  lock  13  on  the  Western  division  of 
the  canal  there  was  allowed  more  than  was  necessary, 
not  less  than    1,200 

Tliat  in  the  case  of  two  other  locks  specified  there  was 
allowed  more  than  was  bid  by  good  contractors,  not  less 
than    10,000 

That  in  the  allotmeiit  of  nine  sections  of  canal  on  the  Con- 
neaut  line  of  the  Erie  Extension  there  was  more  allowed 
than  the  average  bids  of  good  contractoTS,  not  less  than      35,000 

That  in  the  allotment  of  contracts  for  16  locks  in  1839  a 
loss  was  entailed  to  the  state  from  failure  to  consider  the 
bids  of  political  opponents,  not  less  than   33,000 

Total $169,200 

Commenting  upon  their  findings,  of  which  the  above  is  merely  an 
abstract,  the  committee  stated: — "Our  inquiries  have  been  confined 
to  a  small  portion,  when  compared  with  the  whole  of  the  public 
improvements  of  the  state,  and  the  result  of  those  inquiries  cannot 
fail  to  startle  and  astonish.  We  find  that  within  the  period  of  a 
single  year,  by  the  policy  and  practices  which  have  prevailed,  the 
public  money,  to  a  large  amount,  has  been  squandered  and  improp- 
erly paid  away.  We  leave  for  further  inquiry  and  development 
many  transactions  of  a  character  as  suspicious  as  any  that  have  been 
examined,  and  it  is  not  surprising  that  under  such  management, 

*  See  Report  of  Committee  in  J.  H.  Rep.,  1841,  II,  p.  588. 


236 


1.  7/.  Bishop — The  State  Woi-ls  of  Pennsylvania. 


the  revenue  arising  from  the  finished  lines  of  the  public  works 
should  fall  short,  as  it  did  last  year,  about  $350,000  of  the  sum 
expended  in  their  repairs  and  superintendence,  and  that  their  fur- 
ther prosecution  should  be  viewed  wjth  alarm  by  the  warmest 
advocates  of  internal  improvements  by  the  commonwealth."* 

The  report  of  another  committee  appointed  by  the  legislature  to 
investigate  the  conduct  of  the  canal  commissioners  and  their  agents 
and  read  in  the  house  of  representatives,  April  7th,  1834,f  contains 
evidence  of  corruption  different  from  any  yet  mentioned.  It  was 
proved  to  the  committee  during  their  inquiry  that  there  was  "an 
utter  destitution  of  moral  principles  in  the  supervision  of  the  Sus- 
quehanna division,  and  that  the  most  fraudulent  and  criminal 
practices  against  the  commonwealth  were  carried  on  by  one  who,  at 
the  very  time  of  his  disregard  of  every  suggestion  of  honesty  and 
prompting  of  duty,  was  a  judge  of  l^orthumberland  county."  The 
person  in  question  was  a  supervisor  on  the  above-mentioned  divi- 
sion. According  to  the  evidence  which  was  taken  during  the 
investigation,  he  gave  script  to  a  certain  laborer  for  the  amount  of 
his  wages.  The  workman  was  told  that  this  paper  would  be  dis- 
counted at  the  Middletown  bank.  To  cover  the  amount  of  the  dis- 
count, the  supervisor  directed  the  laborer  to  add  eight  or  nine  days 
to  the  check  roll  which  was  presented  to  the  auditor  general.  This 
was  done  and  the  state  was  defrauded  to  this  amount.  Moreover, 
there  were  brought  forward  and- sworn  to  books  containing  accounts 
of  the  number  of  days  each  laborer  had  worked  on  the  canal.  From 
these  and  other  records  it  appeared  that  one  sum  was  paid  to  the 
workmen  and  another  charged  to  the  state.  This  was  proved  by 
an  examination  of  the  auditor  general's  report.  In  this  way  the 
supervisor  padded  the  accounts  of  a  single  foreman  to  the  amount 
of  $381. 

On  the  Delaware  division,  the  abuses  were  somewhat  different. 
It  was  shown  to  be  the  practice  of  a  certain  supervisor  to  take  state 
laborers  and  set  them  to  work  on  his  private  property.  The  time 
they  were  thus  occupied  was  included  in  the  pay  roll  handed  in  to 
the  auditor  general.  In  a  single  month  the  amount  of  money  paid 
out  by  a  contractor  guilty  of  this  practice  was  $857.88  for  work 
actually  done  on  the  public  works.     During  the  same  period  the 


*  J.  H.  Rep.,  1841,  II,  p.  589. 

fSee  J.  H.  Rep.,  1833-34,  II,  pp.  887,  888,  et  seq. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worls  of  Perinsi/lvania.  237 

extra  amount  charged-  to  the  state  for  work  done  by  state  laborers 
upon  his  own  property  was  $137,071/^.* 

Investigations  made  at  the  same  time  concerning  the  building 
of  other  sections  of  the  transportation  system  unearthed  abuses  of 
still  another  kind.  Thus,  on  the  Wyoming  division,  where  work  had 
recently  been  suspended  for  lack  of  funds,  it  was  proved  that  a 
claim  was  allowed  for  400  rods  of  stone  at  ninety  cents  per  rod, 
whereas  the  actual  measurement  was  found  to  be  81  rods.  In  other 
cases  allowances  were  made  for  460  and  936  rods,  although  the 
respective  measurements  were  only  183  and  301  rods. 

It  also  seems  clear  that,  in  many  cases,  the  work  executed  by  con- 
tractors was  badly  done.  This  is  shown  by  the  fact  that  no  sooner 
had  the  public  improvements  come  into  operation  than  liberal  appro- 
priations had  to  be  made  at  almost  every  session  of  the  legislature  to 
keep  them  in  a  condition  suitable  for  use.  Doubtless  it  is  true  that 
a  considerable  amount  of  the  imperfect  construction  should  be  attri- 
buted to  the  lack  of  experience  in  building  canals  and  railways ;  also 
to  other  causes  beyond  the  control  of  the  contractors.  Nevertheless 
the  evidence  is  conclusive  that  the  anxiety  of  the  contractors  to  swell 
the  amount  of  their  profits  at  the  public  expense  often  was  the 
direct  cause  of  defective  work.  The  canal  commissioners  them- 
selves occasionally  made  admissions  to  this  effect,t  and  to  this  the 
testimonies  of  various  contemporary  writers  could  be  added.  IvTot- 
withstanding  liberal  yearly  expenditures  for  repairs,  the  canal 
board,  in  1839,  asked  for  the  sura  of  $1,125,760  for  this  purpose. 
The  request  was  made  in  accordance  with  the  estimate  furnished 
by  their  engineer,  who  pointed  out  the  dilapidated  condition  of  cer- 
tain sections  on  almost  every  division  of  the  public  works. 

In  filling  positions  in  connection  with  the  operation  of  the  canals 
and  railroads  much  political  favoritism  was  shown.  In  1837  and 
again  in  1838  "select  committees"  were  appointed  by  the  house  of 
representatives  to  see  if  there  was  any  ground  for  the  numerous 

■'  See  J.  H.  Rep.,  18.33.34,  II,  p.  899. 

fSee  J.  H.  Rep.,  1830-31,  II,  p.  160;  1833-34,  III,  p.  8;  1840,  II,  pp,  4-5, 
and  III,  p.  17. 

Solomon  W.  Roberts,  who  was  employed  on  the  state  works  as  a  civil 
engineer  while  they  were  being  built,  said  regarding  the  canals:  "Much  of  the 
work  was  badly  done,  and  was  not  strong  enough  to  withstand  the  occasional 
floods  to  which  it  was  exposed." — Pennsylvania  Hist.  Mag.,  II,  p.  371. 


338  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worlcs  of  Pennsylvania. 

complaints.  As  a  result  of  the  inquiry  it  was  found*  that  frequently 
engineers  on  locomotives  and  stationary  engines  of  the  Phila- 
delphia and  Columbia  railroad  were  discharged  to  make  way  for 
others.  The  latter,  it  was  found,  often  knew  little  or  nothing  about 
the  practical  operation  of  the  engines  placed  under  their  charge. f 
"In  some  cases  the  engineers  were  so  totally  ignorant  of  the  duties 
of  their  offices  as  to  be  obliged  to  learn  them  from  their  firemen  and 
subordinates."  The  committee  endeavored  to  seek  out  the  cause 
for  such 'practices  on  the  part  of  the  canal  commissioners.  The 
evidence  prompted  them  to  report  that  such  removals  and  appoint- 
ments had  been  made  in  many  instances  on  political  grounds  alone. 

Keferring  to  the  main  line  of  canal,  the  committee  stated:  "In- 
stances of  extravagance,  neglect,  and  incompetency  on  the  part  of 
those  to  whom  this  important  line  was  entrusted  have  been  proved, 
as  well  as  a  disposition  to  favor  certain  individuals,  altogether 
incompatible  with  the  public  interest.  Amongst  other  evidence 
of  the  incapacity  of  agents  proved  to  the  satisfaction  of  the 
committee,  they  would  name  that  a  supervisor  was  sent  to  the  Juni- 
ata division  who  knew  so  little  about  a  canal  that  he  could  not  tell 
the  difference  between  an  aqueduct  and  a  culvert." 

The  method  of  accounting  practiced  by  the  canal  commissioners 
is,  in  some  respects,  open  to  adverse  criticism.  Whether  or  not  the 
system  used  was  devised  for  the  purpose  of  misleading  the  public, 
the  fact  is  that  it  did.  Before  continuing  the  discussion  of  those 
corrupt  practices,  which  more  properly  fall  within  the  scope  of  this 
chapter,  an  examination  will  be  made  of  some  of  the  questionable 
features  in  the  accounting  system  of  the  canal  boards. 

The  cost  of  the  several  portions  of  the  main  line  of  works  when 
completed,  equipped  and  brought  into  use  was  as  follows : — 

Philadelphia  and  Columbia  railroad   (report  of  1836)    $3,330,127.55 

Eastern  division  of  canal   (report  of  1836) 1,347,014.40 

Juniata  division   (report  of  1830) 3,036,290.13^ 

Portage  railroad   (report  of  1836)    ..." 1,634,357.69 

Western   division    (report  of   1830,  which   included   extensive 

repairs)     2,758,917.71 

Total $12,106,707.48^ 


* 


Se«  J.  H.  Rep.,  1836-37,  II,  pp.  801,  802,  et  seq.  for  the  report  of  a  select 
committee  relative  to  tlie  management  of  the  canals  and  railways  of  the 
commonwealth. 

fin  the  report  of  the  canal  commissioners  for  1839  it  was  stated  that  out 
of  twenty-seven  engines  on  the  Philadelphia  and  Oohunbia  railroad,  the  new 
administration  found  only  five  that  were  fit  for  use.  Tliis  was  due,  to  a  large 
extent,  to  the  drivers  not  knowing  how  to  keep  the  engines  in  repair. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania.  239 

The  cost  of  tlie  same  sections  at  the  time  of  their  sale,  as  shown 
by  the  reports  of  the  auditor  general  and.  state  treasurer,  was  as 
follows : — 

Philadelpliia   and    Columbia    railroad     $5,277,278.00 

Eastern  division  of  canal    1,737,285.00 

Juniata   division   3,575,966.00 

Portage   railroad    2,708,672.00 

Western   division 3,173,434.00 

Total     $16,472,6351.00 

From  the  above  it  appears  that  there  was  added  to  the  cost  of  the 
main  line  after  its  completion  the  sum  of  $4,365,927,511/2.  Simi- 
larly, a  detailed  statement  of  the  original  and  final  cost  of  the  lat- 
eral works  (see  page  284)  shows  an  increase  of  the  latter  over  the 
former  of  $904,468.66.  In  both  cases,  this  increase  admits  of  expla- 
nation. The  expenditures  were  divided  into  two  classes,  ordinary 
and  extraordinary.  The  former  included  only  such  items  as  were 
clearly  chargeable  to  the  current  yearly  expenses-  and  represent  the 
"expenditures"  shown  in  the  tabular  statement  in  Appendix  VI. 
The  appropriations  for  repairing  breaches,  damages  by  floods, 
renewals  of  locks  and  dams,  and  numerous  other  items  were  placed 
in  the  extraordinary  list  and  added  to  the  original  cost  of  the  works. 
By  this  means  the  cost  of  the  main  line  and  lateral  branches  by  the 
time  of  their  sale  had  increased,  as  we  have  seen,  $4,365,927,511/^ 
and  $904,468.66  respectively. 

Another  feature  of  the  accounting  system  of  the  canal  commis- 
sioners resulted  in  suppressing  the  whole  truth  regarding  the  cost 
of,  and  expenditures  upon,  the  various  section^  of  the  works.  Their 
own  expenses,  those  of  the  boards  of  appraisers,  the  salaries  of 
collectors,  weighmasters,  and  lock-keepers,  and  the  cost  of  the  var- 
ious exploratory  surveys  did  not  appear  in  their  financial  reports. 
Consequently  all  such  statements  which  showed  the  yearly  profits 
obtained  in  operating  any  section  were  made  just  as  if  no  expense 
had  been  incurred  for  any  or  all  of  the  above  items.  Yet, 
from  1826  to  1858,  they  amounted  to  about  two  and  one  quarter 
millions  of  dollars. 

In  order  to  illustrate  the  way  in  which  the  accounting  of  the 
canal  commissioners  misrepresented  the  actual  financial  conditions 
of  the   public  works,    a   comparison   will  now  be   made   of   their 


240  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

accounts  and  those  of  the  auditor  general  of  the  state  for  the  year 
1856.*  The  latter  reported  the  expenses  of  all  the  public  works 
as  follows : — 

Expenses     $1,943,890.82 

Damages    paid     52,281.21 

Old  debts  paid    130,512.09 

Total    $2,126,690.12 

The  canal  commissioners  retui-nc<i  the  total  expenses  at     1,076,685.14 

Difference  between  the  two  statements   $1,050,004.98 

During  the  same  year,  the  expenses  of  the  main  line  alone, 
excluding  the  amount  charged  to  construction  account,  were,  accord- 
ing to  the  auditor  general,  $1,212,536.80.  The  canal  commissioners 
reported  them  to  have  been  $840,377.03,  a  difference  of  $372,159.77. 
Again,  the  canal  board  represented  that,  in  1856,  the  net  profits 
of  the  main  line  were  $382,596.42.  If,  howeverj,  we  take  into  con- 
sideration all  the  ordinary  disbursements  including  those  referred 
to  on  page  239,  the  net  profits  are  reduced  to  $10,436.75.  But  in 
order  to  leave  as  a  balance  even  this  amount,  it  is  necessary  to  omit 
the  following  expenses  connected  with  the  main  line  in  1856 : — 
$268,396.76  for  a  new  track  for  the  Philadelphia  and  Columbia  rail- 
road; $181,496.74  on  the  ISTew  Portage  railroad;  and  the  interest  on 
$16,472,634.15,  which  was  the  cost  of  the  main  line  to  this  date. 

The  results  shown  in  1856  by  the  canal  commissioners  in  their 
system  of  accounting  were,  doubtless,  no  more  misleading  than 
they  were  in  any  other  year  that  might  have  been  chosen.  Conse- 
quently it  seems  but  fair  to  say  that  the  continued  practice  of  this 
method  of  accounting,  which  so  effectively  concealed  the  unsound 
financial  conditions  of  the  public  works,  lays  the  various  boards  of 
canal  commissioners  open  to  adverse  criticism  of  no  mild  nature. 

It  would  extend  this  chapter  much  beyond  its  appropriate 
iDounds  to  detail  all  of  the  ways  in  which  unscrupulous  employees 
on  the  public  works  betrayed  the  trusts  of  their  offices.  However, 
a  summary  of  abuses  other  than  those  already  mentioned,  some  of 
which  seem  to  have  been  perpetrated  time  and  time  again,  will 
suffice  to  show  that  no  possible  chance  to  defraud  the  public  seems 
to  have  been  overlooked.     Positive  proof  was  obtained  to  substan- 


See  Letters  on  the  Sale  of  tlie  Main  Line,  pp.   10  12. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania.  241 

tiate  the  following  cliarges  of  attempts  to   defraud  the  common- 
wealth : — * 

1.  That  time  was  charged  for  work  that  was  not  performed. 

2.  That  teams  were  charged  in  the  name  of  persons  who  had  no 
teams  on  the  work,  and,  in  some  instances,  the  amount  of  the  charge 
was  receipted  for  without  the  knowledge  or  consent  of  the  person 
in  whose  name  the  account  was  kept. 

3.  That  teams  were  charged  at  full  or  high  prices,  although 
the  driver's  time  was  charged  in  a  separate  account. 

4.  That  public  teams  were  freely  donated  for  the  use  of  private 
individuals  and  political  partisans,  and  that  their  time  on  such 
occasions  was  charged  on  the  check-roll. 

5.  That  at  certain  times  a  large  amount  of  money  was  expended 
for  getting  hands  on  the  works  to  replace  those  who  had  been  dis- 
charged "for  opinion's  sake." 

6.  That  extra  time  was  added  to  the  check-rolls,  at  the  will 
of  those  having  charge,  to  cover  the  expense  of  bringing  hands  from 
a  distance,  although  large  amounts  were  returned  by  bill  for  the 
same  service. 

7.  That  time  was  continued  for  hands  and  teams  after  they  had 
left  the  works. 

8.  That  articles  never  purchased  for  the  works,  nor  used  on 
them,  were  charged  up  to  the  state. 

9.  That  many  persons  were  induced  to  receipt  for  money  which 
they  never  received,  and  to  which  they  had  no  claims. 

10.  That  bribery  was  attempted  for  the  purpose  of  procuring 
the  public  funds,  and  actually  took  place  to  secure  favorable 
legislation. 

11.  That  lumber  and  other  articles  were  purchased  to  be  deliv- 
ered on  the  line  of  works  at  a  given  place  and  at  a  fixed  price.  The 
contractor,  however,  charged  the  commonwealth  with  the  daily 
pay  of  the  teams  employed  to  deliver  the  goods.  Furthermore  in 
one  case,  at  least,  the  charge  for  a  teamster  was  $2  per  day  more 
than  the  teamster  received,  notwithstanding  the  fact  that  the  bill 
therefor  was  paid  largely  out  of  the  contractor's  store. 

12.  That  officers  and  workmen  received  pay  and  travelling 
expenses  while  in  other  parts  of  the  state  attending  elections. 

13.  That  many  persons  were  hired  at  high  salaries  who  were 
neither  foremen  nor  skilled  mechanics. 

14.  That  foremen  and  others,  while  engaged  in  the  public  ser- 
vice, bought  and  slaughtered  cattle,  using  the  state  teams  "and 
laborers  when  they  so  desired,  and  supplied  the  line  with  meat 
at  a  high  price. 

*  See  J.  H.  Hep..  1840,  II,  pp.  2.34-5,  which  contains  a  report  of  fraudulent 
accounts  submitted  to  the  auditor  general.  See  also  J.  H.  Rep.,  1841,  II,  p. 
547.  . 


242  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

15.  That  provisions  were  charged  to  the  commonwealth  at  a 
figure  much  in  advance  of  the  prices  current  in  the  markets, 

16.  That  for  months  one  of  the  supervisors  charged  the  state 
for  the  services  of  three  yoke  of  oxen  at  $12  per  day,  exclusive 
of  the  driver,  although  it  was  shown  that  he  had  but  two  yoke; 
that  for  weeks  in  succession  hut  one  yoke  of  oxen  was  engaged  on  the 
works;  that  $6.25  a  day  was  charged  by  the  same  person  for  a 
two-horse  team  and  driver,  which  were  employed  for  the  greater 
part  of  the  time  in  his  private  use, 

17.  That  a  large  amount  of  whiskey  was  charged  to  the  common- 
wealth. 

18.  That  blank  check-rolls  furnished  by  the  state  for  the 
keeping  of  accounts  were  often  mutilated.  Headings  and  cer- 
tificates were  cut  off  and  others  attached  by  wafers  leaving  it 
uncertain  in  what  condition  the  papers  were  when  sworn  to,  and,  in 
the  words  of  the  auditor  general,  "whether  teams  at  $6  or  $8  were 
not  substituted  for  hands  at  95  cents  per  day,  or  whether  one  individ- 
ual may  not  have  signed  for  others." 

19.  That  allowances  were  made  by  the  canal  commissioners  for 
damages,  the  claims  for  which  had  already  been  settled  in  full 
and  releases  executed  therefor  and  filed  in  the  auditor  general's 
ofiice.* 

20.  That  the  expenditures  for  wood  alone  in  the  engines  on 
the  state  railways  rose  from  $19,217.50  and  $26,174.78  in  1850  and 
1851  respectively  to  $107,255.28  and  $108,643.17  during  the  two 
following  years,  with  no  explanation  for  the  increased  expenditure.! 

Before  concluding,  it  seems  in  order  briefly  to  quote  the  opinions 
of  certain  persons  intimately  acquainted  with  the  management  of 
the  public  works  regarding  some  general  aspects  of  the  questions 
discussed  in  this  chapter.  A  select  'committee  of  the  senate,  in 
reporting  upon  various  matters  concerning  the  state  improvements 
in  1854,  summarized  the  case  regarding  corruption  as  follows: — 

"The  officials  and  agents  of  the  system,  whose  name  is  legion, 
extend  to  all  parts  of  the  commonwealth, — a  vast  engine  of  polit- 

*  See  J.  H.  Hep.,  1838-39,  II,  part  II,  pp.  11-14.  Here  is  recorded  the  case 
of  J.  Andrew  Sluilze,  who  on  January  2d,  1835,  received  $700  as  damages 
and  on  September  17th,  1838,  he  was  again  allowed  $1,500  for  practically  the 
same  damages  for  which  the  $700  was  "a  full  indemnification."  This  was 
brought  out  in  an  investigation  made  by  a  committee  appointed  by  the  Hotise 
of  Representatives  to  inquire  into  the  conduct  of  the  canal  commissioners. 

f  The  conclusion  arrived  at  by  a  commission  appointed  to  examine  the 
affairs  of  the  main  line  was  that  the  frauds  practiced  in  1852  and  1853  were 
excessive,  although  the  investigation  failed  to  bring  to  light  the  perpetrators 
of  the  acts. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worhs  of  Pennsylvania.  243 

ical  power,  unknown  to  the  constitution,  moved  by  common 
impulse,  and  operating  upon  the  public  mind  at  any  time  they  are 
so  disposed,  in  state  conventions  and  at  the  ballot  box,  in  solid 
column,  and  with  almost  irresistible  sway.  But  it  is  not  as  a 
dangerous  political  machine  that  it  is  viewed  in  its  worst  aspects, 
nor  as  an  exhausting  drain  upon  the  public  purse;  its  malign 
influences  upon  the  morals  of  the  community  are  even  more  to  be 
dreaded  than  all  other  evils,  and  powerfully  cooperate  to  make  it  a 
festering  disease  upon  the  public.  At  every  stage,  complaints  have 
been  made  of  the  extravagance,  fraud,  and  speculation  in  the  con- 
duct of  the  works,  and  the  most  honorable  agents  have  been  stig- 
matized with  odium  by  an  indignant  public,  smarting  under  the 
known  abuses  and  heavy  burthens  they  have  generated.  Attempts 
to  reform,  however  loudly  professed  and  honestly  made,  have 
been  unavailing  to  eradicate  evils  inherent  in  the  system.  .  .  . 
That  practices  at  war  with  the  established  systems  of  political 
economy  have  resulted  in  debt,  taxation,  extravagance,  mortifica- 
tion and  disappointment  is  a  misfortune.  Had  the  object  of  this 
anomalous  system  been  to  destroy  and  not  to  build  up  the  revenues 
and  the  morals  of  the  state,  it  could  not  have  been  more  ingeniously 
devised."* 

Again,  William  Bender  AVilson,  in  his  "History  of  the  Pennsyl- 
vania Eailroad  Company,"  in  speaking  of  the  public  works,  said  :• — f 

"Millions  of  wealth  were  squandered  in  construction,  the 
public  were  punished  or  rewarded  as  they  denounced  or  sided  with 
those  in  position,  employees  were  plundered  by  so-called  assess- 
ments, and  the  ballot-box  polluted  for  the  purpose  of  perpetuating 
power.     All  the  avenues  of  government  were  completely  corrupted, 

*  Eeport  upon  the  Public  Works  of  a  Select  Committee — read  in  the  Senate,' 
February  4th,  1854,  aiid  found  in  L^slative  Documents,  1854,  p.  329. 

A  pamphlet  published  at  Philadelphia  in  1857  consisting  of  a  series  of 
letters  oi'iginally  published  in  the  Philadelphia  Evening  Bulletin  advocating 
the  sale  of  the  main  line  contained,  page  47,  the  following:  "A  well  managed 
commonwealth  never  corrupts  her  children.  Yet  on  Pennsylvania's  public 
improvements  thousands  of  employees  have  wrecked  their  characters,  and 
hundreds  of  her  most  promising  sons  have  had  sad  and  real  reason  to  curse 
the  day  they  ever  learned  that  Pennsylvania  had  a  line  of  railroad  or  canal 
on  which  to  seduce  to  crime.  Under  the  necessarily  loose  and  irresponsible 
mode  of  transacting  business  upon  these  works,  this  evil  has  been,  and  is 
being  done.  While  the  works  remain  in  her  hands,  they  will  be  the  home  of 
partisans  and  swindlers  who  ^^•ill  ruin  themselves,  disgrace  the  state,  and 
spread  a  moral  desolation  among  the  people.  Change  of  administration  does 
not  cure  the  evil.  It  is  inherent  in  the  thing,  and  will  be  manifested  while 
human  nature  remains  as  prone  to  evil  as  at  present." 

t  Vol.  I,  p.  40. 


244  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Woi-ks  of  Pennsylvania. 

state  credit  collapsed,  and  the  public  improvements  of  Pennsylvania 
became  public  scandal.  ...  It  was  not  an  infrequent  occur- 
rence on  election  day  to  see  the  gravel  train  loaded  down  with  men 
moving  from  toAvn  to  town  vnth  the  scarcely  disguised  intention  of 
polluting  the  ballot-box — repeating  at  the  polls  became  the  rule 
along  the  line,  and  waiting  in  expectation  for  the  gravel  train  to 
come  in  was  the  occupation  on  election  day  of  the  local  adherent 
of  the  railroad  boss.  Personally,  I  have  seen  the  paymaster,  after 
requiring  the  employee  to  sign  the  pay-roll  for  the  full  amount 
of  his  pay,  count  out  the  amount,  less  ten  per  cent.,  and  without  a 
word  of  comment  unblushingly  take  the  latter  and  put  it  in  a  bag 
made  for  the  purpose,  and  labelled  'Political  Assessments.'  The 
public  service  became  gorged  with  the  friends  and  adherents  of 
those  in  power,  whose  principal  duty  seemed  to  be  to  sign  the  pay- 
rolls, submit  to  assessments  and  vote  the  ticket  handed  to  them." 

In  spite  of  the  Avidespread  operation  of  fraudulent  and  corrupt 
practices,  as  shown  above,  it  should  be  added  that  these  charges, 
by  no  means,  applied  to  the  employees  on  the  state  works  in  toto. 
On  the  contrary,  there  is  every  reason  to  believe  that  scores  of 
honest  and  efficient  officials  discharged  their  duties  in  a  manner 
highly  creditable  both  to  themselves  and  to  their  country.  In 
fact,  the  findings  of  committees  appointed  to  investigate  charges  of 
corruption  on  the  part  of  certain  state  officials  exonerated  beyond 
question  various  employees  who  had  been  placed  under  the  ban  of 
suspicion  by  disappointed  office-seekers.  Again  it  may  be  said 
that,  granting  the  widespread  operation  of  corruption  that  existed 
under  state  ownership  and  control,  we  have  no  assurance  that  there 
would  have  been  any  greater  purity  under  corporate  management. 
However  this  might  have  been,  the  case  seems  perfectly  clear  that, 
throughout  the  greater  part  of  their  history,  the  public  works  were 
used  by  the  political  party  in  power  as  an  invaluable  instrument 
of  political  corruption,  destroying  the  morals  of  citizens  and  squan- 
dering the  resources  of  the  state.  Consequently,  those  who  are 
abashed  by  the  present-day  disclosures  of  corruption  in  the  manage- 
ment of  cities  and  powerful  corporations,  and  who  therefore  sigh 
for  the  "good  old  days"  of  political  purity,  have  to  face  the  fact 
that  these  did  not  exist  in  Pennsylvania  at  least  during  the  period 
of  state  ownership  and  control  of  the  public  works.  jN^or  can  the 
advocates  of  the  extension  of  state  enjterprise  into  various  fields  of 
activity  at  present  considered  dangerously  corruptible  find  much 
to  substantiate  their  views  by  an  examination  of  the  same  period. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worhs  of  Pennsylvania.  245 


Chapter  VI. — The  Disposal  of  the  Public  Works. 

The  movement  for  the  withdrawal  of  the  state  from  the  owner- 
ship and  operation  of  the  public  works  originated  during  the  years 
of  financial  embarrassment  between  1&39  and  1844.  At  this  time 
numerous  arguments  were  brought  forward  in  the  press,  in  pam- 
phlets and  in  petitions  showing  why  the  divorce  of  the  state  from  the 
transportation  system  was  desirable.  In  attempting  to  arrive  at 
the  causes  for  such  a  complete  change  of  public  sentiment  one  finds 
a  variety  of  influences  appearing.  The  utter  financial  failure  of 
the  improvements  has  already  been  fully  discussed.  This  was 
one  of  the  strongest  contributing  factors  to  the  movement  under 
consideration;  for  at  this  time  the  financial  difficulties  were 
attributed  largely  to  the  squandering  of  money  upon  works  which 
were  neither  yielding  nor  could  be  expected  to  yield  a  respectable 
revenue.  Again,  bad  management  and  corruption  combined  to 
make  the  improvement  system  unpopular.  Moreover,  there  was  now 
a  gradual  awakening  to  the  fact  that  the  only  means  of  preserving 
the  state's  honor  was  heavy  taxation.  A  sale  of  the  public  Avorks 
would  not  only  lighten  this  burden  but  also  diminish  the  debt  and 
assure  the  public  that  the  latter  would  not  be  further  increased. 

These  considerations,  detrimental  to  the  popularity  of  the  trans- 
portation system  even  in  times  of ,  commercial  expansion,  became 
increasingly  so  as  the  public  mind  became  depressed.  Pennsylvania, 
in  common  with  the  rest  of  the  country,  was  laboring  under  one  of 
those  financial  convulsions  which  sometimes  overtake  communities 
and  prostrate  the  energies  of  the  strongest.  Under  such  conditions 
it  seems  natural  that,  for  the  reasons  already  mentioned,  a  large 
party  should  be  desirous  of  relinquishing  the  improvement  "system. 
But  still  another  factor  which  considerably  influenced  the  movement 
should  not  be  overlooked.  This  was  the  growing  consciousness 
that  the  main  line  in  particular  had  failed  to  accomplish  its  pur- 
pose— that  it  could  not  compete  successfully  with  the  Erie  canal 
for  the  trade  of  the  West.  This  point  now  requires  some  attention 
before  the  movement  itself  is  discussed. 

The  trunk  line  of  Pennsylvania's  public  works  was  opened  in 
1834  to  compete  for  a  trade  which  for  nine  years  had  been  prac- 
tically monopolized  by  the  Erie  canal.  Again,  a  large  proportion 
of  the  most  important  public  improvements  of  the  northwest  were 

Trans.  Conn.  Acad.,  Vol.  XIII.  18  Nov.,  1907 


246  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

built  so  as  to  connect  with  this  line.*  It  should  be  mentioned,  how- 
ever, that  not  long  after  the  main  line  of  Pennsylvania's  public 
works  Avas  completed  it  Avas  connected  with  the  Ohio  and  Erie 
canal.f  Thus  two  routes  to  the  tide-waters  of  the  East  were  available 
for  the  shippers  along  the  Ohio  and  Erie  canal  and  its  branches. 
Although  the  route  to  Philadelphia  \aa  Pittsburg  and  Pennsyl- 
vania's public  Avorks  was  from  200  to  300  miles  shorter  than  to  K^cav 
York  via  Lake  Erie  and  the  Erie  canal,  yet  most  of  the  traffic 
going  East  took  the  latter  route,  Avhich  was  much  easier  and  cheaper 
than  the  former. J  The  advantage  in  distance  gained  by  going 
through  Pennsylvania  was  more  than  offset  by  the  broken  character 
of  the  transportation  line.§  For  through  freight  had  to  be  trans- 
shipped to  overtop  the  Allegheny  mountain,  again  at  Hollidaysburg, 

*  In  1832  the  State  of  Ohio  opened  through  her  own  territory  two  lines  of 
canals, — one  from  Portsmouth  on  the  Ohio  river  to  Cleveland,  the  other 
from  Cincinnati  to  Toledo.  Of  the  products  of  the  country  adjacent  to  these 
canals  it  may  be  said,  in  geiiieral,  that  breadstufTs  sought  their  outlet  through 
the  Erie  canal,  while  provisions  of  all  kinds  went  to  market  through  New 
Orleans. — See  Poor,  Manual  of  the  Railroads  of  the  United  States,  1881,  p. 
xvii ;    and  Andrews,  Report  on  Colonial  and  Lake  Trade,  p.  234. 

•j-The  Sandy  and  Beaver  canal  connected  the  Ohio  and  Erie  canal  with  the 
Ohio  river  and  the  state  works  of  Pennsylvania  at  Pittsburg.  The  Mahoning 
canal  also  united  the  Pennsyh'ania  and  Ohio  canals.  It  extended  from 
Akron  to  the  confluence  of  the  Mahoning  and  Beaver  rivers,  where  it  met 
the  Beaver  division  of  the  Pennsylvania  canal. 

ij:  See  Andrews,  Report  on  Colonial  and  Lake  Trade,  pp.  240  and  262 ; 
Report  of  Canal  Commissioners,  Jan.  15t.h,  1842,  in  J.  H.  Rep.,  1842,  III,  p. 
42;    and  Hunt's  Mer.  Mag.,  XXIII,  November,  1850,  pp.  481)  and  500. 

Until  1830  or  1840  the  tonnage  and  value  of  the  exports  from  the  north- 
west were  small,  the  surplus  products  being  largely  consumed  hy  the  growing 
population.  After  this  time  the  j-esources  of  the  west  were  rapidly  developed. 
The  total  number  of  tons  of  commodities  arriving  at  tide-water  from  the 
western  states  via  the  Erie  canal  iiicrc.ised  from  83,233  in  1838  to  1,213,690 
in  1853. 

§  "The  chain  which  was  to  bind  Philadelphia  with  the  west  was  not  con- 
tinuous and  unbroken,  composed  of  intermingling  and  welded  links,  but 
severed,  disjointed,  fragmentary.  It  was  an  amphibious  connection  of  land 
and  water,  consisting  of  two  railways  separated  by  canal,  and  of  two  canals 
separated  by  railway, — happily  elucidating  the  defects  peculiar  to  both  modes 
of  transit,  with  the  advantages  of  neither.  This  improvement  being  useless 
as  a  competitor  of  tbe  Erie  canal,  disappointed  private  hope  in  the  benefits 
promised,  and  pul)lic  hope  in  the  unprofitable  burden  imposed.  The  com- 
monwealth, oppressed  by  her  debt,  and  the  citizens  impoverished  by  their 
losses,  the  western  trade  alienated  and  the  foreign  trade  neglected  and  dimin- 
ishing, Pennsylvania  presented  the  reverse  side  of  her  early  picture — one  not 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania.  247 

and  finally  from  the  canal  boats  to  the  cars  at  Columbia.  The 
freight  was  handled  by  transportation  companies  which  fixed  the 
freight  rates.  N^o  matter  how  small  the  business  of  the  individual 
concerns  might  be,  each  had  to  have  available  both  cars  and  boats. 
Moreovei",  five  sets  of  depots  and  agents  were  necessary,  located  at 
Philadelphia,  Columbia,  Hollidaysburg,  Johnstown  and  Pittsburg. 
Hence  it  can  readily  be  seen  that  the  fixed  expenses  of  these  carriers 
were  necessarily  heavy.  This  fact  was  strongly  reflected  in  the 
freight  rates.  These  were  placed  at  such  a  high  figure  that,  for 
through  traffic,  the  Erie  canal  had  a  decided  advantage;  for, 
owing  to  the  unbroken  and  even  character  of  its  route  as  compared 
with  the  main  line  through  Pennsylvania,  the  transportation 
companies  on  the  former  line  could  make  a  fair  profit  at  lower 
freight  rates  than  those  which  prevailed  on  the  latter.*  Moreover, 
the  transportation  companies  operating  between  Pittsburg  and  Phil- 
pleasing  to  contemplate,  bnt,  I  pre.sume,  less  painful  and  humiliating  in  the 
remembrance  and  retrospect,  than  in  the  experience  and  reality." — Tyson, 
Letters  on  the  Resources  and  Commerce  of  Philadelphia,  p.  14. 

*  The  following  statement  was  made  by  a  gentleman  who  for  a  number 
of  years  was  engaged  extensively  in  transportation,  both  in  Pennsylvania  and 
in  New  York:  —  "The  chaige  for  transporting  merchandise  from  New  York 
to  Albany,  160  miles  on  the  river,  by  the  use  of  steam  tow  boats,  is  about 
the  same  as  for  2()  miles  of  canal. 

"Tlie  distance  from  Philadelphia  to  Pittsburg  (399  miles  by  main  line)  is 
equal  to  600  miles  of  canal.  To  keep  up  a  daily  line  of  freight  boats,  there 
is  a  dead  loss  of  about  .$15,000  when  compared  witli  the  Erie  canal  of  New 
York.  The  agency  and  storeroom  at  Philadelphia,  Columbia,  Hollidays- 
burg, Johnstown  and  Pittsburg  cost  about  $20,000,  while  these  expenses  on 
the  New  York  canal  do  not  exceed  $5,000."— J.  H.  Rep.,  1838.39,  III,  p.  514. 

Another  transporter  who  owned  one  of  the  important  lines  stated: — "At  a 
living  profit  we  find  that  v/e  can  carry  100  pounds  100  miles  for  25  cents  on 
the  canal,  for  50  cents  on  the  railroad,  and  for  $1.00  on  the  turnpike  roads. 
Tliis  is  the  result  of  fi^'e  years  heavy  business  in  the  three  modes  of  convey- 
ance. The  three  trans-shipments,  viz. — at  Columbia,  Hollidaysburg,  and 
Johnstown,  equal  the  expenses  of  50  miles  of  canal.  Our  line  averaging 
one  and  one-half  boats  per  day,  say  4,000  tons  westward  and  3,500  eastward, 
costs  for  agency  and  storeroom  at  Philadelphia,  $8,000;  at  Columbia,  Holli- 
daysl)urg  and  Johnstown,  $3,000  each;  and  at  Pittsburg,  $7,000;  total 
$24,000.  Equivalent  distance  from  Philadelphia  to  Pittsburg,  562  miles." — 
J.  H.  Rep.,  1838-39,  III,  p.  518. 

"The  question  is  not  whether  the  Juniata  or  the  West  Branch  shall  carry 
the  trade,  but  whether  we  shall  secure  the  transportation  by  furnishing  a 
cheaper  and  a  better  route,  or  whether  the  extra  expense  and  difficulties  of 
the  present  line  shall  be  allowed  to  drive  the  trade  ovit  of  the  state. 


248  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

adelphia  frequently  entered  into  agreements  to  charge  excessively 
high  rates  during  the  first  few  weeks  of  the  season  before  the  Erie 
canal  was  open.  This  policy  resulted  in  a  somewhat  general 
avoidance  of  this  route  for  through  traffic  when  other  lines  became 
accessible. 

Hence  the  main  line  of  Pennsylvania's  transportation  system 
failed  to  secure  the  trade  of  the  West.  This  fact  was  freely  admitted 
by  the  canal  commissioners,  legislators  and  others.*  It  would  be  an 
interesting  matter,  however,  to  compare  in  tonnage  and  value  the 
movement  of  commodities  upon  the  Erie  and  Pennsylvania  canals 
from  the  West  to  tide-water  and  vice  versa.  Unfortunately  this  can- 
not be  done  with  any  degree  of  accuracy;  for  the  returns  of  the 
latter  line  as  contained  in  the  reports  of  the  canal  commissioners  do 
not  furnish  the  necessary  data.  Owing  to  the  lack  of  classification, 
it  is  not  possible  to  distinguish  the  local  from  the  through  tonnage  or 
the  quantity  or  value  of  the  commodities  received  from  and  going 
to  other  states  as  shown  by  the  reports  of  traffic  on  the  Erie  canal. 
The  returns  show  only  a  small  movement  eastward  over  the  Portage 
railroad.  Probably  this  indicates  fairly  correctly  the  through 
movement.  The  westbound  traffic  passing  over  the  same  railroad 
was  larger  both  in  tonnage  and  valuef — the  opposite  of  what  was 
anticipated  when  the  main  line  was  being  built. 

The  principal  causes  which  gave  rise  to  the  popular  movement  for 
the  disposal  of  the  state  Avorks  having  noAv  been  considered,  attention 

By  the  present  interniptcd  communication  there  is  great  irregularity  as  to 
time.  Tlie  machinery  is  loo  complicated  for  an  extensive  trade.  Articles 
that  belong  to  the  same  individual  become  divided,  sometimes  damaged  by 
the  frequent  changes,  sometimes  lost.  There  is  a  rigidity  in  the  system  that 
does  not  admit  of  changing  according  to  the  changes  of  trade  with  the 
season." — From  report  of  B.  Aycrigg,  Civil  Engineer,  made  to  the  legislature, 
in  J.  H.  Rep.,  18.38-9,  III,  p.  523. 

*  See  Baker,  Relative  Commercial  Progress  of  New  York  and  Philadelphia, 
p.  23;  Tyson,  Letters  on  the  Resources  and  Commerce  of  Philadelphia,  p.  14; 
Hunt's  Mer.  Mag.,  XXV,  1856,  p.  140;  J.  H.  Rep.,  1842,  III,  p.  42. 

f  About  30,000  tons  of  various  kinds  of  commercial  commodities  were  taken 
over  the  Allegheny  mountains  in  wagons  annually  from  1818  to  1824. 
Though  it  is  not  definitely  stated  in  the  reference  it  suggests  that  this  figure 
represented  the  tonnage  going  westwa.rd. — See  J.  H.  Rep.,  1824-25,  II,  p.  280. 

In  1836  the  westbound  freight  carried  over  the  Portage  railroad  was  29,740 
tons,  while  passing  eastward  the  amoimt  was  15,439  tons.  The  total  freight 
going  east  and  west,  weighed  at  Hollidaysburg,  was,  in  1844,  65,870  tons:  in 
1845,  83,072  tons;  in  1854,  73,000  tons.  The  movement  from  the  western 
states  to  tide-water  by  the  Erie  canal  during  the  same  years  was  in  1836, 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  WorJcs  of  Pennsylvania.  249 

will  be  directed  to  the  movement  itself.  Tlie  actual  result  of  the 
public  sentiment  was  that  the  legislature  at  once  undertook  to  dis- 
pose of  the  state  works.  The  Erie  extension  soon  passed  into  pri- 
vate hands,  and  that  too  without  any  monetary  consideration.  The 
transfer  Avas  provided  for  by  "An  Act  to  incorporate  the  Erie 
Canal  Company,"  approved  on  the  7th  of  March,  1843.  It  was 
authorized  that,  upon  the  granting  of  letters  patent  to  this  com- 
pany,* the  uncompleted  canal  from  Erie  to  the  mouth  of  Beaver 
river  on  the  Ohio,  also  the  French  Creek  feeder,  should  be  vested 
in  the  new  corporation.  It  was  further  provided  among  other 
things  that  the  Beaver  division,  which  extended  from  ISTewcastle  to 
the  Ohio  river,  should  not  be  surrendered  until  the  line  from  New- 
castle to  Erie  was  completed  and  in  actual  use  throughout  its 
whole  length.  ^Accordingly  the  company  undertook  immediately  the 
work  of  completion.  Upwards  of  $575,000  were  expended  in 
repairs,  renewals  and  extensions. f.  On  December  2d,  1844,  a  boat 
was  passed  through  the  outlet  lock  into  the  basin  at  Erie  after 
traversing  the  entire  length  of  the  canal  from  the  Ohio  river.  The 
terms  of  the  act  of  incorporation  having  thus  been  fully  complied 
with,  the  Beaver  division  was  officially  surrendered  to  the  com- 
pany on  January  1st,  1845. :|:  Apparently  the  transfer  was  not 
opposed  by  any  persons  excepting  the  canal  commissioners. § 

54,219  tons;  in  1844,  308,025  tons;  in  1845,  304,551  tons;  in  1854,  1,100,526 
tons.  The  amount  of  mereliandise  which  went  to  the  western  states  over  the 
Erie  canal  was  in  1837,  38,893  tons;  in  1844,  37,335  tons;  in  1845,  42,415 
tons;  in  1854,  261,752  tons. 

For  a  complete  classified  movement  of  east  and  west  tonnage  on  the  Erie 
Canal  see  Poor,  Manual  of  the  Railroads  of  the  United  States,  1881,  p.  xv. 

"The  Erie  Canal  C''ompany  was  capitalized  at  $500,000.  Tliere  were  to 
be  10,000  shares  having  a  par  value  of  $50  each.  It  was  provided  that  1,000 
shares  should  be  subscribed  and  paid  for  before  letters  patent  should  be 
issued 'by  the  governor  to  the  company. 

f  See  the  compan;^''s  reports  in  J.  H.  Rep.,  1844  and  1845,  II,  pp.  119  and 
231  respectively. 

X  When  the  rest  of  the  public  works  were  disposed  of  the  Erie  Canal  Com- 
pany had  paid  no  dividends  to  the  stockholders.  Bonds  were  issued  in  1845.' 
The  interest  payments  were  very  irregular.  In  1859,  $556,715  interest  was 
overdue.     See  Poor,  Railroads  of  the  United  States,  I,  p.  555. 

§  By  Act  of  March  13th,  1845,  the  Wiconisco  Canal  Company  was  incor- 
porated to  take  over  the  unfinished  works  of  the  Wiconisco  section  of  the 
state  works.  No  monetary  consideration  seems  to  have  been  paid.  The  state 
had  expended  upon  this  work  before  the  transfer  was  made  the  sum  of 
$393,441. 


250  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

Before  tliis  gratuitous  disposal  had  been  arranged,  the  governor 
of  the  state,  by  Act  of  July  27th,  1842,  was  authorized  to  receive 
bids  for  any  or  all  of  the  various  sections  of  the  canals  and  rail- 
ways.* An  offer  of  $3,000,000  for  the  Philadelphia  and  Columbia 
railroad  Avith  all  its  fixtures,  and  of  $10,000  for  the  outlet  lock  at 
Portsmouth  were  the  only  ones  received.  Neither  of  these  bids 
was  considered. 

When  the  legislature  met  in  1844,  it  was  clear  that  public  senti- 
ment regarding  the  works  was  still  unchanged.  Accordingly  on 
April  29,  an  Act  was  passedf  embodying  a  plan  to  dispose  of  the 
trunk  line  from  Philadelphia  to  Pittsburg  for  $20,000,000.  A 
company  capitalized  at  this  amount  was  to  be  incorporated  to  take 
over  the  works.  It  was  to  be  called  ''The  Pennsylvania  Canal  and 
Railroad  Company."  There  were  to  be  200,000  shares  having  the 
par  value  of  $100  each.  Commissioners  were  named  to  sell 
the  stocks  at  pviblic  auction  at  the  Merchants'  Exchange  in  Phil- 
adelphia. Purchasers  might  pay  the  amounts  of  their  subscriptions 
either  in  lawful  money  or  in  state  stocks. 

The  thirtieth  section  of  the  act  provided  that,  at  the  next  general 
election,  an  opportunity  should  be  given  to  the  qualified  voters  of 
the  state  to  register  their  wishes  regarding  the  proposition  to  sell 
the  main  line  on  the  conditions  mentioned  above.  On  the  8th 
of  October,  1844,  the  election  was  held  and  a  majority  of  25,150$ 
was  given  for  the  sale.  Accordingly  the  commissioners  advertised  a 
sale  of  the  stock  of  the  proposed  company  to  commence  on  January 
20th,  1845.  'No  subscriptions  were  received  at  that  time,  however, 
and  a  continuation  of  the  sale  at  subsequent  dates  resulted  in  no 
better  success.  Doubtless  the  high  price  fixed  for  the  main  line  was 
the  cause. §  That  the  people  appreciated  this  fact  is  shown  by 
the  numerous  petitions  at  once  forwarded  to  the  legislature,  which 
was  then  in  session,  praying  that  the  price  be  reduced  to  a  more 
inviting  figure.  These  were  referred  to  the  house  committee  on 
ways  and  means.  The  latter  reported  against  any  further  legisla- 
tive action  at  that  time.  1 1     It  was  felt  bv  the  committee  that  the 

*  LaAvs  of  Pennsylvania,  1842,  p.  447. 

fLaws  of  Pennsylvania,  1844,  p.  486. — "An  Act  to  reduce  the  state  debt 
and  to  incorporate  The  Pennsylvania  Canal  and  Railroad  Company." 

I  The  votes  stood  as  follows: — 149,748  for  the  sale  and  124,598  against  it. 
See  J.  H.  Rep.,  1847,  II,  p.  266. 

§  See  J.  H.  Rep.,  1845,  II,  p.  545. 

II  The  report  is  contained  in  J.  H.  Rep.,  1845,  II,  pp.  544-47. 


A.  L.  Bishop— The  State  Worhs  of  Pennsylvania.  251 

price  as  fixed  by  the  Act  of  April  29th  was  not  too  high  and  that 
to  place  the  works  in  the  hands  of  a  corporation  would  be  an  exceed- 
ingly dangerous  move.  Accordingly  the  legislature,  for  the  time 
being,  made  no  further  attempt  to  effect  a  sale.  It  is  difficult  to 
say  to  what  extent  the  fear  of  corporate  power  influenced  the  sub- 
sidence of  the  popular  agitation.  Certainly  in  1844,  when  a  large 
majority  was  given  in  favor  of  selling  the  works,  it  was  known 
that,  in  case  of  a  sale,  they  must  pass  into  the  hands  of  a  corpor- 
ation. Yet  it  should  be  remembered  that,  on  account  of  the  recent 
financial  embarrassment,  the  public  mind  was  temporarily  in  a 
most  depressed  condition ;  and  that  any  means  by  which  the  debt 
could  be  diminished  and  expenses  reduced  would  be  anxiously 
sought.  But  by  the  time  the  committee  on  ways  and  means  had 
reported  in  1845  general  prosperity  was  returning.  Moreover, 
the  dismissal  of  a  large  number  of  superfluous  employees  on  the 
works;  the  adoption  of  a  policy  of  non-extension;  the  general 
practice  of  economy  wherever  possible ;  and  a  diminished  amount  of 
corruption,*  all  combined  to  allay,  for  the  time  being,  the  agitation 
for  the  sale.  Consequently,  during  the  next  few  years,  this  matter 
seems  to  have  received  but  little  attention. 

Meanwhile  another  movement  began  to  manifest  itself.  As  a 
medium  for  competing  for  the  trade  of  the  West,  the  state  works 
Avere,  as  has  been  seen,  a  complete  failure.  Various  improvements, 
however,  had  now  developed  a  method  of  transportation  to  which  the 
Allegheny  mountain  should  be  a  less  formidable  barrier  than  it  had 
been  twenty  years  earlier  when  the  public  works  were  about  to  be 
built.  It  seemed  necessary  for  Pennsylvania  to  take  advantage  of 
these  improvements  and  build  an  all-rail  line  to  the  West.  For,  on 
the  north,  the  Erie  canal,  as  has  been  seen,  had  secured  to  J^ew 
York  a  large  proportion  of  the  commerce  passing  to  and  fro  between 
the  seaboard  and  the  West.  Also,  in  the  south,  the  Baltimore  and 
Ohio  Railroad  Company  was  threatening  to  divert  the  rest  to 
Baltimore.  In  the  face  of  these  conditions,  the  commercial  classes 
of  Philadelphia  threw  themselves  into  the  movement  for  the  con- 
struction of  a  railroad  to  the  Ohio  valley. 

When  the  legislature  met  at  Harrisburg  in  January,  1846,  many 
influential  citizens  of  both  Philadelphia  and  Baltimore  were  on 
hand  to  secure  legislation  favoring  their  respective  cities.     Those 

*  See  Exec.  Does.,  1846,  p.  9.  of  Governor's  message. 


252  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

from  Philadelphia  asked  for  authority  to  build  a  railroad  from 
"Harrisburg  to  Pittsburg.  The  representatives  from  Baltimore 
sought  to  secure  a  renewal  of  the  lapsed  privileges  to  extend  the 
Baltimore  and  Ohio  from  Cumberland,  Maryland,  through  Penn- 
sylvania to  Pittsburg.*  The  outcome  was  the  passage  of  two  bills — 
one  incorporating  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad  Company  by  Act 
of  April  13th,  1846  ;f  the  other,  approved  eight  days  later,  granting 
the  above-mentioned  concession  to  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad 
Company.^  The  latter,  however,  was  subject  to  the  folloAving 
proviso : — 

"That  if  the  legislature,  during  its  present  session,  should  pass  an 
act  incorporating  a  company  with  authority  to  construct  a  railroad 
from  Harrisburg  to  Pittsburg  within  the  limits  of  this  state,  and 
$3,000,000  should  be  bona  fide  subscribed  to  the  stock  of  the  said 
sompany,  and  ten  per  cent,  on  each  share  be  actually  paid  in,  and 
letters  patent  be  issued  by  the  governor,  in  conformity  to  the  pro- 
visions of  said  act,  within  one  year  from  the  passage  thereof;  and 
if  thirty  miles  or  more  of  said  railroad  should  be  put  under  contract 
for  construction,  and  satisfactory  evidence  thereof  be  furnished  to 
the  governor  *on  or  before  the  said  thirtieth  day  of  July,  1847,  then, 
in  that  case,  the  governor  shall  issue  his  proclamation  setting  forth 
that  fact,  and  thereupon  this  act  granting  the  right  of  way  to  the 
Baltimore  and  Ohio  Railroad  Company  to  extend  their  road  through 
this  state  to  the  Ohio  river  at  Pittsburg  shall  be  null  and  void."§ 

The  "pride  and  commercial  necessities"  of  the  citizens  of  Phila- 
delphia were  now  appealed  to  and  after  some  difficulty  the  require- 
ments of  the  law  were  met.  The  Pennsylvania  Railroad  Company 
was  chartered  on  the  25th  of  February,  1847,  and  thus  the  con- 
ditional privileges  granted  to  the  Baltimore  and  Ohio  became  void. 

When  the  question  of  incorporating  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad 
Company  was  under  consideration,  one  of  the  strongest  objections 
raised  was  that  a  railway  line  would  divert  business  from  the  public 
works.  In  order  to  furnish  the  latter  with  adequate  protection,  the 
act  of  incorporation  provided  that  a  tax  of  five  mills  per  ton-mile 
should  be  imposed  upon  all  freight  received  at  Harrisburg,  Pittsburg 

*  For  a  full  discussion  of  the  facts  relating  to  the  origin  of  the  Pennsylva- 
nia Railroad  Company  see  Wilson,  Hist,  of  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad  Com- 
pany, I,  pp.  1-G. 

f  Laws  of  Pennsylvania,  1846,  p.  312. 

%  Laws  of  Pennsylvania,  1846,  p.  448. 

§  Laws  of  Pennsylvania,  1846,  p.  449. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worhs  of  Pennsylvania.  253 

or  intermediate  points  and  carried  more  tlian  twenty  miles.* 
According  to  the  original  enactment,  this  tonnage  tax  was  to  be 
collected  only  during  the  months  when  the  canal  was  being  navi- 
gated, viz. — from  March  10th  to  December  1st.  By  Act  of  March 
27th,  1848,  the  rate  was  changed  to  three  mills,  to  be  collected 
throughout  the  whole  year.f  When  the  Pennsylvania  railroad 
was  opened  for  traffic,  it  was  soon  found  that  no  injury  was  done 
to  the  business  of  the  public  works.  Accordingly,  the  plea  that  the 
tonnage  tax  was  necessary  for  their  protection  ceased  to  be  urged, 
but  its  continuance  was  defended  on  the  ground  that  the  state  needed 
the  revenue. $  The  real  competition  for  the  trade  of  the  West  was 
beyond  the  sphere  of  the  canal,  and  the  Pennsylvania  railroad  was 
the  only  means  by  which  the  fraction  of  the  western  trade  not 
yet  diverted  into  other  channels  could  be  retained  for  Philadelphia. 
The  evils  connected  with  the  management  of  the  public  works 
which,  as  has  been  mentioned,  were  partially  eliminated  in  1844-45, 
soon  began  to  reappear.  This  fact  was  brought  to  the  attention 
of  the  legislature  by  Governor  Johnson  through  his  message  in  1850. 
Moreover,  investigating  committees  brought  to  light  many  suspected 
abuses.  Soon  the  popular  agitation  for  the  sale  of  the  improvement 
system  was  revived.  In  this  connection  the  principal  arguments 
now  advanced  were — the  necessity  of  reducing  the  state  debt  so  that 
there  might  be  relief  from  high  taxation;  the  greater  efficiency' 
and  economy  of  management  under  private  ownership ;  the  excessive 
frauds  practised  upon  the  commonwealth;  and  the  oft-repeated 
fact  that,  even  before  improvements  in  the  methods  of  transporta- 
tion had  placed  the  state  works  out  of  the  race,  the  main  line,  at 
least,  had  failed  of  its  purpose. 

*  A  tax  had  been  levied  iipcn  the  traffic  of  the  central  line  of  railway  in 
New  York  state  extending  from  Bufl'alo  to  Albany.  The  object  of  its  imposi-  , 
tion  was  to  protect  the  Erie  canal  and  prevent  the  diversion  of  trade  from 
this  improvement.  This  act  on  the  part  of  New  York  no  doubt  influenced 
the  legislature  of  Pennsylvania  in  imposing  a  similar  tax  on  the  tonnage 
of  the  Pennsylvania  railroad.  An  act  to  abolish  state  tolls  on  railroads  in 
New  York  was  passed  on  July  10th,  1851.  See  the  Fifth  Annual  Report  of 
the  Directors  of  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad,  February  2d,  1852. 

f  See  Exec.  Docs.,  ISolJ,  Governor's  message,  p.  6.     It  should  be  mentioned 
that  by  Act  of  May  7th,  1855,  lumber  and  coal  were  exempted  from  the  tax. 

%  See  Exec.  Docs.,  1854,  p.  10,  of  Governor's  message. 


254  A.  L.  Bishop — TJip  State  Worls  of  Pennsylvania. 

The  movement  continued  apace  and  successive  governors,  in  their 
annual  messages,  discussed  the  various  phases  of  the  question  in 
a  manner  which  was  largely  non-committal.  At  length  a  select 
committee  of  the  senate  was  appointed  early  in  1854  to  review  the 
whole  matter.  Their  report  of  February  4th  strongly  insisted  that 
public  opinion,  correct  policy  and  sound  morals  justified  and 
demanded  a  sale.  "A  total  and  complete  emancipation  from  all 
the  works"  was  urged.* 

In  accordance  with  the  above  suggestion,  an  Act  of  April  27th, 
1854,  provided  for  the  sale  of  the  trunk  line  from  Philadelphia  to 
Pittsburg.f  To  this  end  sealed  tenders  were  asked  for.  ISTo  bid 
less  than  $10,000,000  would  be  considered.  This  figure,  it  will  be 
remembered,  was  just  one-half  of  the  minimum  price  that  was  fixed 
for  the  same  works  ten  years  earlier.  Although  the  advertisement 
for  tenders  was  continued  for  several  months,  no  bids  were  received. 
The  canal  commissioners  in  their  report  for  1854  did  not  discuss  at 
all  the  quesfion  of  making  the  sale,  but  they  merely  suggested  that 
some  decisive  action  should  be  taken  so  as  to  put  an  end  to  the  sus- 
pense which  was  impairing  the  revenue  derived  from  the  works. ij: 

A  persistent  determination  on  the  part  of  the  legislature  to  effect 
a  sale  was  shown  by  an  Act  of  May  8th,  of  the  following  year.§  It 
was  now  provided  that  the  main  line  should  be  offered  at  public 
auction  in  Philadelphia  for  not  less  than  $7,500,000.  It  was  also 
arranged  that,  in  case  no  sale  should  then  be  made,  "the  governor 
should  invite  proposals  for  the  pui'chase  or  lease  of  said  works." 
However,  w^hen  the  auction  was  held  in  July,  1855,  they  were  not 
sold  because  "the  logical  purchaser,  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad 
Company,  would  not  bid  under  the  terms  and  conditions  of  the 
sale."  1 1     A  few  months  later,  however,  the  president  of  that  com- 

*  See  Leg.  Docs.,  1854,  p.  328. 

•j- Laws  of  Pennsylvania,  1854,  p.  520. 

J  Exec.  Docs.,  1855,  R,eport  of  Canal  Commissioners,  p.  22. 

§  Laws  of  Pennsylvania,  1855,  p.  521. 

II  Wilson,  History  of  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad  Company,  I,  p.  46. 

'I'ho  Act  of  May  8th,  1855,  provided  that  the  purchise  money  should  be  paid 
in  yearly  instalments  of  $1,000,000  each.  It  seems  reasonable  to  believe  that 
the  sale  miglit  have  been  made  at  this  time  had  the  conditions  governing  pay- 
ment been  more  liberal.     See  Exec.  Docs.,  1855,  p.  8  of  Governor's  message. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  TForAvs  of  Pennsylvania.  255 

pany  forwarded  to  the  Secretary  of  State  of  the  Commonwealth  of 
Pennsylvania  the  following  letter : — * 

Office  of  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad  Co., 

Philadelphia,  December  20,  1855. 
To  the  Hon.  Andrew  G.  Curtin,  Secretary  of  State : 

Sir : —  I  respectfully  subnait  on  behalf  of  the  Pennsylvania  Rail- 
road Company  the  following  proposal  for  the  purchase  of  the  mair[ 
line  of  state  improvements ;  also,  a  proposal  for  the  Columbia  rail- 
road only.  . 

For  the  main  line  from  Philadelphia  to  the  Monongahela  and 
Allegheny  rivers  including  the  real  estate,  shops,  tools,  engine- 
houses,  depots,  locomotives,  cars,  toll-houses,  lock-houses,  water- 
power  and  other  property  connected  therewith,  the  sum  of  seven 
million  five  hundred  thousand  dollars. 

Payments  to  be  made  as  follows:  Five  hundred  thousand  dollars 
on  the  delivery  of  the  works  to  the  company,  in  cash  or  certificates 
of  state  loan ;  ten  per  cent,  of  the  remainder  on  the  thirtieth  day  of 
July,  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  seventy-five ;  and  ten  per 
cent,  annually  thereafter  until  the  whole  amount  is  paid.  The 
instalments  unpaid  to  bear  interest  at  the  rate  of  five  per  cent,  per 
annum,  payable  semi-annually  on  the  thirtieth  days  of  January  and 
July  of  each  year ;  the  company  to  have  the  right  at  any  time  to  pay 
off  the  whole  or  any  portion  of  the  purchase  money,  by  the  delivery 
to  the  State  Treasurer  of  an  equal  amount  in  certificates  of  state 
loan ;  the  state  to  relinquish  her  right  to  purchase  the  Pennsylvania 
railroad,  and  to  repeal  all  laws  imposing  a  tax  on  tonnage  passing 
over  said  road. 

The  Pennsylvania  Railroad  Company  will  further  agree  to  keep 
up  the  canal  portion  of  the  line  east  of  the  Allegheny  mountain ; 
also,  that  portion  of  the  line  between  Blairsville  and  Pittsburg, 
until  the  Northwestern  railroad  shall  be  open  for  business  from 
Blairsville  to  the  Allegheny  river. 

The  company  will  also  agree  to  purchase  the  Philadelphia  and 
Columbia  Railroad  at  its  cost  of  construction,  to  be  determined  by 
three  eminent  civil  engineers,  to  be  appointed  by  the  state  with 
the  concurrence  of  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad  Company;  upon 
which  sum  so  ascertained,  they  will  pay  forever  semi-annually  to 
the  State  Treasurer  an  amount  equivalent  to  the  dividends  paid  to 
the  stockholders  of  said  company  on  an  equal  portion  of  its  capital 
stock. 

Very  respectfully. 

Your  obedient  servant, 

J.  Edgar  Thompson,  President. 

*  See  Leg.  Docs.,  1856,  p.  47. 


256  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

Within  a  month  from  the  time  of  the  receipt  of  the  above  letter, 
Governor  Pollock  submitted  it  to  the  consideration  of  the  legislature 
vi^hich  was  then  in  session.  ]^o  defiaite  action  was  taken  in  1856. 
Again,  in  referring  to  the  proposal  made  in  1855  by  the  Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad  Company  the  governor,  in  his  message  of  1857, 
said: — "In  relation  to  the  propriety  and  policy  of  the  sale  of  the 
main  line  of  our  public  improvements  my  opinion  has  not  changed. 
Every  consideration  of  public  policy,  of  present  and  future  interest, 
requires  the  separation  of  the  state  from  the  management  and 
control  of  these  works.  The  expenditures  on  that  portion  of  the 
line  between  the  Juniata  and  Pittsburg  largely  exceed  the  revenues, 
the  excess  averaging  annually  not  less  than  $150,000;  and  causes 
are  in  constant  operation  that  will  still  more  increase  this  deficiency. 

The  continual  drain  on  the  treasury  to  sustain  a  work  so  unpro- 
ductive should  at  once  be  checked.  A  sale  of  the  main  line  for  a 
fair  consideration  and  upon  terms  just  and  liberal  to  our  purchasers 
is  the  proper  remedy.  In  connection  with  the  payment  of  the 
public  debt,  this  question  becomes  deeply  important.  The  sale 
would  constitute  a  new  era  in  the  financial  history  of  the  state." 

The  legislature  forthwith  proceeded  to  deal  with  the  offer  of  the 
Pennsylvania  Railroad  Company  and  again  on  May  16th,  1857, 
an  Act  authorizing  the  sale  of  the  main  line  at  public  auction  was 
passed.*  A  minimum  price  of  $7,500,000  was  retained.  Provision 
was  made  that,  in  case  the  above-mentioned  company  should  buy  the 
line,  the  whole  amount  of  the  sale  should  be  paid  in  its  bonds  bear- 
ing interest  at  5  per  cent,  per  annum,  payable  half-yearly.  These 
were  to  be  redeemed  as  follows : — $100,000  worth  on  July  31st,  1858 ; 
a  similar  amount  annually  until  1890,  when  $1,000,000  of  the  bal- 
ance should  fall  due,  and  the  same  sum  each  year  thereafter  until  the 
whole  debt  should  be  discharged. 

The  auction  was  held  at  the  Merchants'  Exchange,  Philadelphia, 
on  June  25th,  1857,  when  the  property  was  sold  to  J.  Edgar  Thomp- 
son, acting  in  behalf  of  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad  Company.f 
Accordingly  this  corporation  took  possession  of  the  main  line  of 
state  works  on  August  1st.  Bonds  of  the  company  to  the  amount  of 
the  purchase  money  were  deposited  with  the  state  treasurer  and 
held  by  him  for  the  commissioners  of  the  sinking  fund.     For,  by 

*  Laws  of  Pennsylvania,  1857,  p.  519. 

t  Wilson,  History  of  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad  Company,  I,  p.  48. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worlcs  of  Pennsylvania.  257 

the  twelfth  section  of  the  Act  of  May  16th,  the  entire  proceeds  of 
the  sale  were  required  to  be  paid  into  this  fund  and  applied  to 
the  payment  of  the  state  debt. 

The  later  history  of  what  had  been  the  main  line  of  public  works 
confirms  the  belief  that  it  had  outgrown  its  usefulness  when  sold. 
The  Pennsylvania  Railroad  Company  operated  the  Portage  railroad 
during  the  months  of  August,  September  and  October,  1857.  It 
was  then  closed  owing  to  the  excess  of  expenditures  over  receipts, 
and  the  traffic  was  transferred  to  the  company's  own  line  which 
crossed  the  mountain.  The  loss  incurred  during  these  three  months 
w^as  $7,220.14.  The  following  year  the  new  owners  began  dis- 
mantling the  Portage  road  and  removing  the  materials.  Most  of 
the  rails  were  used  in  extending  the  Pittsburg,  Fort  Wayne  and 
Chicago  railroad  from  Plymouth  to  Chicago.  Many  of  the  stone 
blocks  which  had  served  as  a  support  or  foundation  for  the  rails 
were  removed  to  Altoona  and  used  in  the  masonry  of  the  railway 
shops.* 

On  the  other  hand,  the  Philadelphia  and  Columbia  railroad  was 
still  kept  in  use.  Indeed  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad  Company  had 
had  running  privileges  over  it  for  several  years  previous  to  the  date 
of  purchase.  A  large  part  of  this  work  was  known  later  as  the 
Philadelphia  division  of  the  Pennsylvania  system. 

The  canals  of  the  main  line  were  operated  as  a  canal  department 
of  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad  Company  for  the  period  of  ten  years. 
They  were  found  to  be  unprofitable,  however,  and  were  then  trans- 
ferred to  the  Pennsylvania  Canal  Company.  They  continued  to 
be  used  for  a  number  of  years  but  the  various  sections  were  grad- 
ually abandoned.  The  division  between  Johnstown  and  Pittsburg 
ceased  to  be  used  in  1864,  the  one  along  the  Juniata  in  1898,  and 
finally  the  eastern  division  in  1900. 

In  the  meantime  the  sale  of  the  main  line  had  been  quickly 
followed  by  a  movement  for  the  disposal  of  the  lateral  works.  In 
general  the  arguments  used  in  the  former  agitation  applied  equally 
as  well  in  the  latter.  Moreover,  it  was  at  this  very  time  that  there 
was  a  serious  depression  in  the  business   affairs  of  the  country"}" 

*  Wilson.  History  of  the  Pennsylvania  Eailroad  Company,  I,  p.  lo'i. 

f  "A  sudden  and  severe  financial  revulsion  has  occurred.  .  .  .  Every 
department  of  industry  has  felt  and  been  disastrously  affected  by  the  shock. 
Trade  and  commerce  have  been  paralyzed.  Many  of  our  furnaces,  rolling 
mills  and  factories  have  been  closed.     Extensive  and  valuable  coal  operations 


258  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

which  crippled  many  individuals  and  firms  engaged  in  manufactur- 
ing and  other  industi'ial  pursuits.  Hence  the  demand  for  those 
commodities  which  constituted  the  bulk  of  the  traffic  on  the  lateral 
canals,  viz. — coal,  iron,  and  lumber,  was  now  materially  dimin- 
ished.* While  the  public  mind  was  in  a  morose  state  due  to  the 
above  conditions,  the  time  seemed  ripe  for  the  party  wliich  was 
anxious  to  sell  the  remainder  of  the  improvements  to  precipitate 
the  movement  already  in  progress.  Naturally  enough,  the  advan- 
tages that  would  thus  accrue  to  the  state  from  the  financial  stand- 
point were  emphasized.  Governor  Pollock,  in  pointing  out  the 
desirability  of  a  sale  from  every  point  of  view,  stated:  "In  connec- 
tion with  the  payment  of  the  public  debt  and  the  reduction  of  state 
taxation  the  question  is  one  of  more  than  ordinary  interest."  Con- 
sequently, he  urged  the  legislature  to  eifect  a  sale  "at  the  earliest 
practicable  period,  for  a  fair  consideration,  upon  terms  just  and 
liberal  to  the  purchasers,  and  at  the  same  time  amply  protective 
of  the  rights  and  interests  of  the  people." 

On  the  25th  of  February,  1858,  the  house  committee  on  ways  and 
means  reported  a  bill  which  provided  for  the  sale  of  all  the  trans- 
portation improvements  still  owned  by  the  state ;  also  for  the  com- 
pletion of  the  Sunbury  and  Erie  railroad.  Though  stoutly  opposed 
by  a  respectable  minority,  the  bill  was  finally  passed  and  received 
the  governor's  approval  on  April  21st,  1858."{"  It  authorized  the 
Sunbury  and  Erie  Railroad  Company  to  purchase  all  of  the  lateral 
works  for  $3,500,000.  Furthermore,  this  company  was  to  issue 
bonds  to  the  amount  of  $7,000,000,  bearing  interest  at  5  per  cent, 
per  annum  and  secured  by  mortgage  upon  the  whole  line  between 
Sunbury  and  Erie.  These  to  the  amount  of  the  purchase  money 
were  to  be  given  to  the  state.  The  rest  were  to  be  deposited  with 
the  state  treasurer  and  ultimately  were  to  be  surrendered  to  the 
company  under  certain  specified  conditions  which,  as  already 
intimated,  had  in  view  the  speedy  completion  of  the  road.$ 

have  been  suspended  or  abandoned  and  thousands  of  workmen  are  out  of 
emphjyment." — Extract  from  Governor  Pollock's  special  message  to  the  extra 
session  of  the  legislature,  Oct.  6th,  1857,  in  Exec.  Docs.,  1857. 

*  See  paore  3  of -Report  of  the  State  Engineer  in  Exec.  Docs.,   1857. 

f  Laws  of  Pennsylvania,  1858,  p.  414. 

i  Sunbury,  situated  at  the  conduonce  of  the  north  and  west  branches  of 
the  Susquehanna,  was  conaiectcd  with  Philadelphia  by  the  state  improve- 
ments.    With  a  view  to  regain  the  trade  and  commercial  position  lost  by 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania.  259 

It  was  provided  also  tliat  tlie  Sunbuiy  and  Erie  Railroad  Com- 
pany might  sell  any  or  all  of  the  lateral  canals  should  it  seem  desir- 
able to  do  so  at  a  future  date.  This  privilege  was  subject  to  the 
condition  that,  if  the  works  should  be  sold  for  more  than  $3,500,000, 
thre6-fourths  of  the  excess  above  this  amount  should  be  paid  into 
the  state  treasury.  Subsequently  all  of  the  canals  were  disposed 
of  for  the  aggregate  sum  of  $3,875,000.*  Accordingly,  $281,250  of 
this  amount  were  handed  over  to  the  state. 

The  com])lete  withdrawal  of  the  state  from  the  ownership  and 
control  of  the  transportation  improvements  was  the  cause  appar- 
ently of  little  or  no  regret  either  at  the  time  of  the  sale  or  after- 
wards. As  nearly  as  can  be  estimated,  the  words  of  Governor 
Packer  in  his  message  to  the  legislature  in  January,  1859,  repre- 
sented the  prevailing  feeling  regarding  this  matter.  He  said: — 
"I  have  an  abiding  confidence  that  the  result  will  abundantly  prove 
the  wisdom  of  the  measure  which,  while  it  guaranteed  the  com- 
pletion of  one  of  the  greatest  improvements  ever  projected  in  the 
commonAvealth,  it  at  the  same  time  divorced  the  state  from  the 
unprofitable  and  demoralizing  management  of  her  canals  and  rail- 
roads. Whatever  differences  of  opinion  may  at  any  time  have  been 
entertained  in  regard  to  the  propriety  of  the  details  of  the  legis- 
lation authorizing  the  sale  of  the  main  line  or  branches,  it  can 
scarcely  be  doubted  that  the  public  welfare  will,  in  every  respect, 
be  vastly  promoted  by  the  transfer  of  the  management  of  the  public 
works  from  the  state  to  individual  owners.  The  short  experience 
that  we  have  already  had  proves  conclusively  that  the  commonwealth 

Philadelphia  on  account  of  the  Erie  canal,  a  railroad  was  commeneed  between 
Sunbury  and  Lake  Erie  by  authority  of  an  Act  of  April  .3d,  1837,  which 
chartered  the  Sunbury  and  Erie  Railroad  Company.  Very  little  was  done 
toward  building  the  road,  however,  up  until  the  time  of  the  sale  of  the  public 
works.  It  was  believed  that  by  the  terms  of  the  bill  reported  on  February 
25th,  1858,  the  railway  would  be  completed.  By  Act  of  March  7th,  1861,  the 
name  was  changed  to  "The  Philadelphia  and  Erie  Railroad  Company,"  and 
on  January  6th,  1862,  it  leased  its  property  to  the  Pennsylvania  Railroad 
Company  for  999  years. 

*  Sales  were  made  as  follows: — ^The  upper  and  lower  North  Branch  divi- 
sions were  sold  to  the  North  Branch  Canal  Company  for  .$1,600,000;  the 
West  Branch  and  Susquehanna  divisions  to  the  West  Branch  a,nd  Susque- 
hanna Canal  Company  for  .$500,000;  the  Delaware  division  to  the  Delaware 
Canal  Company  for  $1,775,000;  total,  .$.3,875,000. — See  Exec.  Docs.,  1858, 
Governor's  Message,  p.  6. 


200  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

is  greatly  the  gainer  in  a  financial  point  of  view,  and  it  has  been 
equally  demonstrated  that  the  people  at  large  have  been  as  well  if 
not  better  accommodated  by  the  change.  It  would  in  my  judgment 
be  a  public  calamity  if,  by  the  happening  of  any  contingency,  the 
commonwealth  should  be  constrained  to  again  become  the  owner 
and  resume  the  management  of  any  portion  of  the  public  improve- 
ments."* Again,  the  following  year,  the  governor  in  referring  to 
the  same  subject  commented  upon  the  gratifying  results  already 
shown  after  two  years  of  separation  from  the  management  and 
control  of  the  canals  and  railways,  and  the  consequent  simplification 
of  governmental  action.  From  these  and  other  contemporary  com- 
ments it  seems  clear  that  the  majority  of  the  leading  men  of  the 
state  united  in  commending  the  government  for  selling  the  public 
works. 

There  being  no  longer  any  cause  for  the  existence  of  the  board 
of  canal  commissioners,  it  was  formally  abolished  by  an  Act  of  Jan- 
uary 25th,  1859.  In  accordance  with  the  provisions  of  this  act,  the 
books,  papers,  records  and  all  other  property  belonging  to  the  canal 
board  were  handed  over  to  the  auditor  general  of  the  state.  In 
his  custody  they  remained  until,  by  authority  of  an  Act  of  February 
26th,  1885,  they  were  transferred  to  the  Department  of  Internal 
Affairs,  where  they  still  remain. 

To-day  the  traveller,  in  going  between  Philadelphia  and  Pittsburg 
via  the  Pennsylvania  railroad,  may  see  portions  of  the  abandoned 
state  works.  From  the  windows  of  the  coaches  gliding  ■  along  at 
almost  lightning  speed,  one  may  catch  glimpses,  here  and  there,  of 
the  old  canals  and  Portage  railroad,  which,  at  one  time,  were  the 
pride  of  the  commonwealth.  In  the  present  age  of  wonderful  mate- 
rial advancement,  rapid  progress  is  made  in  the  evolution  of  trans- 
portation systems.  Of  these,  one  that  is  entirely  adequate  for  its 
purpose  in  any  particular  decade  may  be  totally  deficient  in  the 
next.  The  public  works  of  Pennsylvania,  which  at  one  time  were 
believed  to  be  the  highest  development  possible  in  the  field  of  inland 
transportation,  had  their  day  and. were  practically  abandoned  in 
scarcely  more  than  twenty-five  years..  These  works  now  are  rapidly 
falling  into  decay.  The  Portage  railroad  is  gradually  becoming 
overgrown  with  grasses  and  trees.  Its  wooden  structures  and 
masonry  are  nothing  but  ruins.     Along  the  canals  the  old  boats  may 

*  Exec.  Docs.,  1858,  p.  7. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  WorTcs  of  Pennsylvania.  261 

be  seen  at  the  landings  where  they  were  last  used.  These  as  well 
as  the  timbers  in  the  locks,  are  being  broken  up  and  used  for  fuel. 
Moreover,  stretches  of  the  canals  which  are  in  evidence  to-day, 
tomorrow  may  be  filled  up  in  order  to  meet  the  ever-increasing 
demands  for  the  expansion  of  the  Pennsylvania  railway  system. 
At  present  only  four  canals  are  being  operated  in  Pennsylvania.* 
Their  combined  length  is  240.88  miles — a  small  fraction  of  the  total 
mileage  of  the  public-  and  private-owned  works  which  existed 
within  the  limits  of  the  state  during  the  second  quiarter  of  the  nine- 
teenth century,  when  the  principal  avenues  of  inland  transportation 
were  natural  and  artificial  waterways. 

APPENDICES. 

Appendix  I. — Memorial  to  the  Legislature. 

The  following  is  a  copy  of  the  memorial  to  the  Legislature  of 
Pennsylvania  prepared  and  issued  by  the  "Committee  of  Twenty- 
four,"  for  general  circulation  throughout  the  state.  This  committee 
was  appointed  at  a  public  convention  of  the  citizens  of  the  city 
and  county  of  Philadelphia  held  on  January  24th,  1825.  A  full 
text  of  this  memorial  is  contained  in  the  United  States  Gazette 
of  February  11th,  1825. 

"To   the   Honorable  the   Senate   and  House   of  Representatives 
of  the  ConimonAvealth  of  Pennsylvania,  in  General  Assembly  met, 
the  Memorial  of  the  Subscribers,  Citizens  of 
County  of  respectfully  sheweth: — 

That  your  Memorialists  are  deeply  impressed  with  a  sense  of  the 
importance  of  a  Canal  ISTavigation  in  Pennsylvania,  from  the 
Susquehanna  to  the  Allegheny  Rivers,  and  from  the  Allegheny 
River  to  Lake  Erie,  and  they  think  the  work  ought  to  be  undertaken 
by  the  State,  and  executed  at  the  expense  of  the  State,  with  the 
least  possible  delay. 

Your  Memorialists  are  fully  convincedthat  the  present  is  a  favor- 
able moment  for  the  commencement  of  the  work.  The  skill  and 
experience  which  have  been  developed  and  acquired  in  the  prosecu- 
tion of  similar  enterprises  in  the  State  of  Pennsylvania  and  other 
States  of  the  Union,  will  ensure  its  efficient  and  economical  execu- 
tion;   and  there  is  no  doubt  that  it  can  be  better  done,  and  upon 

*  DelaAvare  di\-ision  canal  from  Bristol  to  Easton,  60  miles:  Lehigh  Coal 
and  Xavigation  from  Coal  Port  to  Easton,  48  miles;  Pennsylvania  canal  from 
^lontoursville  to  Selinsgrove,  43  miles;  Schuylkill  Xavigation  from  Port 
Clinton  to  Philadelphia,  89.88  miles. 

Trans.  Conn.  Acad..  Vol.  XIII.  19  Nov.,  1907. 


262  .1.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

better  terms,  than  any  work  of  the  kind  heretofore  undertaken  in 
the  United  States. 

The  abundance  of  capital  now  seeking  employment,  and  the  liigh 
credit  of  the  State,  render  it  almost  certain  that  the  requisite 
funds  can  be  had  upon  very  moderate  terms;  and,  in  connection 
with  this  part  of  the  subject,  your  Memorialists  would  beg  leave  to 
remark,  that  as  the  money  will  be  wanted  only  in  proportion  to  the 
progress  of  the  work,  the  debt,  which  it  may  be  necessary  at  any 
one  time  to  contract,  will  not  be  large ;  and  no  very  long  time  will 
elapse  before  the  income  of  the  navigation  will  itself  relieve  the 
State  from  the  burden  of  i)roviding  for  the  payment  of  interest. 
They  feel  themselves  warranted,  indeed,  by  experience,  in  saying 
that  it  will  do  much  more;  that  it  will  soon  afford  the  means  of 
gradually  extinguishing  the  debt  which  may  be  contracted,  and 
make  a  large  permanent  addition  to  the  fiscal  means  of  the  State, 
and  thus  be  highly  advantageous  as  a  mere  measure  of  finance. 

The  Schuylkill  ISTavigation  being  now  happily  completed,  and 
the  Union  -Canal  in  a  state  of  forwardness,  which  leaves  no  doubt 
that,  with  suitable  public  support  and  encouragement,  it  will  soon 
be  finished,  we  may  almost  regard  the  communication  between  the 
Delaware  and  the  Susquehanna  as  already  opened.  From  the  Sus- 
quehanna to  the  Allegheny  and,  Lake  Erie,  we  are  led  to  believe 
that  greater  difficulties  will  not  be  found  than  have  been  encountered 
and  overcome  in  the  works  just  mentioned ;  and  we  are  confident 
there  are  none  which  the  united  forces  of  the  Commonwealth,  and 
the  means  at  her  command,  will  not  be  sufficient  easily  to  surmount. 
The  line  of  communication  being  thus  extended,  there  will  be  a 
continued  navigation  through  the  State  of  Pennsylvania,  connecting 
Lake  Erie  with  the  Delaware  and  the  Ocean ! 

On  the  immense  advantages  to  be  derived  from  such  a  communica- 
tion, it  must  be  wholly  superfluous  to  dwell.  They  have  long 
engaged  the  attention  of  many  of  our  best  and  wisest  citizens. 
Thirty  years  ago  the  country  was  explored  and  the  routes  examined, 
by  which  it  Avas  supposed  the  Eastern  and  Western  waters  might 
most  easily  be  connected,  and  efforts  were  made  to  commence  the 
work.  They  failed  it  is  true,  for  they  were  perhaps  .premature. 
But  if,  with  the  spirit  that  dared  at  that  early  day  to  conceive  so 
great  a  design,  there  had  been  united  the  means  which  are  iiow 
possessed  by  the  State  there  can  be  no  doubt  that  their  exertions 
would  have  been  cro^vned  with  success,  and  that  Pennsylvania 
would,  at  this  moment,  be  enjoying  the  fruits  of  their  patriotic 
labors  even  far  beyond  what  their  most  sanguine  calculations 
could  have  anticipated. 

Without  adverting  to  the  great  increase  of  wealth  and  population 
which  has  since  taken  place,  and  the  consequent  increase  of  capacity 
for  great  undertakings,  one  single  fact  may  suffice  to  show  the  differ- 
ence in  our  favor.  At  tlie  period  referred  to,  there  was  not  a 
canal  in  the  United  States.  There  was  not,  it  is  believed,  in  our 
Country  at  that  time  sufficient  skill  in   civil  engineering  even  to 


A.  L.  Bishop— The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania.  263 

make  the  necessary  preliminary  arrangements  for  cutting  a  canal; 
or  if  it  existed,  it  was  entirely  unknown.  But  now  we  have  exam- 
ples before  us  of  canals  in  active  and  profitable  operation,  and  in 
almost  every  stage  of  progress  towards  completion.  The  mode  of 
constructing  them,  and  their  uses  and  profits  when  constructed, 
are  no  longer  matters  of  speculation,  but  of  actual  and  satisfactory 
experiment.  At  the  same  time,  the  requisite  skill  has  been  supplied 
from  the  talents  of  our  countrymen,  who  with  their  usual  ingenuity 
have  invented  improved  methods  of  working,  adapted  to  our  circum- 
stances, so  that  the  State  would  have  no  difficulty  at  this  time  in 
obtaining  immediately,  within  the  United  States,  the  aid  of  an 
adequate  number  of  skilful  and  experienced  engineers,  to  survey  and 
lay  out  a  route,  and  direct  the  execution  of  the  work,  whose  well- 
established  reputation  would  secure  the  public  confidence  in  what- 
ever plan  they  might  adopt  and  recommend,  and  be  a  sufficient 
guarantee  to  the  State  for  its  unquestionable  title  to   preference. 

To  these  considerations  your  Memorialists  would  add,  that,  since 
the  period  referred  to,  the  invention  of  steamboats  by  Fulton,  a 
native  of  Pennsyh^ania,  has  served  more  fully  to  disclose  an  inland 
navigation  towards  the  northwest  of  many  hundreds  of  miles  beyond 
the  town  of  Erie,  the  benefits  of  which  would  be  opened  to  the  State 
of  Pennsylvania  by  the  woi-k  now  proposed. 

But  there  is  one  consideration  of  such  paramount  importance  as 
to  deserve,  in  the  opinion  of  your  Memorialists,  the  most  serious 
attention  of  the  Legislature,  and  of  every  citizen  of  Pennsylvania. 
It  is  this, — that  henceforward  the  intercourse  between  the  East  and 
West  is  to  be  carried  on  by  means  of  inland  navigation.  This  is 
decided  by  what  is  already  done.  ISTo  State,  therefore,  can  expect 
to  participate  largely  or  beneficially  in  this  interesting  intercourse, 
unless  she  offer  such  a  channel  of  communication.  The  cheapness 
and  expedition  of  transportation  by  water  are  so  far  beyond  those 
of  any  other  mode  of  conveyance  within  our  reach,  as  to  put  com- 
petition entirely  out  of  the  question.  This  single  fact  your  Memo- 
rialists believe  to  be  of  sufficient  weight  to  render  all  argument 
superfluous,  unless  we  are  disposed  to  give  up  the  well-earned 
reputation  of  Pennsylvania,  and  to  suffer  her  to  fall  back  from  her 
established  character  and  standing. 

Your  Memorialists  would  not  be  understood  to  make  any  invidious 
comparisons,  nor  to  indulge  in  unworthy  jealousies,  nor  to  endeavor 
to  excite  unreasonable  State  feeling.  They  rejoice  in  the  successful 
efforts  of  our  brethren  in  other  states  in  the  cause  of  internal 
improvement,  as  a  valuable  contribution  to  the  honor  and  strength 
of  the  whole,  and  would  note  them  only  as  examples  to  be  imitated. 
But  they  would  at  the  same  time  remark,  that  whoever  considers 
with  due  attention  the  structure  of  the  Federal  Government,  and 
the  foundation  upon  which  it  rests,  must  be  fully  and  feelingly  con- 
vinced of  this  great  truth,  that  no  State  performs  her  duty  well  to 
the  Union,  that  does  not  well  perform  her  duty  to  herself. 

With  all  the  advantages  possessed  by  Pennsylvania,  in  her  institu- 
tions, her  climate,  her  soil,  her  mineral  resources,  her  moral  and 


264  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

intelligent  population,  with  the  inducements  offered  by  the  interest- 
ing position  she  occupies  in  the  Union,  and  by  the  high  social  and 
political  obligations  which  she  owes  no  less  to  herself  than  to  the 
Union,  and  to  her  Sister  States,  and  which  plainly  require  that  she 
should  at  all  times  endeavor  to  maintain  her  relative  standing  and 
character,  your  Memorialists  are  confident  that  the  public  sentiments 
will  sustain  them  in  urging  with  earnestness  upon  the  representa- 
tives of  the  freemen  of  Pennsylvania,  the  immediate  adoption  of 
decisive  measures  for  commencing  the  work,  and  prosecuting  it  to 
completion  with  all  the  energy  of  the  State. 

And  your  Memorialists  would  fain  hope  that  local  wishes  or 
views  will  not  be  allowed  to  interfere  with  or  retard  the  undertak- 
ing; but  that  it  will  proceed  upon  enlarged  principles,  by  the  most 
direct  practicable  route.  They  admit  that  whatever  may  be  its 
locality,  the  benefit  will  in  the  first  instance  be  most  felt  by  the 
immediate  neighborhood.  This  is  unavoidable.  But  it  is  also  true, 
that  whatever  its  locality,  every  part  of  the  State  will  in  some 
degree  feel  its  happy  influence ;  and  in  a  little  time  other  works  will 
be  contrived -and  executed  for  extending  its  use  by  lateral  connec- 
tions, through  every  quarter  of  the  State  from  which  it  is  accessible. 

Your  Memorialists  need  not  insist  upon  the  influence  which  the 
work  will  have  in  multiplying  and  strengthening  our  connections 
with  the  States  in  the  West ;  nor  upon  its  happy  influence  in  uniting 
more  closely  the  citizens  of  Pennsylvania  and  diffusing  more  equally 
the  advantages  of  access  to  markets  for  every  sort  of  commodity. 
As  to  its  beneficial  effects,  all  agree;  of  its  practicability,  no  one, 
we  believe,  now  entertains  a  doubt;  of  the  power  of  the  State  to 
command  the  necessary  means  for  its  execution,  we  think  there  can 
be  no  question.  Your  Memorialists,  therefore,  again  most  earnestly 
request  your  Honourable  Bodies  to  take  the  subject  into  your  con- 
sideration, and  adopt  the  necessary  measures  for  giving  effect  to 
their  wishes." 

Appendix  II. — Delegates  to  the  Canal  Convention  at  Harrishurg. 

The  following  list  contains  the  names  of  the  delegates  appointed 
to  represent  the  various  counties  of  the  State  of  Pennsylvania  at 
the  Canal  Convention  held  at  Harrishurg  from  August  4th  to  6th, 
1825.  Those  whose  names  are  in  italics  represented  the  opposi- 
tion. This  list  was  taken  from  the  United  States  Gazette  of 
August  12th,  1825. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania.  265 

County.  Delegates. 

Adams — John  Dickson,  Samuel  Sloan. 

Allegheny — Ephraim     Penlland,     Joseph     Patterson,     Matthew     E.     Lowrie, 

Haimer  Deiiney. 
Armstrong — Tliomas  Blair. 
Bedford — Jvlw.  Todd,  James  M.  Russel. 
Berks — Lewis  Reese,  Nathaniel  Hobart,  Isaac  Hiester,  Henry  S.  Kline,  Peter 

Eckhart. 
Bradford — Edward  HerricJc. 
Bucks^ — Samuel    D.    Ingluun,    William    Carr,    John    W.    Wynkoop,    Mathias 

Morris,  Henry  Chapman. 
Butler — John   Gilmore. 
Cambria — Moses  Canan,  John  Bredin. 

Centre  and  Clear lield — -Thomas  Biimside,  Francis  W.  Raule. 
Chester — -David  Townsend,  Joseph  Sharpe,  Joshua  Evans,  Joshua  Hunt. 
Columbia — Daniel  Montgomery,  Christian  Brobst,  John  McReynolds. 
Crawford — John  B.  Wallace,  Artliur  Cullum. 
Cunilx'rhuid — Robert  McCoy.  Jaeob  Alter,  Henry  Vetliake. 
Dauphin — John  Forster,  William  Lauma,n,  Silas  Marsh. 
Delaware — Greorge  G.  Lieper,  Thomas  Smith. 
Erie^Thomas  H.  Sill,  Giles  Sanford. 

Fayette — James  Todd,  Samuel  Evans,  Thomas  Erwin,  John  Kennedy. 
Franklin — Robert  ^mith,  Thos.  H.  Crairford,  Geo.  Chambers. 
Greene— William  S.  Harvey,  Robert  Whitehill. 
Huntingdon — John  Scott,  John  Blair. 
Indiana  and  Jeflferson — None. 
Lancaster — Robert    W.   Houston,    Thomas   Neill,    Hugh   McCullough,   James 

Buchanan,  Geo.  B.  Porter,  Jaeob  Peelor. 
Lebanon — Nathaniel  H.  Loving,  Joseph  Barnett. 
Lehigh — Henry  King,  Stephen  Balliet,  James  Rodrock. 
Luzerne — Jaeob  Cist,  Nathan  Beach. 
Lycoming — Robeit  McClure,  Andrew  D.  Hepburn. 
Mercer — Thomas  S.  Cumiingham. 
Mifflin— David  W.  Huling,  Mr.  Crawford. 

Montgomery — Levi  Pawling,  Philip  S.  Markley,  Thos.  Baird,  Jacob  Ikwees. 
Northampton — Jas.  M.  Porter,  Wm.  Broadhead,  M.  R.  Butz. 
Northumberland — Le\\is  Dewart,  William  Tweed. 
Perry — Abraham  Addams. 
Philadelphia — ■ 

City — ]Mathew  Carey,  John  Sergeant,  Manuel  Eyre,  Chas.  J.  Ingersoll,  Wm. 

Lehman,  W^m.  J.  Duane. 
County — George  W.  Ritter,  Samuel  Breck,  Jas.  Ronaldson,  Samuel  Hum- 

])hrefys,    Jacoh    Holgate,    Jas.    A.    Mahany,    Joel    B. 

Sutherland. 
Potter  and  Mcl^^an — Jonathan  Colgrove. 
Schuylkill — Thomas  S.  Ridgeway. 
Somerset — John  Gebhart,  Abraham  Morrison. 
Susquehanna — Jabez  Hyde,  Jr.,  Frederick  Baily. 
Tioga — Uriah  Silencer. 

Union — Mr.  Middleswarth,  James  Merril,  Geo.  Kremer. 
Vanango — Alex.  McCalmont. 
Warren — -Archibald  S.  Tanner. 
Washington — Joseph  La\^'Tence,  Joseph  Ritner,  Alex.  Reed,  Thomas  H.  Baird, 

Thos.  McGiffin. 
Wayne  and  Pike — John  Coalbaugh. 

Westmoreland — John  Yoimg,  James  Clarke,  Andrew  Boggs. 
York — Chas.  A.  Barnitz,  Samuel  Martin,  William  Diven,  George  Nace,  John 

Gardner.  Mr.  Smitzer. 


2G6  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worls  of  Pennsylvania. 

Appendix  III. — Resolutions  Passed  at  the  Canal  Convention  at 
Harrishurg,  August  4:th  to  6th,  1825. 

The  following  resolutions  were  framed  by  a  committee  appointed 
by  the  Harrisburg  Convention  on  Internal  Improvements.  They 
were  presented  to  that  body  for  consideration  and  after  much 
discussion  they  were  adopted.* 

Whereas,  The  great  interests  of  the  State  of  Pennsylvania 
require  that  there  should  be  a  steady  perseverance  in  improving  the 
resources  of  wealth  and  strength,  and  social  comfort  which  abound 
within  her  limits;  and 

Whereas,  The  time  has  arrived  when  she  is  called  upon  by 
every  consideration  of  regard  for  her  character  and  standing,  as 
well  as  for  her  permanent  prosperity  and  happiness,  to  make  a 
vigorous  and  united  exertion  for  accomplishing,  without  delay,  the 
connection  of  the  eastern  and  the  western  waters  by  a  line  of  com- 
munication within  her  borders ;    and 

Whereas,  A  distinct  and  solemn  expression  of  the  deliberate 
opinion  of  the  people  is  always  of  powerful  efficacy,  and  is  especially 
fit  and  requisite  upon  an  occasion  like  the  present,  where  an  extraor- 
dinary effort  is  necessary  for  the  common  advantage  of  the  whole, 
the  public  will  being  the  only  sure  authority  for  the  undertaking 
and  the  best  pledge  for  its  energetic  and  zealous  prosecution ;  there- 
fore, 

Resolved,  That  the  improvement  of  the  Commonwealth  Avill 
be  best  promoted,  and  the  foundations  of  her  prosperity  and  happi- 
ness most  securely  established,  by  opening  an  entire  and  complete 
communication  within  her  borders,  from  the  Susquehanna  to  the 
Allegheny  and  Ohio,  and  from  the  Allegheny  to  Lake  Erie,  by  the 
nearest  and  best  practicable  route,  and  that  such  work  is  indispen- 
sably necessary  to  maintain  the  character  and  standing  of  the  State, 
and  to  preserve  her  strength  and  resources. 

Resolved,  That  the  application  of  the  resources  of  the  State  to 
this  undertaking  ought  not  to  be  regarded  as  an  expenditure,  but 
as  a  most  beneficial  investment;  for  its  successful  execution  will 
increase  the  public  wealth,  improve  the  public  revenue,  and  greatly 
enlarge  the  ability  of  the  State  to  extend  her  aid  to  every  quarter 
where  it  may  be  wanted,  and,  at  the  same  time,  will  encourage 
industry,  create  circulation,  extend  trade  and  commerce,  enhance 
the  value  of  land,  and  of  agricultural  and  mineral  products,  and 
thereby  augment  the  means  of  the  citizens  to  promote  his  own  and 
the  public  welfare  by  contributions  to  similar  works. 

*  See  page  184;  also  the  footnote  concerning  the  words  struck  out  of  the 
first  resolution;  and  the  reference  to  an  additional  resolution  that  was 
passed. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania.  267 

Resolved,  That  all  local  objects,  tending  to  a  diffusive  and  uncon- 
nected application  of  the  public  means,  ought,  for  the  present,  to 
yield  so  as  to  allow  an  undivided  exertion  of  the  public  strength  in 
this  great  undertaking,  which  is  essential  to  its  speedy  and  success- 
ful prosecution;  for,  though  it  be  certain,  that,  whatever  may  be 
its  location,  the  benefit  will  be  most  sensibly  felt,  in  the  first  instance 
in  the  immediate  neighborhood,  yet  it  is  also  true  that  its  invigorat- 
ing influence  will  pervade  every  part  of  the  Commonwealth,  and,  in 
a  short  time,  its  branches  will  spread  in  all  directions,  wherever 
the  bounty  of  Providence  has  furnished  the  means  of  access  to  the 
great  channel  thus  provided,  and,  encouraged  by  this  example,  new 
channels  will  be  successfully  opened  as  occasion  may  offer,  or  the 
public  exigencies  and  the  demands  of  the  country  may  require. 

Resolved,  That,  in  our  opinion,  the  people  of  Pennsylvania  will 
fully  sustain  the  Legislature  in  all  such  measures  as  may  be 
necessary  for  effectuating  this  highly  important  and  interesting 
object,  as  we  believe*  them  to  be  fully  sensible  to  its  political  and 
social  value,  and  they  have  never  refused  to  support,  to  the  utmost 
of  their  ability,  what  their  enlightened  and  patriotic  judgment 
approved  as  fit  to  be  done  for  the  common  good. 

Resolved,  That  we  regard,  with  satisfaction,  the  efforts  of  our 
sister  states  to  make  extended  improvements,  and  that,  in  our 
opinion,  a  wise  and  liberal  policy  requires  of  Pennsylvania  to  grant 
to  them  every  just  and  legal  facility,  whenever  her  concurrence 
may  be  necessary  to  their  successful  prosecution,  and  that  we  have 
witnessed,  with  pleasure,  the  progress  made  towards  laying  out  a 
canal  from  the  Potomac  to  the  Ohio,  as  well  as  the  steps  taken  by 
the  State  of  ISTew  York  for  forming  a  connection  with  the  north 
branch  of  the  Susquehanna. 

Resolved,  That  a  general  committee  of  correspondence  be  ap- 
pointed, and  that  they  be  requested  to  prepare  an  address  to  the 
people  of  Pennsylvania  upon  the  subject  of  internal  improvements. 


Appendix  lY.—Act  of  25th  February,  1826 — Pamphlet  Laws, 

Page  55. 

An  Act:  To  provide  for  the  commencement  of  a  Canal,  to  he 
constructed  at  the  expense  of  the  State,  and  to  he  styled  "The 
Pennsylvania  Canal." 

Whereas,  The  construction  of  a  canal  within  our  own  limits  for 
the  purpose  of  connecting  the  eastern  and  western  waters,  is  believed 
to  be  practicable,  and  within  the  means  of  the  state,  and  its  speedy 
completion  will  advance  the  prosperity  and  elevate  the  character 
of  Pennsylvania;  and  by  facilitating  intercourse  and  promoting 
social  interests  will  strengthen  the  bands  of  the  Union :  And 
whereas.  There  are  important  sections  of  the  w^ork  which  may 
be  immediateh^  begun,  without  the  danger  of  error;  therefore. 
Resolved: 


268  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

Section  1.  That  the  commissioners  appointed  by  the  act  entitled 
"An  act  to  appoint  a  board  of  canal  commissioners,"  passed  the 
eleventh  day  of  April,  eighteen  hundred  and  twenty-five,  are 
hereby  authorized  and  empowered,  in  behalf  of  this  state,  imme- 
diately to  locate  and  contract  for  making  a  canal  and  locks,  and 
other  works  necessary  thereto,  from  the  river  Swatara,  at  or  near 
Middk'town,  to  or  near  a  point  on  the  east  side  of  the  river  Sus- 
quehanna, op])Osite  the  mouth  of  the  river 'Juniata;  and  from  Pitts- 
burg to  the  mouth  of  the  Kiskeminetas ;  and  also  as  soon  as  they 
shall  deem  it  expedient  and  practicable,  to  construct  a  navigable 
feeder  of  a  canal,  from  Prench  Creek  to  the  summit  level  at 
Conneaut  lake,  sufficient  to  convey  at  least  two  hundred  and  twenty- 
one  cubic  feet  of  water  per  second,  and  to  survey  and  locate  the 
route  of  a  canal  from  thence  to  Lake  Erie:  provided,  That  if  it 
shall  be  found  necessary,  in  order  to  construct  the  said  canals,  to. 
obstruct  the  navigation  of  either  of  the  rivers  Susquehanna  and 
Allegheny,  by  dams  or  other  means,  that  befere  such  obstructions 
shall  be  authorized  to  be  made,  that  the  said  commissioners  shall 
cause  to  be  made  a  means  of  navigation,  in  either  or  both  of  said 
rivers,  equally  safe  and  practicable  as  now  exist  in  the  said  rivers. 

Section  2.  That  the  said  commissioners  shall  be  authorized  to 
appoint  one  or  two  of  the  board,  as  occasion  may  require,  as  acting 
commissioner  or  commissioners,  who  shall  receive  four  dollars  per 
day,  each,  while  actually  engaged  in  the  superintendence  of  the 
works  contemplated  by  this  act,  and  which  sum  shall  be  in  full  of  all 
compensation  for  services  and  expenses. 

Section  3.  That  the  state  treasurer  for  the  time  being  shall,  in 
addition  to  his  official  duties,  act  as  treasurer  to  the  board  of  canal 
commissioners ;  and  that  said  board  shall  have  the  power  to  appoint 
engineers,  clerks,  and  other  officers,  toll  gatherers  and  such  other 
agents  as  they  may  judge  requisite;  and  to  agree  for  and  settle 
their  respective  wages,  and  to  establish  reasonable  toll. 

Section  4.  That  it  shall  be  the  duty  of  each  and  every  acting 
canal  commissioner;  appointed  in  pursuance  of  this  act,  to  super- 
intend ilie  making  and  constructing  of  said  canal,  before  entering 
upon  the  duties  of  his  office,  to  enter  into  bond  to  the  commonwealth, 
with  at  least  two  substantial  freeholders  as  sureties,  in  the  penal  sum 
of  fifty  thousand  dollars,  conditioned  for  the  faithful  accounting 
of  all  moneys  entrusted  to  him  as  canal  commissioner,  whenever  and 
as  often  as  he  may  be  required  to  do  so  by  law,  or  by  concurrent 
resolution  of  the  senate  and  house  of  representatives,  or  by  the 
accounting  officers  of  the  treasury  department;  and  the  said  bond 
shall  be  approved  by  tlie  governor,  and  filed  in  the  office  of  the  secre- 
tary of  the  commonwealth. 

Section  5.  That  whenever  the  sum  or  sums  of  money  paid  to 
any  canal  commissioner,  shall  amount  to  fifty  thousand  dollars,  it 
shall  not  be  lawful  for  the  treasurer  of  the  board  to  advance  or 
pay  to  such  canal  commissioners,  any  further  sum  or  sums  of 
money,  until  he  shall  first  have  produced  an  account  and  vouchers, 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Woi-ls  of  Pennsylvania.  2G9 

to  tlie  accounting  officers  of  the  treasury  department,  showing  the 
payment  and  expenditures  of  the  money  received  by  him. 

Section  6.  That  in  order  the  better  to  guai-d  against  mistakes 
and  losses,  it  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  acting  canal  commissioners 
respectively  to  take  duplicate  receipts  for  all  sums  of  money  which 
they  may  advance  and  pay  to  their  engineers,  contractors  and 
agents,  one  whereof,  in  each  and  every  case,  shall  be  filed  with 
the  accounting  officers  of  the  treasury  department ;  and  all  contracts 
for  the  construction  of  any  part  of  the  improvements  contemplated 
by  this  act,  shall  be  made  in  writing,  one  copy  of  which  shall  be 
forthwith  deposited  with  the  state  treasurer,  and  one  copy  shall  be 
given  to  and  retained  by  the  contractor;  and  at  least  thirty  days 
notice  shall  be  given  in  one  or  more  of  the  newspapers  printed  in 
Philadelphia,  Harrisburg  and  Pittsburg,  respectively,  and  in  such 
other  newspapers  as  may  be  deemed  expedient  by  the  canal  com- 
missioners, or  a  majority  of  them,  of  the  time  and  place  at  which 
proposals  will  be  received  for  entering  into  such  contracts ;  and  no 
extra  alloAvance  shall  in  any  case  be  made,  for  the  performance  of 
any  such  contract,  beyond  the  sum  stipulated  therein. 

Section  7.  That  the  location  and  dimensions  of  the  said  canals 
and  locks  shall  be  determined  by  a  majority  of  the  board,  with  the 
approbation  of  a  skilful  engineer,  and  with  the  consent  of  the 
governor. 

Section  8.  That  it  shall  and  may  be  lawful  for  the  said  board, 
or  a  majority  of  them,  to  agree  with  the  owner  or  owners  of  any 
land  through  which  the  said  canal  is  intended  to  pass,  for  the 
purchase,  use,  and  occupation  thereof,  on  behalf  of  the  state;  and 
in  case  of  disagreement,  or  in  case  the  owiier  or  owners  thereof 
shall  be  a  feme  coA^erte,  under  age,  non  compos,  out  of  the  state  or 
county,  on  application  to  a  justice  of  the  county  in  which  such  land 
shall  be,  the  said  justice  of  the  peace  shall  issue  his  warrant,  under 
his  hand,  to  the  sheriff  of  the  county,  to  summon  a  jury  of  eighteen 
inhabitants  of  his  county,  not  related  to  the  parties,  nor  in  any 
manner  interested,  to  meet  on  the  land  to  be  valued,  at  a  day  to  be 
expressed  in  the  warrant,  not  less  than  ten  nor  more  than  twenty 
days  thereafter;  and  the  sheriff,  upon  receiving  the  said  warrant, 
shall  forthwith  summon  the  said  jury,  and  when  met,  shall  adminis- 
ter an  oath  or  affirmation  to  every  juryman  who  shall  appear,  being 
not  less  than  twelve  in  number,  that  he  will  faithfully,  justly  and 
impartially  value  the  land,  and  all  damages  the  owner  or  owners 
shall  sustain,  by  cutting  the  canal  through  such  land,  or  the 
partial  or  temporary  appropriation,  use  or  occupation  of  such  land, 
according  to  the  best  of  his  skill  and  judgment;  and  that  in  such 
valuation,  he  will  not  spare  any  person  or  persons,  for  favor  or 
affection,  or  any  person  or  persons  grieve,  for  malice,  hatred  or 
ill-will;  and  in  every  such  valuation  and  assessment  of  damages, 
the  jury  shall  be,  and  they  are  hereby  instructed  to  consider,  in 
determining  and  fixing  the  amount  thereof,  the  actual  benefit  which 
will  accrue  to 'the  owner  or  owners  from  conducting  the  said  canal 


L 


'270  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

through,  or  erecting  auy  of  the  said  works  upon  his  laud,  and  to 
regulate  their  verdict  thereby,  except  that  no  assessment  shall 
require  any  such  owner  or  owners  to  pay  or  contribute  anything, 
where  such  benefit  shall  exceed,  in  the  estimate  of  the  jury,  the 
value  and  damages  ascertained  as  aforesaid;  and  the  inquisition 
thereupon  taken,  shall  be  signed  by  the  sheriff  and  some  twelve  or 
more  of  the  jury,  and  returned  by  the  sheriff  to  the  clerk  or  pro- 
thonotary  of  his  county;  and  unless  good  cause  be  shown  against 
the  said  inquisition,  it  shall  be  affirmed  by  the  court  and  recorded; 
but  if  the  said  inquisition  should  be  set  aside,  or  if,  from  any  cause, 
no  inquisition  shall  be  returned  to  such  court  within  a  reasonable 
time,  the  said  court  may,  at  its  discretion,  as  often  as  may  be 
necessary,  direct  another  inquisition  to  be  taken,  in  the  manner 
above  prescribed ;  and  upon  every  such  valuation,  the  jury  is  hereby 
directed  to  describe  and  ascertain  the  bounds  of  tlie  land  by  them 
valued,  and  the  quality  and  duration  of  the  interest  and  estate  in 
the  same,  required  by  the  said  board,  for  the  use  of  the  state,  and 
their  valuation  shall  be  conclusive  on  all  persons,  and  shall  be  paid 
for  by  the  said  board,  to  the  owner  or  owners  of  the  land,  or  his, 
her,  or  their  legal  representatives;  and  on  payment  thereof,  the 
state  shall  be  seized  of  such  lands  as  of  an  absolute  estate  in  per- 
petuity, or  with  such  less  quantity  and  duration  of  interest  or  estate 
in  the  same,  or  subject  to  such  partial  or  temporary  appropriation, 
use  or  occupation,  as  shall  be  required  and  described  as  aforesaid, 
as  if  conveyed  by  the  owner  or  owners ;  and  whenever,  in  the  con- 
struction of  the  said  canal,  or  any  of  the  works  thereof,  locks,  dams, 
ponds,  feeders,  tunnels,  aqueducts,  culverts,  bridges,  or  works  of 
any  other  description  whatsoever,  appurtenant  thereto,  it  shall  be 
necessary  to  use  earth,  timber,  stone  or  gravel,  or  any  other  mate- 
rial, to  be  found  on  any  of  the  lands  adjacent  or  near  thereto,  and 
the  said  board  or  their  agent  cannot  procure  the  same  for  the  works 
aforesaid,  by  private  contract  of  the  proprietor  or  proprietors, 
owner  or  owners ;  or  in  case  the  owner  or  owners  should  be  a  feme 
eoverte,  non  compos,  or  under  age  or  out  of  the  state  or  county,  the 
same  proceedings,  in  all  respects  shall  be  had,  as  in  the  case  afore- 
mentioned, of  the  assessment  and  condemnation  of  the  lands 
required  for  the  said  canal,  or  the  works  appurtenant  thereto. 

Section  9.  That  every  person  actually  engaged  in  laboring  on 
any  canal  authorized  by  law,  shall  be  exempt  from  doing  militia 
duty  in  this  state  except  in  cases  of  insurrection  or  invasion,  during 
the  time  when  he  is  so  actually  engaged;  and  the  certificates  of 
the  contractor,  who  shall  employ  such  men,  so  liable  to  perform 
militia  duty,  in  the  performance  of  their  contracts,  shall  be  prima 
facie  evidence  of  such  engagement. 

Section  10.  That  the  sum  of  three  hundred  thousand  dollars 
be,  and  the  same  is  hereby  appropriated,  to  be  paid  by  the  state 
treasurer,  in  such  sums  as  shall  be  required  for  the  execution  of 
the  work,  which  sums  shall  from  time  to  time  be  paid  into  the  hands 
of  the  acting  canal  commissioner  or  commissioners,  by  direction  of 


-b 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Wor^ks  of  Pennsylvania.  271 

a  majority  of  the  board,  and  by  warrant  of  tbe  governor,  subject  to 
the  provisions  of  the  fifth  section  of  this  act. 

Section  11.  That  the  commissioners  aforesaid  be,  and  they  are 
hereby  authorized,  if  they  shall  deem  it  proper  and  expedient,  to 
agree  with  the  president  and  managers  of  the  Harrisburg  canal, 
fire  insurance  and  water  company,  for  taking  water  from  the  canal 
herein  provided  to  be  made,  from  such  point  on  the  same,  as  shall 
be  deemed  by  said  commissioners  least  injurious  to  the  said  canal, 
and  least  likely  to  impede  the  navigation  thereof,  for  supplying  the 
borough  of  Harrisburg  with  water,  and  for  propelling  machinery. 

Section  12.  That  it  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  canal  commissioners, 
on  or  before  the  first  Monday  of  February,  in  each  and  every  year, 
to  settle  and  account  with  the  accounting  officers  of  the  treasury 
department,  for  all  moneys  by  them  received  from  the  treasurer  of 
the  board;  and  it  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  auditor  general  to  report 
the  settlement  so  made,  to  the  legislature,  as  soon  thereafter  as 
may  be,  detailing  the  sums  allowed  by  them  to  the  engineers  and 
agents  respectively  employed  in  the  superintendence  and  construc- 
tion of  said  canal,  and  the  Avorks  connected  therewith. 


Appendix  V. — Act  of  Qtli  April,  1827 — Pamphlet  Laws,  Page  192. 

An  Act:  To  provide  for  the  further  extension  of  the  Pennsyl- 
vania Canal. 

Section  1.  That  the  board  of  canal  commissioners  are  hereby 
authorized  and  required,  in  behalf  of  this  commonwealth,  as  speed- 
ily as  may  be,  to  locate  and  contract  for  making  a  canal,  locks,  and 
other  works  necessary  thereto,  up  the  valley  of  the  Juniata,  from 
the  eastern  section  of  the  Pennsylvania  canal,  to  a  point  at  or  near 
Lewistown;  also  a  canal,  locks  and  other  works  necessary  thereto, 
up  the  valley  of  the  Kiskeminetas  and  the  Conemaugh,  from  the 
western  section  of  the  Pennsylvania  canal,  to  a  point  at  or  near 
Blairsville;  and  also  a  canal,  locks  and  other  works  necessary 
thereto,  up  the  valley  of  the  Susquehanna,  from  the  said  eastern 
section  of  the  Pennsylvania  canal,  to  a  point  at  or  near  the  town 
of  Northumberland,  to  be  selected  with  due  regard  to  the  accommo- 
dation of  the  trade  of  both  branches  of  said  river.  And  the  said 
board  shall  also  proceed  to  make  or  cause  to  be  made,  such  examina- 
tions and  surveys  from  Frankstown  on  the  Juniafa,  to  Johnstown  on 
the  Conemaugh,  across  the  Allegheny  mountain,  as  may  enable  them 
to  determine  in  what  manner,  and  by  what  kind  of  works,  whether 
by  the  construction  of  a  smooth  and  permanent  road  of  easy  grada- 
tion, or  by  a  railway  with  locomotive  or  stationary  engines  or  other- 
wise, the  i^ortage  or  space  between  the  said  two  points  may  be  passed 
so  as  to  ensure  the  greatest  public  advantage.  And  the  said  board 
shall  also  cause  further  examinations,  surveys  and  levels  to  be  made, 
with  a  view  of  ascertaining  the  practicability  and  cost  of  an  entire 
navigable  communication  between  the  West  Branch  of  the  Susque- 


i 


272  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  WorJt;s  of  Pennsylvania. 

hanna  and  the  Alleghen3^  river.  And  such  further  examinations, 
surveys  and  levels  as  may  be  necessary  to  ascertain  the  location 
and  costs  of  canals,  locks  and  other  works  necessary  thereto,  on  the 
respective  routes  following,  to-wit :  From  jSTorthumberland  up 
the  JSTorth  Branch  of  the  Susquehanna,  to  the  state  line;  from 
the  western  section  of  the  Pennsylvania  canal,  near  the  mouth  of 
the  Kiskcminetas  to  a  point  on  Lake  Erie,  by  the  Allegheny  river 
and  French  Creek,  at  or  near  the  borough  of  Erie;  and  from  the 
city  of  Pittsburg  to  the  said  point  on  Lake  Erie,  by  the  route  of 
Beaver  and  Shenango,  and  shall  make  to  the  legislature,  as  soon  as 
practicable,  detailed  reports  accompanied  with  maps,  plans  and 
estimates  of  cost  of  the  several  routes  to  be  examined  and  surveyed 
as  aforesaid. 

Section  2.  That  before  the  commissioners  shall  determine  on 
the  location  of  the  canal  from  the  mouth  of  the  Juniata  river  to 
Mifflin  or  Lewistowu,  they  shall  cause  further  examinations  to  be 
made  on  each  .side  of  the  Juniata,  by  at  least  two  of  the  most  experi- 
enced engineers  in  the  service  of  the  board,  in  order  to  ascertain 
which  side  of  the  river  is  most  favorable  and  most  proper  to  be. 
adopted  for  the  construction  of  the  canal;  and  a  majority  of  the 
whole  number  of  canal  commissioners  are  hereby  required  to  concur 
in  the  manner  and  place  at  which  the  said  canal  shall  cross  the 
Susquehanna,  and  if  a  majority  of  the  said  commissioners  should 
decide  in  favor  of  crossing  the  Susquehanna  by  an  aqueduct  or  a 
towing  path  bridge,  they  are  hereby  authorized  to  connect  a 
bridge  wnth  it,  should  they  believe  the  same  practicable,  and  advan- 
tageous to  the  state. 

Section  3.  That  it  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  board  of  canal  com- 
missioners, to  cause  examination,  survey,  and  estimate  of  the  route 
for  canal,  and  also  for  a  railway,  with  locomotive  or  stationary 
engines,  from  Philadelphia,  through  Chester  and  Lancaster  coun- 
ties, so  as  to  connect  by  the  nearest  and  most  eligible  route  with  the 
eastern  section  of  the  Pennsylvania  canal;  and  in  addition  thereto, 
to  cause  the  necessary  surveys,  examinations  and  estimates  to  be 
made  down  the  Brandyr^nne  river,  to  a  point  north  of  the  Delaware 
state  line;  thence  across  the  dividing  ridge  between  said  river  and 
Chester  creek,  thence  down  the  same  to  the  river  Delaware.  And 
if  it  should  be  ascertained  that  the  waters  of  the  Brandyw'ine  cannot 
be  diverted  from  their  natural  channel,  then  to  make  all  the  neces- 
sary examinations  for  a  portage  or  railway  across  said  ridge.  And 
they  shall  also  cause  an  examination  or  survey  to  be  made,  to  ascer- 
tain the  practicability  and  cost  of  forming  a  connection  of  the  North 
Branch  of  the  Susquehanna  and  the  Lehigh  rivers,  by  means  of 
canal  or  railway.  And  the  canal  commissioners  shall  also  cause 
surveys  and  estimates  to  be  made  as  soon  as  convenient,  from  the 
termination  of  the  Pennsylvania  canal  at  the  mouth  of  the  Swatara, 
down  the  east  and  west  sides  of  the  Susquelianna  river  to  the  Mary- 
land line,  and  make  report  to  the  next  legislature,  of  the  expense 
and  practicability  of  extending  the  Pennsylvania  canal  to  the  inter- 
section of  the  Maryland  line  and  the  said  river. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania.  273 

Section  4.  That  the  board  of  canal  commissioners  are  author- 
ized and  required  to  commence  operations  on  the  feeder  from 
French  Creek,  to  the  summit  level  at  Conneaut  lake;  and  to  con- 
tract for  so  much  as  may  be  adapted  to  either  of  the  routes  in  con- 
templation/ for  the  purpose  of  connecting  the  Pennsylvania  canal 
with  Lake  Erie.  And  the  further  sum  of  one  hundred  thousand 
dollars  is  hereby  appropriated  to  carry  into  effect  the  provisions 
of  this  section,  to  be  paid  in  like  manner  as  is  prescribed  in  the 
eighteenth  section  of  this  act;  and  the  said  commissioners  shall 
cause  an  examination  to  be  made,  from  the  mouth  of  French  Creek, 
by  way  of  Waterford,  to  the  bay  of  Presque  Isle,  and  from  Conneaut 
lake  to  Lake  Erie. 

Section  5.  That  if  it  shall  be  found  necessary  in  order  to  con- 
struct the  said  canals  and  works,  to  obstruct  the  navigation  of  the 
Susquehanna,  the  Juniata,  the  Kiskeminetas,  or  any  of  their  navi- 
gable branches,  by  dams  or  other  means,  that  before  such  obstruc- 
tions shall  be  made,  the  said  commissioners  shall  cause  to  be  made 
a  means  of  navigation  equally  safe  and  practicable  as  now  exists, 
at  such  place  or  places  so  to  be  obstructed. 

Section  6.  That  it  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  board  of  canal  com- 
missioners, during  the  ensuing  summer,  to  cause  examinations, 
surveys  and  estimates  to  be  made  along  the  valley  of  the  Delaware, 
from  Philadelphia,  or  from  Bristol  or  any  intermediate  point 
between  Bristol  and  the  head  of  tide  water  to  Carpenter's  Point, 
with  the  view  of  ascertaining  the  most  eligible  mode'  of  effecting  a 
navigable  canal  communication,  and  the  said  commissioners  shall 
report  in  like  manner  as  is  directed  by  law  in  relation  to  other 
canal  routes. 

Section  7.  That  if  after  suitable  examination  as  aforesaid,  by 
competent  engineers,  it  should  appear  to  the  board  of  canal  com- 
missioners that  a  navigable  canal  can  be  constructed  between  a 
point  at  or  near  Philadelphia,  or  at  Bristol,  or  any  intermediate 
point  between  Bristol  and  the  head  of  tide  water,  and  a  point  at  or 
near  the  borough  of  Easton,  then,  with  the  consent  of  the  govern- 
ment, the  board  of  canal  commissioners  are  hereby  authorized  and 
required,  in  behalf  of  this  commonwealth,  during  the  ensuing 
season,  to  locate  and  contract  for  making  a  portion  of  said  navigable 
communication,  the  expense  of  which  shall  not  exceed  one  hundred 
thousand  dollars,  and  such  locks  and  other  works  as  may  be  neces- 
sary thereto :  provided,  The  average  expense  thereof  shall  not 
exceed  twelve  thousand  dollars  per  mile;  and  the  further  sum  of 
one  hundred  thousand  dollars  is  hereby  appropriated  towards  the 
accomplishment  of  the  aforesaid  object,  to  be  paid  in  like  manner 
as  is  provided  for  by  the  eighteenth  section  of  this  act:  provided, 
That  the  existing  natural  navigation  of  the  river  Delaware  shall 
not  be  obstructed  or  injured  by  the  construction  of  said  canal. 

Section  8.  That  if  any  person  shall  consider  himself  aggrieved, 
by  reason  of  the  canal  passing  through  the  lands  of  which  he  is 
owner,  or  by  interfering  in  any  manner  with  his  rights  of  property, 
he  may  at  the  completion  of  the  work  thereupon,  or  within  one 


274  .1.  L.  Bishop— The  State  ^Yor'ks  of  Pennsylvania. 

year  thereafter,  petition  the  court  of  quarter  sessions  of  the  county 
in  which  the  damage  has  been  committed,  and  the  said  court  shall 
appoint  five  reputable  citizens  Avithin  the  judicial  district  of  which 
the  said  county  is  a  part,  and  not  residing  in  or  inhabitants  of  the 
said  county,  whose  duty  it  shall  be,  after  being  severally  sworn  or 
affirmed,  to  view  the  premises,  and  taking  into  consideration  the 
advantages  of  said  canal  to  the  petitioner,  report  such  damage,  if 
any,  as  they  or  any  three  of  them  shall  think  the  OAvner  has  sus- 
tained by  reason  of  said  canal ;    and  in  case  the  said  viewers  are  of 
opinion  that  the  petitioner  has  received  no  damage,  or  that  the 
advantages  derived  from  the  canal  are  sufficient  compensation  to 
the  petitioner  for  any  injury  sustained  by  him,  they  will  also  report 
the  same  to  the  said  court;   for  all  which  services  the  said  viewers 
shall  receive  two  dollars  for  every  day  employed,  and  three  cents 
for  every  mile  they  shall  necessarily  travel  in  the  performance  of 
such  service,  the  costs  of  such  proceedings,  wherever  the  viewers 
report  no  damage,  shall  be  paid  by  the  petitioner:    and  upon  the 
approbation  of  the  said  court  to  the  report  of  the  said  viewers,  and 
the  certificate  of  the  prothonotary  to  the  amount,  the  acting  canal 
commissioner  shall  and  he  is  hereby  required  to  pay  to  the  said 
petitioner  the  full  amount  of  damages  and  costs  assessed  as  afore- 
said :     provided,    That    the    petitioner    shall    be    required    to    give 
reasonable  notice  to  the  nearest  acting  canal  commissioner,  of  the 
time  and  place  when  and  where  the  said  viewers  are  to  meet  for  the 
purpose  aforesaid:   and  provided  also,  That  the  right  to  except  to 
the  report  of  said  viewers,  by  either  party,  shall  be  and  remain  the 
same  as  is  extended  to  reports  of  viewers  for  road  damages,  under 
the  existing  laws  of  this  commonwealth:     provided  further,  That  in 
cases  where  small  portions  of  private  property  are  or  may  be  in  a 
great  measure  destroyed  by  the  public  works,  and  where,  in  the 
opinion  of  the  commissioners,  it  would  be  more  advantageous  to 
purchase  the  land,  than  pay  the  probable  amount  of  an  assessment 
of  damages,  said  commissioners  are  hereby  authorized  to  purchase 
said  lands  on  behalf  of  the  state,  and  to  sell  the  remainder  not 
occupied  by  the  canal,  and  convey  to  the  purchasers  respectively  the 
estate  and  title  thus  acquired.     And  in  cases  where  fences  may  be 
thrown  down,  fields  laid  open,  or  crops  and  gardens  destroyed  by  the 
temporary  occupancy  of  the  ground  in  constructing  the  canal,  the 
acting  commissioner  shall  have  power  to  settle  with  and  pay  the 
owner  such  damages  as  may  be  reasonable  and  just;    not  exceeding 
in  any  one  case  the  sum  of  twenty  dollars,  without  the  approbation 
of  the  board.     And  said  board  is  hereby  authorized  to  make  an 
amicable  adjustment  of  any  damages,  whatever,  sustained  by  the 
owner  or  owners  of  any  land  through  which  any  canal  or  railroad 
to  be  made  at  the  expense  of  the  state,  passes  or  is  intended  to  pass ; 
and  nothing  herein  contained  shall  be  construed  to   prevent  said 
board,  or  a  majority  of  them,  from  agreeing  with  the  owner  or 
owners  of  any  land,  (through  which  any  canal  to  be  made  at  the 
expense  of  the  state,  passes  or  is  intended  to  pass)  for  the  purchase, 
use  and  occupation  thereof,  on  behalf  of  the  state. 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worlcs  of  Pennsylvania.  275 

Section  9.  That  the  acting  canal  commissioners  on  each  section 
of  the  canal  respectively,  be,  and  are  hereby  authorized  to  make 
such  alterations  as  may  appear  to  be  expedient,  in  the  route  and 
location  of  any  state,  county,  or  township  road,  along  which,  or  in 
the  immediate  vicinity  whereof,  the  canal  or  any  part  thereof  does 
or  shall  pass,  and  to  lay  out  and  open  to  such  width  as  shall  be 
necessary,  so  much  of  any  of  the  said  roads  as  shall  be  re-located ; 
and  such  new  route  of  any  of  the  said  roads  shall  be  considered  as 
a  public  highway,  be  supported  and  kept  in  repair  as  other  high- 
ways in  this  commonwealth  are  supported  and  kept  in  repair ; 
and,  so  much  of  the  route  of  any  road  as  may  be  altered,  shall  be 
thereby  vacated;  and  the  said  acting  canal  commissioners  respec- 
tively, are  hereby  required  to  make  a  report  of  the  alterations  made 
in  the  route  of  any  road,  under  the  provisions  of  this  section,  to  the 
clerk  of  the  quarter  sessions  of  the  county  wherein  the  said  road  is 
located;  provided,  That  any  person  interested  who  may  be  dis- 
satisfied with  the  determination  of  said  commissioners,  shall  have 
the  right  of  appealing  by  petition,  to  the  board  of  canal  commission- 
ers, whose  determination  thereon  shall  be  final. 

Section  10.  That  the  canal  commissioners  be  and  they  are 
hereby  required,  during  the  ensuing  year,  to  call  upon  and  receive, 
or  cause  to  be  called  upon  and  received,  from  all  and  every  person 
or  persons,  as  far  as  conveniently  can  be  done,  who  are  the  owners 
of  land,  along  or  near  the  several  proposed  lines  of  canals,  as  pro- 
vided for  in  this  act,  acquittances  or  releases  from  any  claim  to 
damages,  in  case  the  said  lines  of  communication  shall  pass  through 
their  lands,  and  for  materials  that  may  be  taken  to  carry  on  the 
work. 

Section  11.  That  the  commissioners  are  hereby  required,  as 
soon  as  may  be  convenient,  to  cause  surveys  and  estimates  to  be 
made  through  the  valleys  of  the  Conodoguinnet,  Yellow  Breeches 
and  Conocheague  creeks,  with  a  view  to  the  connection  of  the  rivers 
Susquehanna  and  Potomac,  by  a  canal,  and  make  report  of  the 
practicability  and  probable  expense  thereof;  and  also  to  view  and 
examine  the  ground  from  the  west  end  of  the  Harrisburg  bridge 
to  the  borough  of  Chambersburg,  in  the  county  of  Franklin,  and 
from  the  west  end  of  Columbia  bridge,  through  York  and  Gettys- 
burg, to  Chambersburg,  for  the  purpose  of  constructing  a  railroad, 
and  make  an  estimate  of  the  probable  expense  for  constructing 
said  railroad,  and  make  report  thereof  to  the  governor,  who  is 
hereby  required  to  lay  the  same  before  the  legislature,  on  or  before 
the  first  day  of  January,  eighteen  hundred  and  twenty-eight. 

Section  12.  That  the  board  of  canal  commissioners  are  hereby 
authorized  and  required,  if  they  deem  it  necessary,  previous  to  the 
location  of  that  part  of  the  canal  from  the  eastern  section  to  a 
point  at  or  near  Northumberland,  on  the  West  Branch,  to  cause  a 
survey  and  exploration  on  the  east  sid6  of  the  Susquehanna,  from 
the  end  of  the  said  eastern  section,  to  a  point  opposite  the  town  of 
Northumberland.  And  the  said  board,  after  taking  into  view  the 
relative   advantages,   facilities,   costs   of  construction,   and  interest 


276  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 

of  the  commonwealth,  shall  decide  whether  the  said  canal  shall  be 
located  on  the  eastern  or  western  side  of  the  said  Susquehanna 
river;  or  if  said  coiuiuissioners  should  be  of  opinion  that  any  part 
of  said  canal  could  be  carried  along  the  eastern  shore  of  the  afore- 
said river,  to  any  point  between  the  end  of  the  eastern  section  and 
a  point  opposite  the  town  of  Northumberland,  they  may  so  locate 
and  contract  for  said  canal  and  locks,  and  arc  authorized  to  pass  to 
the  other  side  of  the  river  at  any  point  they  may  deem  proper,  in 
the  manner  now  contemplated  of  passing  the  river  at  or  near  the 
mouth  of  the  Juniata. 

Section  13.  That  the  canal  commissioners  be,  and  they  are 
hereby  authorized  and  required  to  examine  the  proposed  route  of 
the  Schuylkill  and  Delaware  canal,  commencing  in  the  vicinity 
of  the  United  States  Arsenal,  upon  the  east  bank  of  the  Schuylkill, 
and  terminating  at  the  river  DelaAvare,  at  the  south  of  the  Xavy 
Yard,  in  the  district  of  Soutliwark,  in  the  county  of  Philadelphia, 
and  make  report  to  the  legislature  at  its  next  session,  whether  the 
said  route  will  form  a  necessary  link  in  the  line  of  the  Pennsylvania 
canal,  connecting  the  western  waters  with  the  river  Delaware ;  and 
if  so,  to  furnish  an  estimate  of  the  probable  cost  of  constructing 
said  canal. 

Section  14.  That  the  provisions  of  the  act  entitled  "An  Act  to 
provide  for  the  commencement  of  a  Canal,  to  be  constructed  at  the 
expense  of  the  State,  and  to  be  styled  The  Pennsylvania  canal," 
shall  be  in  force  so  far  as  they  are  applicable  to  this  act;  and  so 
much  of  the  laws  relating  to  the  Pennsylvania  canal,  as  is  incon- 
sistent with  this  act,  is  hereby  repealed. 

Section  15.  That  the  governor  be  and  he  is  hereby  authorized 
to  borrow  on  the  credit  of  the  commonwealth,  a  sum  or  sums  in  the 
whole  not  exceeding  one  million  of  dollars ;  and  the  said  sum  or 
sums  so  borrowed  shall  be  paid  to  and  vested  in  the  commissioners 
of  the  internal  improvement  fund,  to  be  applied  by  them  in  the 
manner  and  for  the  purposes  hereinafter  directed:  provided,  That 
no  engagement  or  contract  shall  be  entered  into  which  shall  preclude 
the  commonwealth  from  reimbursing  any  sum  or  sums  thus  bor- 
rowed, at  any  time  after  the  expiration  of  twenty-three  years  from 
the  first  of  December  next. 

Section  16.  That  the  governor  be  and  is  hereby  authorized  to 
cause  to  be  instituted,  certificates  of  stock,  signed  by  the  auditor 
general,  and  countersigned  by  the  state  treasurer,  settiiig  forth  that 
they  pertain  to  the  canal  loan,  for  the  sum  so  borrowed  by  virtue 
of  this  act,  or  for  any  part  thereof,  bearing  an  interest  not  exceed- 
ing five  per  cent,  per  annum,  and  reimbursable  as  aforesaid,  which 
stock  thus  created,  shall  be  transferable  on  the  books  of  the  auditor 
general,  or  at  the  Bank  of  Pennsylvania,  by  the  owner  or  owners 
of  the  same,  his,  her  or  their  attorney,  and  new  certificates  of  the 
same  shall  be  issued  by  the  auditor  general  and  state  treasurer,  to 
the  new  holder  or  holders ;  and  it  is  hereby  further  declared,  that 
it  shall  be  deemed  to  be  a  good  execution  of  the  said  power  to 
borrow,  for  the  governor  of  this  commonwealth  to  cause  the  said 
certificates  of  stock,  or  any  part  thereof,  to  be  sold. 


A.  L.  Bishop — llie  State  WorJcs  of  Fennsylvania.  277 

Section  17.  That  tliero  shall  be  paid  by  the  state  treasurer,  to  the 
commissioners  of  the  internal  improvement  fnnd,  during  the  current 
year,  and  during  each  and  every  year  from  and  after  the  first  day  of 
December  next,  out  of  the  receipts  of  duties  on  auctions,  such  sum  Or 
sums  as  may  be  necessary  to  pay  the  interest  on  the  loans  authorized 
by  this  act.  And  the  faith  of  the  state  is  hereby  pledged  to  estab- 
lish a  sufHcient  revenue  for  making  up  any  deficiency  that  may 
hereafter  take  place  in  the  funds  appropriated  for  paying  the  said 
interest. 

Section  18.  That  it  shall  be  the  duty  of  the  commissioners  of 
the  internal  imi)rovement  fund,  to  cause  to  be  paid  out  of  the 
moneys  borrowed  in  pursuance  of  the  fifteenth  section  of  this  act, 
such  sum  or  sums  as  shall  be  necessary  for  the  completion  of  the 
two  divisions  of  the  Pennsvlvania  canal  already  located,  as  well  as 
such  other  sum  or  sums  as  may  be  necessary  for  the  prosecution  of 
the  canals  and  public  works  authorized  to  be  constructed  by  this  act. 
AwA  all  such  sums  shall  be  draAvn  and  accounted  for  according  to 
the  provisions  of  an  act  entitled  "An  act  to  provide  for  the  com- 
mencement of  a  canal,  to  be  constructed  at  the  expense  of  the  state, 
and  to  be  styled  the  Pennsylvania  canal,"  passed  the  twenty-fifth 
day  of  February,  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and  twenty-six;  and 
also  an  act  entitled  "An  act  authorizing  a  loan  for  the  commence- 
ment of  the  construction  of  the  Pennsylvania  canal  and  for  other 
purposes,"  passed  the  first  day  of  April,  one  thousand  eight  hun- 
dred and  twenty-six. 

Section  19.  That  the  state  treasurer  for  the  time  being  shall 
be  the  treasurer  of  the  internal  improvement  fund,  and  shall  per- 
form all  the  duties  pertaining  thereto,  and  all  such  moneys  belong- 
ing to  the  said  fund,  as  the  commissioners  of  said  fund  may  deem 
proper,  shall  be  deposited  in  the  Bank  of  Pennsylvania,  subject  to 
their  drafts. 

Section  20.  That  in  case  any  contract  for  work  on  the  canals 
authorized  by  this  act,  shall  be  forfeited  or  abandoned  by  the  con- 
tractor or  contractors,  the  acting  canal  commissioners  may  re-let 
the  same,  without  giving  notice  in  the  newspapers,  as  required  by 
the  sixth  section  of  the  act  passed  the  twenty-fifth  day  of  February, 
eighteen  hundred  and  twenty-six,  entitled  "An  act  to  provide  for  the 
commencement  of  a  canal,  to  be  constructed  at  the  expense  of  the 
state,  and  to  be  styled  the  Pennsylvania  canal." 

Appendix  YI. — Financial  Statement  of  the  Public  Worls. 

Statement  of  the  cost,  revenues  and  expenditures  of  the  several 
finished  lines  of  Canals  and  Railroads  of  the  State  Works  of  Penn- 
sylvania for  each  financial  year,  from  their  opening  until  disposed 
of  to  an  Incorporated  Company.* 

*  As  to  just  what  is  meant  in  the  following  tables  by  '"Original  Cost,"  "Cost" 
and  "Expenditures"  refer  to  pages  228  and. 238-9. 
Trans.  Conn.  Acad.,  Vol.  Xlll.  20  Nov.,  1907. 


278  .4.  L.  Bishop — TJie  Slate  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 


\y  A  A^ XI LUX 

^^yjaijf     Kp*jf^rj\jj 

Year 

Revenue 

Expenditure 

1833 

$  5,003 

None 

1834 

40,240 

it 

1835 

183,610 

$163,691 

1836 

260,658 

288,389 

1837 

353,566 

403,997 

1838 

390,636 

197,201 

1839 

389,974 

264,287 

1840 

445,552 

550,238 

1841 

411,537 

339,170 

1842 

345,082 

340,208 

1843 

369,496 

288,503 

1844 

416,318 

261,382 

1845 

418,502 

209,596 

]\Iaix  Line. 
1.     Philadelphia  and  Columbia  Railroad. 

.55.         Cost,  $5,277,278.00. 


Vear 

Revenue 

Expenditure 

1846 

$488,243 

$219,752 

1847 

564,356 

246,377 

1848 

554,191 

261,409 

1849 

571,589 

322,904 

1S50 

621,576 

340,804 

1851 

653,268 

338,959 

1852 

820,640 

320,887 

1853 

716,242 

422,631 

1854 

821,525 

390,761 

1855 

857,059 

442,138 

1856 

953,034 

448,557  • 

1857' 

648,655 

368,101 
79,906* 

$12,300,552 

$7,509,846 

7,509,840 

Excess  of  Revenue $  4,790,706 

2.     Eastern  Division   of  Canal. 
Original   cost,  $1,347,014.40-         Cost,   $1,737,285.00. 


Year 

Revenue 

Expenditure 

1830 

$  10,350 

$  7,761 

1831 

17,685 

10,895 

1832 

20,599 

8,688 

1833 

49,737 

19,633 

1834 

79,260 

18,657 

1835 

142,854 

19,274 

1836 

158,971 

16,472 

1837 

130.379 

49,300 

1838 

122,746 

94,938 

1839 

166,564 

32,142 

1840 

165,383 

63,403 

1841 

140,188 

3.-),188 

1842 

117,189 

27,884 

1843 

108,748 

30,693 

1844 

152,969 

27,485 

Year 

Revenue 

Expenditure 

1845 

$117,363 

$25,593 

1846 

126,725 

69,983 

1847 

160,653 

46,844 

1848 

161,856 

21,953 

1849 

196,456 

43,616 

1850 

190,596 

31,941 

1851 

117,723 

60,626 

1852 

129,708 

46,773 

1853 

141,854 

53,183 

1854 

133,726 

51,294 

1855 

132,048 

59,448 

1856 

151,664 

54,577 

1857 

55,632 

43,351 

$3,405,632 

$1,071,595 

1,071,595 

Excess  of  Revenue  $2,334,037 

*Damages  by  sparks  from  locomotives. 


J 


A.  L.  BL 

"ihop — The  State  W 

orks  of 

Pennsylvania.           279 

3.     Juniata  Division  of  Canal. 

Original  cost,  $3,036,290.1 3^ 

Cost 

,  $3,575,966. 

Year 

Revenue 

Expenditure 

Year 

Revenue 

Expenditure 

1830 

None 

$   17,323 

1844 

$88,649 

$  53,210 

1831 

$     4,492 

53,172 

1845 

70,379 

63,773 

1832 

7,205 

31,645 

1840 

78,007 

52,755 

1833 

15,331 

34,303 

1847 

67,312 

.59,957 

1834 

56,139 

35,298 

1848 

61,164 

224,439 

1835 

70,078 

41,722 

1849 

68,793 

94,544 

1836 

56,862 

33,971 

1850 

68,000 

93,246 

1837 

79,486 

46,865 

1851 

63,484 

93,940 

1838 

71,327 

38,874 

1852 

6.5,002 

89,186 

1839 

75,140 

41,818  . 

1853 

59,478 

100,3.56 

1840 

106,327 

111,772 

1854 

49,327 

90,112 

1841 

88,178 

53,660 

18.55 

48,383 

85,493 

1842 

87,838 

88,385 

18.56 

45,487 

85,115 

L  1843 

1 

87,768 

58,363 

1857 

21,552 

94,535 
338,108* 

$1,661,218 

$2,305,942 

1 

Excess 

of  Expenditure   

1,661,218 

1 

.$    644,724 

1 

^.     Allegheny  Portage  Railroad. 

■ 

Original  cost,   $1,634,357.69. 

Cost, 

$2,708,672. 

Year 

Revenue 

Expenditure 

Year 

Revenue 

Expenditure 

1834 

None 

$     5,482 

1846 

$200,343 

$130,321 

1835 

$  97,740 

98,744 

1847 

232,587 

160,290 

1836 

153,171 

132,538 

1848 

219,143 

220,181 

1837 

148,-523 

158,038 

1849 

218,470 

205,702 

1838 

153,069 

148,648 

18.50 

242,521 

329,025 

1839 

15L330 

141,857 

1851 

234,532 

341,325 

1840 

167,266 

267,333 

1852 

210,011 

336,007 

1841 

145,435 

133,799 

1853 

224,627 

507,508 

1842 

116,349 

120,175 

1854 

78,025 

338,391 

1843 

175,476 

150,920 

1855 

18,150 

256,458 

1844 

169,603 

208,137 

1856 

20,047 

193,804 

1845 

160,212 

189,757 

1857 

11,982 

82,850 
23,951  f 

$3,648,611 

$4,890,241 

Excess 

of  ExDenditure 

3,648,611 

$1,241,630 

*Cost  of  repairing  the  Huntingdon  breach  of  1838. 
•{•Damages  by  spai-ks  from  locomotives. 


280  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worls  of  Pennsylvania. 

5.     WesLern  Division  of  Canal. 

Original  cost,  $2,758,917.71.         Cost,  $3,173,434. 

Year  Revenue           Expenditure  Year  Revenue      Expenditure 

1830  $  15,3!)3           $  55,642  1844  $115,322  $43,625 

1831  12,990                ()0,901  1845  144,580  18,839 

1832  9,313     '         144,323'  1846  141,497  27,100 

1833  25,437                59,631  1847  205,514  25,258 

1834  60,740               83,508  1848  188,296  66,325 

1835  103,390               59,754  1849  183,412  63,762 

1836  123,228               30,163  1850  219,908  44,403 

1837  132,523                75,769  1851  160,055  59,611 

1838  108.700               03,838  1852  127,054  64,376 

1839  146,480               2-3,941  1853  161,278  78,975 

1840  123,350                92.937  3  8.54  96,407  75,309 

1841  117,049                43,743  1855  62,577  72,294 

1842  87,21«               25,952  1856  52,741  58,322 

1843  99,603                22,098  J  857  24,442  50,913 


$3,048,578      $1,597,372 
1,-597,372 


Excess  of  Revenue    $1,451,206 

6.     Suniiiiarj/  of  M<iii\    Line. 

Original  cost    $12,106,707.48* 

Cost    16,472,635.00 

Revenue    24,064,591.00 

Expenditure    17,374,996.00 

Excess  of  Revenue    $6,089,595.00 


A.  L.  Bislwp—Tlie  State  Worhs  of  Pennsylvania.  281 


Year 
1830 
1831 
1832 
1833 
1834 
1835 
1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 


Year 
1830 
1831 
1832 
1833 
1834 
1835 
1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 
1842 
1843 
1844 


$ 


Original 
Revenue 

None 
899 
8.043 

44,825 

57,135 

56,281 

57,175 

90,155 

72,133 

98,240 
111,735 

64,975 

73,228 
109,845 
114,556 


Lateral  Canals. 
1.     Delaware  Division  of   Canal. 
cost,  $1,238,027.69.         Cost,  $1,543,763.00. 


Expenditure 
$  9,365 
76,525 
51,715  . 
78,354 
46,049 
27,493 
40,630 
28,096 
39,782 
82,410 
85,759 
109,339 
145,493 
17,505 
49,044 


Year 
1845 
1846 
1847 
1848 
1849 
1850 
1851 
1852 
1 853 
1854 
1855 
1856 
1857 
1858 


Revenue 
$111,452 
164,203 
164,153 
180,223 
202,505 
200,719 
256,213 
260,037 
247,919 
377,663 
392,673 
349,922 
224,329 
32,141 

$4,123,377 
1,573,560 


Expenditure 
$39,951 
44,019 
16,187 
19,539 
28,053 
43,265 
49,357 
40,697 
86,847 
75,979 
71,091 
83,159 
60,730 
26,117 

$1,573,560 


Excess  of  Revenue    $2,549,817 

2.     Susquehanna  Division  of  Canal. 

Original  cost,  $1,039,257.00.         Cost,  $1,039,257.00.* 

Revenue  Expenditure 

Xone  $  8,379 

$  2,215  16,322 

5,748  65.050 

7,671  77,094 

16,431  43,278 

16,083  12,967 

13,029  2,155 

16,296  10,321 

20,791  17,702 

22,269  4,201 

30,129  32,886 

26,692  17,084 

17,460  42,435 

10,775  22,001 

19,652  32,704 


Excess    of    Expenditure     $  82,548 

*See  Rep.  Canal  CommissionerSj  in  J.  H.  Rep.,  1830-1,  II,  p.  164. 


i'ear 

Revenue 

Expenditure 

1845 

$21,214 

$26,514 

1846 

23,632 

43,513 

1847 

25,909 

18,944 

1848 

26,262 

15,230 

1849 

27,264 

11,646 

1850 

26,073 

14,406 

1851 

32,422 

23,368 

1852 

33,549 

32,077 

1853 

38,928 

25,620 

1854 

42,236 

27,747 

1855 

75,623 

39,664 

1856 

64,662 

45,234 

1857 

59,368 

52,978 

1858 

6,712 

25,114 

$724,092 

$806,640 
724.092 

282  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  TFor/cs  of  Penih^j/li-ania. 

3.     North  Branch  Division  of  Ca/nal. 

Cost,  $1,623,117.00. 
Year  Revenue       Expenditure 

1845  $  80,219  $35,060 

1846  89,209  30,347 

1847  124,184  36,279 

1848  120,842  11,505 

1849  116,552  22,182 
IS.IO              102,026  26,233 

1851  149,683         "     26,497 

1852  130,621  28,962 

1853  234,590  26,889 

1854  225,972  45,245 

1855  251,992  47,699 

1856  270,355  53,293 

1857  162,081  57,377 

1858  17,321  26,573 


Original 

cost,  $1,398,412.77 

Year 

Revenue 

Expenditure 

1830 

None 

$  15,277 

1831 

tc 

49,067 

1832 

« 

27,654 

1833 

$  3,416 

23,217 

1834 

3,915 

48,083 

1835 

5,721 

24,662 

1836 

9,824 

9,528 

1837 

10,850 

13,412 

1838 

8,816 

15,903 

1839 

10,181 

11,810 

1840 

14,165 

110,079 

1841 

29,669 

79.425 

1842 

39,590  • 

84,075 

1843 

33,094 

28,814 

1844 

51,031 

29.234 

$2,301,979      $1,044,381 
1,044,381 


Excess  of  Revenue   $1,257,598 


West  Branch  Division. 

51.84.         Cost,  $1,833,183.00. 


^.  We. 

Original  cost,  $1,58 

Year 

Revenue 

Expenditure 

1830 

None 

$  2,166 

1831 

is 

21,270 

1832 

a 

25,866 

1833 

(C 

28,116 

1834 

ie 

30,158 

1835 

$  5,496 

26,000 

1836 

3,992 

36,116 

1837 

4,708 

32,443 

1838 

9,300 

39,199 

1839 

12,852 

19,834 

1840 

28,003 

72,926 

1841 

24,952 

57,782 

1842 

16,043 

38,663 

1843 

18,518 

33,148 

1844 

20,689 

30,768 

Year 

Revenue 

Expenditure 

1845 

$29,477 

$15,802 

1846 

45,156 

22,762 

1847 

43,329 

18,989 

1848 

38,578 

58,827 

1849 

43,820 

70,247 

1850 

42,500 

31,672 

1851 

52,642 

30,398 

1852 

55,951 

33,844 

1853 

68,329 

54,206 

1854 

62,816 

29,798 

1855 

86,961 

36,109 

1856 

91,688 

29,249 

1857 

64,035 

87,068 

1858 

14,160 

30,269 

$892,995 

$1,043,695 
892,095 

Excess  of  Expenditure   $    150,700 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania. 


283 


5. 

Beaver  Div 

ision. 

inal  cost, 

$481,282.98. 

Cost,  $519,364. 

Vear 

Revenue 

Expenditure 

1834 

$    555 

None 

1835 

2,221 

$  3,194 

183G 

504 

32.265 

1837 

1,784 

28,199 

1838 

1,202 

11,139 

1839 

2,032 

7,140 

1840 

3,192 

49,740 

1841 

6,379 

24,873 

1842 

6,580 

12,084 

1843 

6,076 

10,369 

1844 

6,536 

27,385 

1845 

1,251 

3,972 

$38,312 


$210,360 
88. :^12 




6. 

Ft 

ench  Creek  Division. 

Original  cost, 

$734,662.06. 

Cost, 

$817,779.00 

Year 

Revenue 

Expenditure 

1830 

None 

$  2,060 

1831 

a 

None 

1832    . 

a 

cc 

1833 

if 

7,913 

1834 

$    336 

17,539 

1835 

884 

19,100 

1836 

388 

30,229 

1837 

1,079 

19,065 

1838 

555 

10,107 

1839 

981 

4,060 

1840 

645 

16.263 

1841 

340 

8,383 

1842 

516 

4,585 

1843 

None 

2,592 

1844 

i( 

796 

1845 

97 

1,219 

$5;820 


$143,012 
5,820 


Excess  of  Expenditure    $138,092 


i= 


284  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Woiis  of  Pennstilvania. 

7.     Summary  of  Lateral  Canals. 

Original  cost    $6,471,994.34 

Cost     7,376,463.00 

Revenue     8,086,575.00 

Expenditure     4,822,548.00 

Excess  of  Revenue   $3,264,027.00 


Here  follow  statements  of  certain  costs  or  expenditures  on  account 
of  the  public  works  not  included  in  the  foregoing  tables.   (See  p.  239.) 

UxFixisHED  Improvements. 

Xorth  Branch  Extension  of  Canal    $4,681,542 

West  '•'  "  '•  353,575 

Erie  Extension  of  Canal    3,196,149 

Wioonisco  Canal 393,441 

Allegheny  Feeder   31,592 

Gettysburg  Extension  of  Railroad   682,846 

Total   $9,339,145 


Board  of  Canal  Commissioners. 


1830 

$  3,590 

1831 

4,974 

1832 

6,001 

1833 

5,740 

1834 

6,077 

1835 

6,148 

1836 

4,075 

1837 

10,343 

1838 

6.363 

1839 

2,036 

1840 

8.623 

1841 

17,276 

1842 

10.747 

1843 

4.145 

1S44 

10.560 

1845 

$5,163 

1846 

5,042 

1847 

5,056 

1848 

5,467 

1849 

4,930 

1850 

5,397 

1851 

8,911 

1852 

8,569 

1853 

7,790 

1854 

5,818 

1855 

7,230 

1856 

8,036 

1857 

8,240 

1858 

9,963 

Total   $202,620 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania.  285 

Board-  of  Appraisers  of  Damages. 

1830  $   192 

IS.'Jl 663 

1832  ., 495 

1833  1,837 

1834 90 

1835  3,786 

1830 1,014 

1837  1,286 

1S3S  885 

1839  1,265 

1840  3,650  ■ 

1841  828 

1842  960 

1843  034 

Total  $17,585 

Collectors,  Weighmasters  and  Lockkeepers. 

1830  $  9,880                  1845  $  68,844 

1831  9,032                  1846  68,127 

1832  22,232                  1847  67,426 

1833  30,661                  1848  73,177 

1834  41.722                  1849  78,886 

1835  54,996                  1850  83,305 

1836  54,674                  1851  90,226 

1837  68,632                  1852  95,539 

1838  65.506                  1853  96,870 

1839  78,078                  1854  ■  95,897 

1840  79,571                  1855  89,974 

1841  ■  89,112                   1856  119,239 

1842  80,796                  1857  70,393 

1843  69,557                   1858  13.224 

1844  63,882 

Total    $2,109,518 

Exploratory  Surveys. 

1825 $  6,351 

1826    6,576 

1827    15,033 

1828    29,881 

1829    19.638 

1836    500 

1837    16,745 

1838    2,288 

1839 15,826 

1840    44.999 


Total    $157,83 


i 


286 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worlrs  of  Pennsylvania. 


Eecapitut.ation. 

Condensed  tabular  A'iew  of  tlie  financial  operations  of  the  state  works  of 
Pennsylvania  covering  the  whole  period  of  state  ownership. 


LINES. 


Cost. 


Reyenue. 


Exyjendi- 
ture. 


Columbia  and  Philadelphia  Railroad $  5,277,278  .«;12,300,552  $  7,509,846 

Eastern  Division  of  Canal .J     1,737,285'  3,405,632  L071,5!)5 

Jniiiata  Division  of  Canal !     3,575,!»66      1,661,318  2,305,1)42 

Allefj;heny  Portage  Railroad ,     2,708,672      3,648,611  4,8!)0,241 


Western  Division  of  Canal |     3,173,434|     3,048,578 


Main  Line $16,472,635  .$24,064,591  .$17,374,996 


1,597,372 


Delaware  Division  of  Canal... 1,543,763  4,123,377 

Suseiuehanua  Division  of  Canal 1,039,257  724,092 

North  Branch  Division  of  Canal ;  1,623,117  2,301,979, 

West  Branch  Division  of  Canal '  1,833,183  892,995 


Beaver  Division  of  Canal 

French  Creek  Division  of  Canal. 


Lateral  Lines.. 
Finished  Lines. 


519,364i 

817,779 


38,312 
5,820 


$  7,376,463 


$  8,086,575 


$23,849,098  .f32,151, 166 


Unfinished  Improvements. .' 

Board  of  Canal  Commissioners 

Board  of  Apjj raisers  of  Damages 

Collectors,  Weighmasters  and  Lockkeepers. 

Exploratory  Surveys. .    _. 

Old  Claims  on  Public  Works  (1859) 

Amount  received  at  State  Treasury  for  sale 
of  public  property  belonging  to  the  State 
Works  previous  to  the  sale  of  the  main 
line,  together  with  amount  received  from 
canal  fines,  and  not  included  in  the  fore- 
going tables  of  revenues. 

Bills  clearlj'  chargeable  to  the  public  im- 
provements but  included  in  accounts  for 
State  printing,  at  least 


9,339,145 

101.310 

17,585 

157,837 


2,432 


Paid  for  use  of  patent  rights. 


Amount  paid  for  engraving  plates  and  print- 
ing bonds,  advertising  loans,  counsel  fees, 
and  other  incidental  items  regarding  the 
internal  improvements  (approximately) 

Amount  received  for  works  sold, 

(a)  Main  Line 

(b)  Lateral  Lines 
Amount  paid  for  interest  on  loans  pertaining 

to  the  improvements  including  premiums 
on  specie  funds  and  interest  to  domestic 
creditors    


Totals. $33,464,975  $43,786,558 


351,955 


$33,464,975  $32,505,553 


7,500,000 
3,781,000 


806,640 
1,044,381 
1,043,695 

210,360 
143,912 


%  4,822,548 


.$22,197,544 

101,310 

2,109,518 

10,650 


33,803 
6,400 

12,000 


.$24,471,225 


43,675,034 


$68,146,259 


A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worhs  of  Pennsylvania. 


287 


Appendix  YII. — Tables  of  Loans. 

Table  'A'  shows  the  loans  of  Pennsylvania  and  under  what  laws 
negotiated  from  the  commencement  of  the  internal  improvement 
system  in  1826  until  June,  1844;  the  rate  of  interest  at  which  each 
was  taken ;    and  the  premiums  received. 

Table  'B'  shows  the  loans  made  by  Pennsylvania  from  1844 
until  the  sale  of  the  public  works. 

'  ^4  ' — Loans  hetween  1826  and  ISJ^Jf. 


Loans. 


and 


Stock  Loan,  per  act,  April  1,  1826 — 

Stock  Loan,  April  9,  1837 

Stock  Loan.  March  24,  1828 

Temporary  Loan,  April  14,  1828 

Stock  Loan,  Dec.  18,  1828 

Temporary  Loan,  Dec.  18,  1828 

Temporary  Loan,  April  22.  1829 

Stock  Loan.  April  22,  1829 

Temporarj- Loan,  Nov.  17,  1829 

Stock   Loan,   per  acts,   Dec.   7,    1829 

Jan.  4,  1831  _    

Stock  Loan,  March  13,  1880   

Temporary  Loan,  Jan.  12,  1831 

Temporary  Loan,  anticipating  next  loan. 

Stock  Loan,  March  21,  1831   

Stock  Loan.  March  30,  1831    

Temporary  Loan,  March  9,  1832 

Stock  Loan,  March  30,  1832 

Stock  Loan,  April  5,  1832 

Stock  Loan.  Feb.  16,  1833 

Stock  Loan .  March  27,  1833 .    

Temporary  Loan.  Jan.  27,1834 

Stock  Loan.  April  5,  1834 

Temporary  Loan,  Jan.  17,  1835 

Temporary  Loan.  Feb.  27.  1835 

Stock  Loan,  April  13,  1835 

Temporarj'  Loan,  Jan.  22,  1836 

Temporary  Loan,  April  1.  1836 

Temporary  Loan,  June  10,  1836 

Temporary  Loan,  June  16,  1836 

Temporary  Loan,  April  14.  1838 

Temporary  Loan,  April  14,  1838 

Stock  Loan.  Jan.  26,  1839 

Temporary  Loan,  Jan.  30,  1839 

Stock  Loan,  Feb.  9.  1839 

Temporary  Loan,  Mar.  14, 
Stock  Loan.  Mar.  16.  1839 
Stock  Loan,  Mar.  27,  1839 
Stock  Loan,  June  7.  1889. 
Stock  Loan.  June  27,  1839 


Amount. 


1839 


Temporary  Loan,  June  27,  1839 

Stock  Loan,  July  19,  1839 

Stock  Loan,  Jan.  23,  1840 

Stock  Loan,  April  3,  1840 

Stock  Loan,  June  11,  1840 

Stock  Loan,  Jan.  16,  1841 

Stock  Loan,   for  insane  asylum,  Mar.  4, 
1841 


},    300 

1,000 

2,000 

490 

800 

22; 

1,518 

2,200 

1,000 


000.00 
.000.00 
.000.00 
.000.00 
,000. ooi 
,000.001 
,838.92 
,000.00 
,000.00 


487,034.46 

4,000.000.00 
250,000.00 
230,000.00 

3,483,161.88' 

300,000.00 

75,000.00 

2,348.680.00 
300.000.00 

2,540,661.44 
530,000.00 
300,000.00 

2.265,400.00 
250,000  00' 
144.900. ooi 
959,600.001 
350,000.00i 
55,000.00 
20,000.00 
200,000.00 
200,000.00 
600,000.00 

1,200,000.00 
602.250.00 

1,280,000.00 

75,000.00 

100,000.00 

470.000.00 

50,000.00 

1,135,000.00 
220.000.00 

2,054,000.00 
870.000.00 
870.076.66 

1.946.215.65 
800,000.00 


Rate 
of  Int. 


5^ 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

4 

4 

4 

4 

4 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

5 

6 


Premiums. 


22,335.06i       6 


%  10,875.00 
47,500.00 


220,000.00 


148,989.71 
18,000.00 

330.694.14 
45.270.00 

246,530.97 
74,200.00 


99,249.62 


115,343.92 


1,500.00 


587.50 


37.50 


Amount  carried  forward !  $40, 118, 154. 07' 


$1,358,778.36 


288  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worls  of  Pennsylvania. 

'A'' — Loans  between  1826  and  ISJ^J^. —  Continued. 


Loans. 

"    1 
Amount. 

Rate 
of  Int. 

Premlum.s. 

Amount  brought  forward. 

$40,118,154.07 
2,220.264.6S 

569,503.50 

$1,358,778.36 

Loan  (Relief),  Mav  4.  \M\ 

1 
5 

Stock  Loan  (Bank  Charter),  Mav  5,  1841. 

Stock  Loan  (Bank  Charter),  May  6,  1841. 

874,077.40 

6 

Stock  Loan  for  the  Eastern  Penitentiary 

per  acts  of  Mar.  28,  1881  and  AnvW  9, 

1833 : 

120,000.00 

5 

Stock  Loan  for  the  Union  Canal  Company 

per  acts  of  Mar.   1,   1833  and  Dee.   16, 

1833 

200,000.00 

4i 

Certificates  of  Stock  for  interest  due  Aug. 

1,  1842,  per  act,  July  27,  1842 

866,625.53 

6 

Certificates  of  Stock  fur  guaranty  of  inter- 

est due  Bald   Eagle  and   Spring  Creek 

Navigation  Company,  per  act  of  July 

27,  1842 

5,000.00 

6 

Certificates  of  Stock  for  interest  due  Dan- 

ville and   Pottsville  Railroad  Company, 

per  act  of  July  27,  1842 

15,000.00 

6 

Certificates  of  Stock  for  interest  due  Feb. 

1  and  Aug.  1,  1843,  per  act,  Mar.  7.  1843 

1,747.976.00 

6 

Stock  Loan  for  funding  of  interest  certifi- 

cates and  other  purposes,  April  29,  1844 

60,643.72 

6 

Certificates  of  Stock  for  interest,  May  31, 

1844 

288,506.04 

6 

Total 

$47,085,750.94 

$1,358,778.36 

All  of  the  above  temporary  loans  were  promptly  reimbursed  so 
that  none  were  outstanding  in  1844.  Usually  they  had  been  con- 
tracted in  anticipation  of  long  time  loans. 

On  January  6th,  1842,  the  amount  of  the  state  debt  contracted 
solely  for  public  works  was  $33,359,313.  After  this  date  the 
cause  for  the  increase  of  debt  is  stated  in  each  case. 

'  B ' — Loans  between  18Jf.j^  and  1858. 


Loans. 

.\  mount. 

Rate 
of  Int. 

Stock  Loan  for  funding  interest  certificates,  April  16, 

1845    ..    .__.      

Stock  Loan,  to  renew  charter  loan,  Jan.  22,  1847 

Stock  Loan,  for  refunding  relief  notes,  April  11,  1S4S 
Stock  Loan,  to  avoid  Schuvlkill   inclined  plane,  April 

10.  1S49 ' 

Stock  Loan  to  complete  North  Branch  Extension,  April 

2,1852 

Stock  Loan,  to  redeem  State  stocks,  interest  certificates, 

domestic  creditor  certificates,  etc..  May  4.  1852.. 
Stock  Loan  to  redeem  maturing  bonds,  April  19,  1853. 

$5,000,000.00 

62,500.00 

149,838.45 

400,000.00 

850,000.00 

5,000.000.00 
500,000.00 

5 
5 
6 

6 

4i  &5 

4&5 
5 

Total                             

$11,962,338.45 

A.  L.  Bishop — Tlie  State  Works'of  Pennsylvania.  289 

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290  A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worhs  of  Pennsylvania. 

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Flagg,  A.  C,  The  Rise,  Progress  and  Present  Condition  of  Internal  Improve- 
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Callatdn,  A.,  Pvcport  of  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury  on  Public  Roads  and 
Canals.     Washington,  1808. 

General  Statement  of  tlie  Contracts  for  Opening  and  Improving  Roads  and 
Rivers.     Philadelphia,   1707. 

Governors'  Messages. 

Hammond.  J.  W.,  A  Tabular  View  of  the  Financial  Affairs  of  Pennsylvania, 
182(5-44.     Pliihulclphia,    1844. 

Hazard,  S.,  Tlie  Register  of  Pennsvlvania,  Jan.  5th,  1828, — Dec.  26th,  1835. 
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History  of  the  Ohio  Canals.  Pub.  Ohio  State  Archaeological  and  Historical 
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Hulbert,   A.  "b.,  The  Great  American  Canals,  2  vols.     Cleveland,   0.,   1904. 

Hulbert,  A.  B.,  XVashington  and  the  West.     New  York,  1905. 

Inland  Navigation  and  Internal  Improvements  as  Now  Prosecuted  in 
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1829. 

Johnson  (Attorney  General),  Compilation  of  the  Laws  of  Pennsylvania 
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Journals  of  the  House  of  Representatives  of  Pennsylvania. 

Journals  of  the  Senate  of  Pennsylvania. 

Kedth,  H.  E.,  Historical  Sketch  of  Internal  Imj)rovements  in  Michigan, 
1836-48.     Pub.  Mich.  Pol.  Sei.  Ass'n.,  IV,  2,  1900. 

Klein,  T.  B.,  The  Canals  of  Pennsyh'ania  and  the  System  of  Internal 
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Laws  of  Pennsylvania.     Those  before  1778  are  foimd  only  in  manuscript. 

Laws  of  Pennsylvania,  General  Index  to,  1700-1812.     Philadelphia,  1812. 

Legislative  Documents,  1854-60.  Piior  to  1854,  published  with  House  and 
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Letters  on  the  Subject  of  the  Sale  of  the  Main  Line  of  the  Public  Improve- 
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McPherson,  E.,  Letters  of  a  Pennsyh'anian  on  the  State  Canals.  Harris- 
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A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Works  of  Pennsylvania.  "291 

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A.  L.  Bishop — The  State  Worhs  of  Pennsyh-ania. 


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1 


CONTENTS. 


Page 
Introduction    149 

Chapter       I.     ImprO'vements  in  Transportation  before  1823 150 

II.  The  Popular  Movement  for  Internal  Improvements....    167 

III.  The  Construction  of  the  Public  Works 189 

IV.  Finance    205 

V.  Corrupt    Practices    connected    with    tlie    Building    and 

Operation  of  the  Public  Works 220 

VI.     The  Disposal  of  the  Public  Works 245 

Appendix     I.     Memorial  to  the  Legislature 261 

II.     Delegates  to  the  Canal  Convention  at  Harrisburg 264 

III.  Resolutions  Passed  at  the  Canal  Convention  at  Harris- 
burg, August  4th  to  6th,  1825 260 

■     IV.'    Act  of  February    25th,    1826     267 

V.     Act  of  April  9th,   1827    271 

VI.     Financial  Statement  of  the  Public  Works 277 

Bibliography    289 

Index    293 


I 


INDEX. 


Page 

Accounting,  method  of 238,  239,  240 

Act  of  March  14th,  1761   154: 

April  13th,  1791  156,  161 

September  29th,   1791    161 

April   10th,  1792  162 

April  2d,  1811  163 

March  24th,  1817    157 

March  20th,  1818    156 

March  26th,  1821    163 

February  13th,   1822    156 

March  27th,  1824   : 172 

April   11th,   1825 179,  205 

February  25th,  1826 :  .  .  .185,  186,  187,  189,  190,  201,  267-71 

April   1st,   1826    205,  209,  225 

April  9th,  1827    190,  191,  192,  201,  204,  229,  271-77 

March  24th,   1828    192,  193,  196 

April  22d,  1829 193,  210 

November   17th,  1829 210,  225 

March   25th,    1831    212,   214,   215,  225,  228 

February   18th,  1836    212,  214 

^,  February   19th,   1839    231 

June  nth,   1840    219 

May  4th,   1841    220 

July  27th,  1842   221,  250,  28S 

March  7th,  1843   249 

April  8th,  1843  221 

April  29th,  1844   222,  223,  250,  251 

March  13th,  1845 249 

April  13th,  1846 252 

April  21st,   1846  252 

February  25th,  1847    252 

March  27th,  1848   253 

April  27th,  1854   254 

May  8th,  1855 254 

May  16th,  1857 256 

April  21st,  1858    258 

January  25th,  1859    260 

February  26th,   1885   260 

Acts    (See  Tables  of  Loans,  287-88). 

Allegheny  feeder  199 

31- 


I 


294  ixDKx. 

Page 

AUeghenj-  mountain    151,   190,   194,   197,  246,  251 

Allegheny  portage  railroad    194,  197,  238,  248,  257,  260 

Allegheny  river    159,    171,  178,  200 

Auction   duties    206 

Bald  Eagle  side  cut  199 

Bank,  ]\liddleto\vn    236 

Bank  of  the  United  States    204,  205,  214,  215,  217 

Banks    213,  224 

Baring  Brothers  and  Company   216 

Blair's  Gap 197 

Bridges    166 

Canal,  Beaver   division   of    200 

Chenango,  of  Xew  York    200 

Delaware  division  of    200,  23G 

Eastern  division  of   197,  238 

Erie  Extension  of   200,  201,  235,  249 

Franlvliu  branch  of   200 

Juniata  division  of    197,  235,  238 

Mahoning     200 

IVIiddlesex     177 

North  Branch  division  of   199 

North  Branch  Extension   199 

Ohio    and    Erie 246 

Susquehanna  division  of    199,  236 

West  Branch  di\asion  of   199 

Western  division  of 197,  198,  235,  238 

Wiconisco 200,  231 

Canal  commissioners,  board  of,  abolislied    260 

board  of,  changed  in  organization   189 

board  of,  created    179 

duties  of  board  of    180 

reports  of  boards  of 186,  189,  192,  193,  194,  209, 

•   231,  238,  240,  248,  249,  254. 

Canal  convention  at  Harrisburg   180,  181,  184,  264,  206 

Canal  loans    162,  209,  211,  219,  224,  225,  287,  288 

premiimis  on 211,  212,  213,  287,  2SS 

rates  of  interest  on   287-89 

Canal,  revenues  of   203,  277-84 

Canal   tolls    201,  218,  224,  226 

Canals,  contracts  for  building    189,  192,  193,  195 

dimensions  of   199 

operated  in  Pennsylvania  now   261 

surveys   for    159,  161,   191,  192,  193 

Chenango  canal  of  New  York   200 

Commissioners,  board  of    172 

Commissioners  of  Internal  Improvement  Fund   206,  209,  222,  227 


I 


INDEX.  295 

Page 
Committee    of    Roads,    Bridges,    and    Inland    NaAigation,    Report 

of     ; 164,  171,  186 

Committee  of  twenty- four  178,  181,  261 

Con^mittee  to  investigate  conduct  of  canal  commissioners 236 

Committee  to  investigate  expenditures 234,  235 

Cone^vago  falls    155 

Conneaut  lake  200,  201 

Contractors,   payments  to,  delayed    210,  211 

Contracts,  law  governing  the  re-letting  of    233 

letting  of    231 

re-letting  of   233,  234 

Corporations    166,  187,  188,  251 

Domestic  creditors    221 

Erie  o^nal...l53,  158,  167,  169,  170,  175,  177,  182,  200,  208,  227,  245,  246, 
247,  248,  251. 

Erie  canal  company  of  Pennsylvania   200,  249 

Erie  canal,  cost   of    208 

policy  adopted  for  financing   208 

tolls  on   177 

Erie,  Lake 151,  152,  158,  163,  171,  178,  179,  182,  200 

Expenditures,  ordinary  and  extraordinary   239 

Financial  embarrassment,  1839-44^  causes  of   224 

failure  of  State  works  recognized   222 

reform   commenced.    222 

statement  of  State  works 228,  277-86 

French  creek  feeder   200,  249 

Improvement  society    174,   176,  178,  181 

acting  committee  of 175,  181 

address  of,  to  the  citizens  of  the  State 176 

Interest  certificates • 221,  222,  223 

defaulted     221 

fund    207,  209,  210,  211,  212,  214,  218,  222,  225,  226 

payment  delayed   216,  221 

resumed    ' 223 

struggle  to  avoid  defaulting 217 

Internal  Improvement  Fund    205,  208,  210,  211 

sources  of    206 

Johnstown    feeder     199 

Laborers    .' 189 

Lateral  works,  summary  of  divisions  of 199-201 

Lehigh  Coal  and  Navigation  Company 156,  157,  200 

Lehigh   river    150 

Lehman,   William   171 

Lewisburg  side  cut    199 


29G  INDEX. 

Page 

Locks,  dimensions  of   199 

Loans,  see  tables  of  • 287-88 

Log-rolling 202,  203,  204,  215,  229 

Mahoning  canal    200 

Main  line,  summary  of  divisions  of  .  .  : 195-99 

Memorials  to  legislature 158,  178,  179,  261 

Middlesex  canal    177 

]\Iifflin,  Governor  Thomas 158,  160 

[Miners'  Journal    182 

Mississippi  river    151,  152,  168 

Monongahela  ]Sra%'igation  Company    157 

National   road   170 

New  York,  canal  coigimissioners  of   170 

canal  fund  of    208 

Ohio  and  Erie  canal    246 

Packer,  Governor    259 

Panic  of  1837    216 

Penn,  William 153,  160 

Pennsylvania  canal  company  257 

Pennsylvania,  canals  in,  operated  now   201 

Pennsylvania  canal,  first  ground  broken  for   189 

Pennsylvania  Railroad   Company   chartered    252 

incorporated    252 

Philadelphia,  public  convention  of  citizens  of  178,  181 

Pollock,   Governor    256,  258 

Porter,   Governor    217,  218,  222,  227 

Railroad,   Allegheny   Portage    194,  197,  238,  248,  257,  260 

Baltimore   and   Ohio    230,  251,  252 

Gettysburg    195,  196,  230 

New   Portage    198,  240 

Pennsylvania     253,  254,  256,  257,  260,  201 

Philadelphia  and  Columbia    193,  195,  196,  235,  238,  240,  257 

Philadelphia  and   Reading    155 

Sunbury  and  Erie 285,  250 

West   Philadelphia 196 

Railroads,  inclined  planes  on   195,  196,  198 

motive  power  on    198 

Raystown  feeder   197 

Relief  notes    220 

Ritner,   Governor   203,  217,  231 

Rittenhouse,   Da%nd    161 

Schuylkill  Navigation  Company   154,  155 

Sectional   jealousies    201,  202,  230 

Shultze,   Governor    172,  179,  185,  210 


INDEX.  297 

Page 

Society  for  improvement  of  roads  and  inland  navigation 158,  160 

State  debt    213,  218,  229 

State  works  abandoned     257 

cost  of   174,  208,  222,  228,  229,  238,  240,  280,  286 

expenditures   on    228,  229 

gross  revenue  of    228,  229,  286 

main  line  of,  completed    195 

main  line  of,  sold   256 

sale  of 218,  228,  245,  248,  250,  253,  254,  256,  257,  258,  259 

vote  on  sale  of  main  line 250 

Stocks  held  by  State,  sale  of  221,  222 

Strickland,  William    175,  180,  189 

report   of    176 

Surplus  revenue,  distribution  of   204,  217 

Susquehanna  river 160,  170,  171,  172,  178 

Taxation   211,  212,  214,  217,  218,  219,  222,  225,  226,  227,  245,  253 

Tax  laws  of  1831    212,  219,  220,  225,  226 

Tax  laws  repealed 212,  215,  225 

Tolls,  rates  of  established,  and  first  collected 193 

Tonnage  on  Erie  and  Pennsylvania  canals  compared   248 

Tonnage,  tax  on   252,  253 

Transportation  companies    247 

Timnel,  Staple  Bend   198 

Turnpikes    ' 165,  166,  184 

Union   canal    155,  160,  163,  164 

United  States  Bank  of  Pennsylvania 214,  215,  216,  217,  224,  225 

failures  of    217 

Ways  and  Means,  committee  on    211,  219,  227,  250,  251,  258 

West,  canals  of 167,  245 

canal  routes  to  the    159,  173,  190 

growth    of    167,  168 

Western  trade,  rivalry  for   ..159,  169,  174,  177,  183,  187,  245,  248,  251,  253 

Westward  movement   150,  151 

Wiconisco  canal    200,  231 

company    249 

Wilson,   William  Bender    243 

Wolf,    Gk>vernor 211,  226 


I 


5 

«: 


vJv-^-^o 


TRANSACTIONS  Of  THE 
CONNECTICUT  ACADEMY  OF  ARTS  AND  SCIENCES 


Incorporated  A.  D.  1799 

VOLUME  XIII.     PP.  299-474.     PLATES  ix-xxviii. 


APRIL,  1908 


Publications  of  Yale  University 


DECAPOD  CRUSTACEA  OF  BERMUDA;    I— BRACHYURA 
AND  ANOMURA.    THEIR  DISTRIBUTION, 
VARIATIONS,  AND  HABITS 


I5Y 


A.  E.  VERRILL 

Professor  of  Zoology,  emeritus,  in  Yale  University 


NEW    HAVEN,    CONNECTICUT 
1908 

THE    TUTTLE,   MOREHOUSE    &    TAYLOR    PRESS 


VI. — Decai'od  Crustacea,  of  Bermuda  ;  I, — Braciiyura  and 
Anomura.  Their  Distribution,  Variations,  and  Habits. 
B}^  A.  E.  Verrill. 

The  following  catalogue  is  intended  to  include  all  the  species 
hitherto  known  to  occur  at  Bermuda.  It  is  based  mainly  on  the 
collections  made  by  myself  and  the  small  parties  of  students  and 
others  who  went  with  me  to  Bermuda  in  1898  and  1901  to  make  col- 
lections for  the  Museum  of  Yale  Univei'sity.  But  I  have  also  used 
several  earlier  collections  already  in  the  Yale  Museum,  especially  that 
of  Mr.  G.  Brown  Goode,  made  in  1876-1877,  of  which  the  species 
were  mostly  determined  by  Prof.  S.  I.  Smith,  soon  afterwards  ;  and 
the  still  earlier  collections  sent  to  the  Museum  by  Mr.  J.  M.  Jones, 
about  1866  to  1877  ;  also  small  collections  made  about  the  same 
period  by  Dr.  C.  Hartt  Merriam,  Dr.  F.  V.  Hamlin,  and  others. 

Recently,  Professor  Trevor  Kincaid,  of  the  Washins^ton  State 
University  of  Seattle,  has  sent  me,  for  examination,  his  entire  col- 
lection, made  while  at  the  Bermuda  Biological  Station,  in  1903. 

The  Field  Natural  History  Museum  of  Chicago  sent  to  Bermuda, 
in  1905,  an  expedition  under  Dr.  Tarleton  H.  Bean,  especially  to 
collect  the  fishes,  but  a  good  collection  of  Crustacea  was  also 
obtained,  including  a  number  of  species  dredged  on  the  Challenger 
and  Argus  Banks.  This  collection  has  been  sent  to  me  for  study  by 
the  director,  Mr.  F.  J.  Skiff,  to  whom  I  am  much  indebted  for 
the  privilege  of  studying  it.  The  collection  contained  several  inter- 
esting additions  to  the  Bermuda  crustacean  fauna.* 

Prof.  E.  L.  Mark,  of  Harvard  University,  has  also  kindly  sent  me, 
for  study,  a  collection  of  Crustacea  made  by  the  members  of  the 
Bermuda  Biological  Station,  under  his  direction.  It  is  of  special 
interest  because  some  of  the  species  were  dredged  on  the  Argus  and 
Challenger  Banks,  and  a  few  are  new  to  the  fauna.  Several  partial 
and  nominal  lists  of  Bermuda  Decapod  Crustacea,  mostly  without 
descriptions  or  figures,  have  already  been  published,  increasing, 
from  time  to  time,  the  number  of  known  species,  but  none  are  com- 
plete. No  doubt  many  additions  will  also  be  made  hereafter  to  the 
present  list,  though  it  is  probably  nearly  complete  for  the  shore 
and  shallow  water  species. 

*  Among  these  are  Dromia  eri/thrajjun,  a  small  Munida,  and  a  small  red 
AJpheus,  apparently  new,  from  the  Banks;  Charybrli'lla  tumidula,  Long  Bird 
I.,  and  Ghjptvrus  Branneri  Rath.,  from  St.  Davids  Island. 

Trans.  Conn.  Acad.,  Vol.  XIII.  22  Jan.,  1908. 


300  ^1.  E.   Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda. 

The  earlier  lists,  worthy  of  notice,  are  those  of  Mr.  J.  M.  Jones.* 
The  species  enumerated  by  him,  merely  b}'  names,  were  identified 
for  him  by  others,  and  were  not  all  reliably  named.  A  good 
series  of  his  Bermuda  Crustacea  still  remains  in  the  Yale  Museum, 
and  has  been  used  in  preparing  this  list,  as  stated  above. 

Prof.  Sidney  I.  Smith,  in  a  memoir  on  the  Crustacea  of  Brazil, f  in 
1869,  recorded  five  species  from  Bermuda  (coll.  J.  M.  Jones) 
studied  by  him  in  the  Yale  Museum,  and  others  in  his  later  papers. 

Prof.  Angelo  Heilprin,  in  his  general  work  on  the  Bermudas,! 
gave  a  brief  list  of  the  Crustacea  obtained.  They  were  identified 
by  Mr.  Witmer  Stone,  who  was  a  member  of  Prof.  Heilprin's  party. 
One  of  his  species  ( Cyclogrcqysus  integer)  has  not  been  taken  by 
later  collectors.  A  list  of  nine  species  was  given  by  Professor 
Ortmann  in  the  reports  of  the  Plankton  Expedition. § 

In  a  general  illustrated  work  on  the  West  Indian  Decapod  Crus- 
tacea,||  Ml".  Young  has   enumerated  and   described  23    species  pre- 

*  The  Naturalist  in  Bermuda,  LoncTon,  1859,  212  pp.,  8vo  ;  The  Visitor's  Guide 
to  Bermuda,  Halifax,  New  York,  and  London,  1876,  12mo,  159  pp.  For  a  list  of 
his  other  writings,  see  these  Trans.,  vol.  xii,  p.  201  ;  The  Bermuda  Is.,  ii,  p. 
157. 

Mr.  Jones  was  a  lawyer,  resident  in  Halifax,  N.  S.,  biit  he  resided  a  number 
of  winters  in  Bermuda,  also  doing  business  there.  He  was  much  interested  in 
zoologj-,  botany,  and  geology,  and  did  much  useful  pioneer  work  there,  in 
those  subjects.  His  books  were  very  iiseful  at  the  time  he  wrote,  for  little  had 
then  been  published  on  the  natural  history  of  the  Bermudas.  He  devoted  more 
attention  to  the  Mollusca  than  to  any  other  subject,  and  made  a  large  collection 
of  shells  there,  but  no  complete  list  of  them  has  been  published.  He  was  a 
personal  friend  of  Governor  Lefroy,  as  shown  by  their  correspondence  which 
I  have  seen,  and  they  were  often  associated  in  making  collections.  I  made  his 
personal  acquaintance,  while  at  Halifax,  in  1S77.  Soon  after  that  he  sent  to 
the  Yale  Museum  a  large  part  of  his  collections  of  corals,  echinoderms, 
bryozoa,  etc.  At  about  the  same  period  he  sent  his  collection  of  Crustacea  to 
be  studied  by  Prof.  S.  I.  Smith  of  Yale,  who  was  then  intending  to  write  a 
general  report  on  the  Bermuda  Crustacea  for  Bulletin  25  of  the  U.  S.  National 
Museum.  Other  more  imperative  duties  prevented  the  completion  of  that 
work,  as  well  as  my  own  report  on  the  corals  and  echinoderms,  undertaken  at 
the  request  of  Mr.  Goode,  for  that  Bulletin. 

f  Notice  of  the  Crustacea  collected  by  Prof.  C  F.  Hartt,  on  the  Coast  of 
Brazil  in  1867.     These  Trans.,  vol.  ii.  pp.  1-42,  1869. 

JHeilijrin,  Angelo. — The  Bermuda  Islands.  Crustacea  on  pp.  146-149.  Phila- 
delphia, 1889. 

§  Ortmann,  Arnold. — Decapoden  und  Schizopoden  der  Plankton  Exped. .  Bd. 
ii,  1893. 

II  Young,  Chas.  G. — The  Stalk-Eyed  Crustacea  of  British  Guiana,  West  Indies, 
and  Bermuda,  London,  1900,  xix  +  514  pp.,  7  colored  plates. 


A.  E.  Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda.  301 

viously  recorded  from  Bermuda.  In  the  Reports  of  the  Voyage  of 
the  Challenger  there  are  lists*  of  the  25  shallow-water  species 
obtained  at  Bermuda.  Dr.  W.  M.  Rankin,  of  Princeton  University, 
published  in  1900  a  much  more  comj)U^te  list,  including  all  the 
species  known  up  to  that  date.f  He  recorded  33  species  of  Bra- 
chyura  and  6  of  Anomura.  He  utilized  the  collections  made  by 
the  parties  from  the  University  of  New  York.  He  also  had,  for  his 
use,  a  list  of  the  species  obtained  by  Mr.  G.  Brown  Good e, J  in  1876 

*  Miers,  Edw.  J. — Report  on  the  Brachj'ura,  vol.  xvii,  1886.  Henderson,  J.  E. — 
Report  on  the  Anomura,  vol.  xxvii,  1888. 

f  The  Crustacea  of  the  Bermuda  Islands,  with  notes  on  the  Collection  made 
by  the  New  York  University  Expeditions  of  1897  and  1898.  Annals  New  York 
Acad.  Science,  vol.  xii,  No.  12,  pp.  521-548. 

J  Mr.  G.  Brown  Goode,  who  was  for  many  years  Assistant  on  the  U.  S.  Fish 
Commission ;  later,  Assistant  Secretary  of  theSmithsonian  Institution  and  Director 
of  the  National  Museum  ;  and  at  one  time  Commissioner  of  Fish  and  Fisheries; 
was  a  prominent  ichthyologist.  He  piiblished  a  number  of  important  works  on 
fishes.  One  of  his  earlier  ones  was  a  Catalogue  of  the  Fishes  of  Bermuda  with 
notes  on  their  colors  and  habits.  (Bulletin  of  the  U.  S.  National  Museum,  No. 
5,  1876.)     He  published  a  more  complete  catalogue  in  Bulletin  25,  1884. 

He  visited  Bermuda  in  the  winters  of  1876  and  1877,  partly  for  the  benefit 
of  his  health.  While  there  he  made  extensive  collections,  especially  of  fishes, 
Crustacea,  sponges,  corals,  and  echinoderms.  His  collections  were  much 
larger  than  any  previously  obtained  there.  They  contained  about  35  species  of 
Brachyura  and  Anomura  ;  also  many  Macrura.  Amphipods,  etc.  His  corals, 
actinife,  echinoderms,  bryozoa.  etc.,  were  identified  by  me,  before  1880,  and 
studied  with  reference  to  the  preparation  of  a  faunal  report  on  those  groups, 
for  Bulletin  25  of  the  U.  S.  National  Museum.  But  this  work  and  several 
others  were  laid  aside  in  order  to  undertake  the  more  important  investigation 
of  the  deep-sea  invertebrate  fauna  off  the  American  coast,  by  the  U.  S.  Fish 
Commission,  which  was  begun  in  1880,  and  placed  under  my  charge  by  the 
Commissioner,  Professor  S.  F.  Baird.  As  that  work  continued  annually  from 
1880  to  1888,  and  the  vast  collections  obtained  were  put  in  my  care  for  study, 
many  of  them  even  to  the  present  time,  with  scarcely  any  funds  to  employ 
assistants,  I  have  never  been  able  to  resume  the  publication  of  those  Bermuda 
reports,  in  the  foi'ui  intended,  but  the  results  liave,  in  large  part,  been  included 
in  the  papers  recently  published  by  me  in  these  Transactions.  Although  Mr. 
Goode's  collection  of  Crustacea  was  the  best  made  up  to  that  date,  it  was  by 
no  means  complete. 

The  following  extract  from  one  of  Mr.  Goode's  letters  to  Pi'ofessor  S.  I.  Smith 
will  serve  to  illustrate  his  interest  in  collecting  the  Crustacea : 

Bermuda,  March  19,  1877. 
My  Dear  Professor  Smith  : 

"  I  am  making  fine  hauls  among  the  crustaceans,  especially  among  the  minute 
forms,  and  have  already  filled  about  125  phials  and  bottles.     Have  not  yet  found 


303  A.  E.  Y  err  ill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda. 

and  1877,  which  had  been  identified  by  Professor  S.  I.  Smith,  many 
years  before.  A  series  of  the  same  collection,  which  was  sent  to 
the  U.  S.  National  Museum,  was  studied  by  Miss  Rathbun,  who 
furnished  the  list  for  Dr.  Rankin.  Anotiier  series  is  in  the  Museum 
of  Wcsleyan  University.  Professor  Smith  has  published  measure- 
ments and  other  information  in  regard  to  a  number  of  the  species 
in  Goode's  collection,  in  several  of  his  papers. 

Two  papers  by  me*  gave  the  many  additional  species  obtained 
by  the  parties  that  went  with  me  to  Bermuda  from  Yale  Universit}^ 
in  1898  and  1901,  to  study  the  zoology  and  make  more  complete 
collections. 

A  recent  and  very  important  work  on  the  Decapod  Crustacea  of 
Porto  Ricof  has  been  published  by  Miss  M.  J.  Rathbun.  She  has 
indicated  in  her  report  all  the  species  that  had  been  previously 
recorded  from  Bermuda,  with  their  general  distribution.  In  that 
report,  brief  but  clear  descriptions  are  given  of  all  the  genera  and 
species,  as  well  as  analytical  tables  of  the  genera  and  species.  It  is, 
therefore,  almost  a  manual  for  the  Bermuda  species,  for  most  of 
them  were  also  in  the  Porto  Rico  collections.  For  students  of  these 
Crustacea  it  is  the  most  useful  of  the  works  readily  available.  It 
contains  only  few  figures  of  the  Bermuda  species,  however. 

In  the  present  article  I  have  endeavored  to  figure  as  many  as 
possible  of  the  species,  even  wIkmi  well  known,  for  such  figui'es 
greatly  facilitate  their  identification  and  may  largely  take  the  place 
of  descriptions.  From  this  point  of  view  this  article  may  be 
regarded  as  a  complement  to  that  of  Miss  Rathbun,  to  which 
reference  should  be  made  for  technical  descriptions. 

I  have,  however,  included  brief  descriptions  of  some  of  the  more 
difticult  species,  and  also  most  of  the  notes  that  I  have  on  the 
colors  of  the  living  specimens,  with  such  observations  on  habits  as 
seemed  to  be  of  interest.     I  have  also  indicated  the  general  distribu- 

the  larval  stages  of  any  species  whatever, — perhaps  because  I  have  not  had  time 
to  use  a  towing  net."     *    *     *     * 

"  Am  having  excellent  success,  particularly  with  fishes  and  sponges.  I  have 
added  about  40  species  of  fishes  to  my  published  list.  You  will  be  pleased  to 
know  that  I  find  Amj^hioxus  quite  abundantly." 

*  Additions  to  the  Crustacea  and  Pycuogonida  of  the  Bei-niiadas,  Trans.  Conn. 
Acad.  Sci.,  vol.  x,  part  ii,  pp.  573-582,  plates  Ixvii-lxix,  1900. 

Additions  to  the  Fauna  of  the  Bermudas  from  the  Yale  Expedition  of  1901, 
with  Notes  on  Other  Siiecies.     Op.  cit.,  vol.  xi,  pji.  15-63,  i)lates  i-ix,  1901. 

f  Eathbun,  Miss  Mary  J. — The  Brachyura  and  Macrura  of  Porto  Rico.  From 
the  U.  S.  Fish  Comm.  Bulletin,  for  1900,  vol.  ii,  pp.  1-137*,  pi.  i,  ii,  1901. 


A.  E.  Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda.  303 

tion  and  range  of  the  species.  In  1898,  one  of  my  sons,  Clarence 
S.  Verrill,  who  was  of  the  Yale  party,  made  notes  on  the  habits  and 
colors  of  the  Crustacea.  1  am  indebted  to  him  for  such  notes,  many 
of  which  are  here  utilized,  and  have  his  initials  appended. 

Another  son,  A.  Hyatt  Verrill,  made  a  large  collection  of  Crusta- 
cea in  March,  1901,  before  my  arrival  at  Bermuda.  He  found  a 
number  of  interesting  additions  to  the  fauna.  I  am  also  indebted 
to  him  for  the  photographs  and  drawings  used  in  this  paper,  and 
also  for  a  number  of  colored  figures  and  various  notes  made  on  the 
colors  and  habits  of  a  number  of  species.  To  Miss  M.  J.  Rathbun, 
whose  nomenclature  I  have  generally  followed,  I  am  indebted  for  the 
identification  of  many  of  the  smaller  and  more  critical  specimens, 
and  for  the  loan  of  others.  From  her  papers  I  have  also  borrowed, 
Avith  a  few  alterations,  some  of  the  analytical  tables  of  species, 
genera,  and  higher  groups. 

I  am  also  indebted  to  Professor  S.  I.  Smith  for  numerous  com- 
parative measurements  of  a  number  of  species,  made  by  him  several 
years  ago  for  another  purpose. 

Many  of  the  crabs  have  colors  that  are  highly  protective  by  day  ; 
others  have  colors  that  ai-e  not  protective  by  daylight,  but  are 
highly  so  at  night,  in  moonlight,  or  twiliglit.  They  afford  an  excel- 
lent field  for  studies  of  this  kind.  Although  these  Crustacea  are 
numerous  in  Bermuda,  there  are  many  species  that  are  seldom  taken 
by  inexperienced  collectors,  because  of  their  peculiar  habits.  Many 
are  found  concealed  beneath  large  rocks  or  masses  of  dead  corals, 
which  must  be  turned  over  to  obtain  them.  This  is  particularly  true 
of  most  of  the  Piluranidae,  and  of  MUhr ax  f orceins,  Percnon  jjlanis- 
simiim,  etc.  Some  live  regularly  in  eroded  holes  in  masses  of  coral 
or  limestone,  like  many  species  of  Alpheus  and  the  common  Gono- 
dactylns  (Erstedi.  The  rare  crab,  Epialtus  bituberculatus,  was 
found  only  by  breaking  up  such  rocks.  Several  species  are  peculiar 
to  the  mangrove  swamps,  and  live  chiefly  among  the  tangled  roots 
of  the  mangroves,  where  it  is  hard  to  capture  them.  The  hand- 
somely colored  Goniopsis  cruentatus  has  this  habit,  as  well  as  some 
species  of  iSesarmft,  Pachygrapsus,  Eupanopeiis,  etc.  The  land- 
crabs,  Gecarclnus  and  Cardisoma,  burrow  deeply  in  the  earth,  and 
the  same  is  true  of  Ocypode  arenarius,  Ilippa  cvbensis,  etc.,  which 
inhabit  sandy  beaches.  These  and  many  others  are  mainly  nocturnal 
in  their  habits  and  can  sometimes  be  caught  out  of  their  burrows  in 
the  night  by  means  of  torches  or  lanterns,  especially  in  summer. 
The  great  Cardisoma  guanhumi  is  seldom  taken   here  in  any  other 


304  A.  E.   V err  11 1 — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda. 

way.  Tlie  various  species  of  Portunida3  are  active  swimmers  in 
shallow  water  and  must  be  taken  by  means  of  nets.  Many  species 
are  partial  to  the  outlying  reefs,  living  in  holes  and  crevices,  or 
under  broken  blocks  of  stone.  A  few  species  have  been  obtained 
only  by  dredging,  but  so  little  dredging  has  hitherto  been  done, 
except  in  very  shallow  water,  that  we  reall}^  know  very  little  about 
the  extensive  fauna  that  undoubtedly  inhabits  the  zone  between  10 
and  150  fathoms.  A  few  hauls  of  the  dredge  were  made  by  the 
"  Challenger "  outside  the  reefs.  The  expedition  sent  out  by  the 
Field  Museum  of  Chicago,  under  Dr,  Bean,  did  a  small  amount  of 
dredging  on  the  Argus  and  Challenger  J^anks,  and  obtained  there 
some  interesting  additions  to  the  Crustacean  fauna,  which  have  been 
sent  to  me  for  study.  A  few  successful  hauls  were  also  made  there 
by  a  party  from  the  Bermuda  Biological  Station. 

Dredging  outside  the  reefs,  in  10  to  30  fathoms,  where  the  fauna 
should  be  richest,  is  difficult,  not  only  because  of  the  rough  seas 
that  prevail  there  at  the  seasons  wiien  most  collectors  visit  the 
islands,  but  also  because  the  bottom  itself  is  very  broken  and  rough, 
being  covered  in  inost  places  by  large  masses  of  broken  rocks  and 
dead  corals,  and  in  many  localities  by"  living  branched  corals  ( Oc«- 
lina)  and  gorgonians,  so  that  the  dredges  are  apt  to  be  lost  or  the 
nets  speedily  torn.  Even  tangles  are  liable  to  be  caught  among 
the  rough  rocks  and  lost.  The  larger  Crustacea,  living  in  such 
places,  can  only  be  obtained  by  means  of  baited  fish-traps  or  lobster 
pots.  In  this  way  three  large  species  of  Sci/llarides  or  "  Spanish- 
lobsters  "  have  been  obtaiiied,  as  well  as  several  large  crabs.  The 
collections  of  Crustacea  made  by  my  own  parties  are  very  much 
larger  than  those  made  by  any  of  the  other  expeditions,  both  in  the 
number  of  species  and  in  the  number  of  specimens,  but  they  were 
all  obtained  in  the  spring,  from  March  Ist  to  June  4th,  and  very 
few  were  dredged.  The  same  is  true  of  sevex'al  other  collections. 
Mr.  Jones  and  Mr.  Goode  collected  both  in  the  winter  and  spring, 
but  the  dates  are  seldom  indicated  on  their  labels.  The  collection 
from  the  University  of  New  York,  worked  out  by  Dr.  Kankin,  was 
made  in  midsummer,  and  therefore  affords  some  additional  seasonal 
information.  Probably  considerable  differences  would  be  found 
between  large  collections  made  in  midsummer  or  autumn  and  those 
made  in  winter  or  spring. 

In  this  respect  the  collection  made  by  the  expedition  from  the 
Field  Museum  of  Natural  History  is  of  special  interest.  That 
party  Avorked  from   Aug.    18  to  Nov.   10,  1905.     The  collection  of 


A.  E.  Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda.  305 

Crustacea  obtained  is  not  large,  for  the  fishes  were  the  special 
objects  sought,  but  it  contains  many  interesting  species,  some  of 
them  not  previously  found. 

Whenever  possible  I  have  given  the  season  when  females  carrying 
eggs  were  taken. 

Since  many  species  may  have  been  formerly  introduced  by  adher- 
ing to  the  bottoms  of  vessels,  and  others  may  be  introduced  here- 
after in  the  same  way,  I  have  thought  it  advisable  to  mention 
particularly  the  earlier  occurrences  of  all  the  species,  so  far  as  I 
know.  But  very  few  dates  can  now  be  given  earlier  than  those  of 
the  collection  of  J.  M.  Jones,  which  was  fortunately  quite  large. 
Much  of  his  collection  was  made  as  early  as  1859  to  1866,  but  his 
specimens  had  no  labels  giving  precise  dates.  Abundant  opportunity 
for  the  introduction  of  West  Indian  species  have  prevailed  for  nearly 
;iOO  years,  but  they  have  much  increased  in  modern  times,  especially 
since  the  establishment  of  the  great  naval  dry  dock.  Vast  numbers 
of  living  marine  animals  are  always  scraped  from  the  bottoms  of 
foul  vessels,  besides  barnacles. 


BRACHYURA. 

Key  to  the  Superfaniilies  or  Tribes  of  Brachyura* 

A. — Buccal  frame  quadrate  ;  efferent  branchial  channels  opening  at  the  sides  of 
the  endostome. 

B. — Carapace  usually  quadrilateral,  frontal  region  curved  downward.  Verges 
inserted  either  in  tlie  sternal  plastron  or  in  the  basal  joints  of  the  fifth  pair 
of  legs  of  the  male,  thence  passing  through  channels  in  the  sternum,  beneath 
the  abdomen _ _.  Catometopa 

B\ — Carapace  not  quadrilateral.  Verges  inserted  in  basal  joints  of  the  fifth 
pair  of  legs. 

C. — Carapace  short  and  broad,  rounded  in  front,  without  a  projecting  frontal 
rostrum Ci/clometopa 

C. — Carapace  usually  more  or  less  triangular  or  ovate,  with  a  projecting,  pointed, 
forked,  or  spined  rostrum ..  Oxyrhyncha 

A' .  — Buccal  frame  usually  triangular,  naiTowed  forward  ;  efferent  canals  open- 
ing at  middle  of  the  endostome.  Verges  inserted  in  the  basal  joint  of  the 
fifth  pair  of  legs Oxystomata 

*  Taken  with  slight  alterations  from  Brachyura  and  Macrura  of  Porto  Rico, 
by  Miss  M.  J.  Rathbun. 


306  .i.  E.  Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda. 

CATOMETOPA. 
Family  OCYPODIDiE  Leach. 

TIlis  family  is  I'epresented  in  Bermuda  only  by  the  genus  Ocypodt. 
The  "fiddler-crabs"  (genus  Uca  or  Gelasinius),  so  abundant  on 
most  coasts  of  warm  countries,  are  entirely  lacking,  so  far  as  known. 

Ocypode  arenarius  (G.  Edw.)  Say.     Ghost-Crab  ;  Sprite  ;  Beach  Crab. 

Cancer  arenarius  Edwards  in  Catesby,  Nat.  Hist.  Carolina,  ii,  pi.  35,  1771. 
Cancer  quadratus  J.  C.   Fabricius,  Entomologia  Systematica,  ii,  p.  439,  1793. 

("  Habitat  in  Jamaica  Mus.  Dom.  Banlis.") 
Ocypode  quadrata  J.  C.  Fabricius,  Suppl.  Entomol.  System.,  p.   347,    1798. 
S.  I.  Smith,  Trans.  Conn.  Acad.  Sci.,  iv,  p.  257,  1880.     (Synonymy    and 
distr. ) 
Ocypoda  albicans  Bosc,  Hist.  nat.  Crust.,  i,  p.  196  (not  the  fig.)     (Carolina 

coast). 
Oc]/pode  arenarius  Saj',  Jour.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Philadelphia,  i,  p.  G9,  1817. 
M. -Edwards,  Hist.  nat.  Crust.,  ii,  p.  44,  pi.  19,  tigs.  13,  14,  1837  {Ocypoda  are- 

naria)  ; 
Coues,  Proc.  Acad.  Nat,  Sci.  Philadelphia,  1871,  p.  122  {arenaria  ;  North 

Carolina,  habits). 
Smith,  Amer.  Jour.  Sci.  (3),  vi,  p.  67,  1873  (ilfoiio/e^jis  inennis=megalops- 
stage) ;   Inverteb.  Vineyard  Sd.,  Report  U.  S.  Fish  Comm.,  1,  p.  545  (251), 
534  (240),  1874  {Ocypoda  arenaria). 
Kingsley,   Proc.   Acad.  Nat.   Sci.    Philadelphia,  1878,  p.  322  (7),  {Ocypoda 
arenaria);  op.  cit.,   for  1879,  p.  400;  op.  cit.,    1880,  p.   184.*     Rankin. 
Crust.  Bermuda  Is.,  p.  525,  1900. 
Ocypoda  rhombea  M. -Edwards,  Hist.  nat.  Crust.,  ii,  p.  46,   1837  ("Antilles  et 
Bresil");  Ann.  Sci.  nat..  Ill,  xviii,  p.  143  (107),  1852  {Ocypode). 
Dana,  U.  S.  Expl.  Exped.,  Crust.,  p.  322,  pi.  19,  fig.  8,  1852  (Brazil). 
Monolepis  inermis  Say,  Joiir.   Acad.  Nat.   Sci.   Philadelphia,    i,  p.    157,   1817 

(megalops-stage). 
Ocypode  albicans  M.  J.  Rathbun,  Results  Branner-Agassiz  Exp.  Brazil,  Proc. 
Wash.  Acad.  Sci.,  ii,  p.  134,  1900  ;   Brachy.  and  Macr.  Porto  Rico,  p.  6,  1901 
(descr.);  Amer.  Naturalist,  xxxiv,  p.  585,  figs.  1,  2,  1900. 

Figure  1.  Plate  IX,  Figures  2,  3. 
This  crab  is  easily  distinguished  by  its  thick,  quadrate  carapace, 
coarsely  granulated  on  the  sides,  with  finer  granules  on  the  middle 
and  posterior  parts ;  the  acute  anterior  angles  ;  and  the  very  large  eyes 
and  eye-stalks.  The  eyes  are  abruptly  rounded  distally,  but  pro- 
longed proximally  on  the  stalks  beneath.     The  chelipeds  of  the  males 

*  Kingsley,  op.  cit.,  p.  184,  used  the  specific  name  arenaria,  as  from  Catesby, 
1731  and  1771,  dating  it  from  the  later  edition.  That  edition  was  edited  by 
George  Edwards,  who  gave  binomial  names  to  the  species  of  Catesby.  There 
is  no  valid  reason  for  not  adoiJting  them  when  they  have  priority,  as  in  this  case. 
The  name  Cancer  arenarius  is  given  in  the  text  and  is  also  engraved  on  the  plate. 


A.  E.  Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda. 


307 


have  a  stridulatiiig  organ,  consisting  of  a  vertical  series  of  short 
raised  lines  of  tubercles  on  a  narrow  rid^e.  It  is  doubtless  used  for 
a  sexual  call.  The  ambulatory  legs  are  fringed  with  long  yellow 
hairs. 

The  color  of  the  adults  at  Bermuda,  in  life,  is  mostly  pale  yellow, 
straw-color,  or  yellowish  white,  imitating  closely  the  color  of  the 
beaches   of   yellowish    white  shell-sand    on    which    it   lives.     Those 


Figure  1.  —  Ocypode  -arenarius,  about  73  nat.  size,  after  photo,  by  A.  H.  Verrill. 

young  specimens  that  we  found,  living  on  the  coast  of  New  Jersey, 
in  spring,  were  "pepper-and-salt  color,"  imitating  closely  the  colors 
of  the  silicious  (granitic)  sand  of  the  beaches.  When  pursued  they 
would  run  very  rapidly,  often  suddenly  stopping  and  squatting  so 
closely  in  the  sand  that  they  could  be  easily  overlooked. 

Its  common  name,  "ghost-crab,"  alludes  both  to  its  pale  color  and 
nocturnal  habits.  It  can  run  very  swiftly  on  the  sandy  beaches.  It 
lives  in  deep  burrows  near  or  above  high  tide. 


Measurements 

in  millimt 

iters. 

amber 

Sex 

Cara- 
pace 
length 

Cara- 
pace 
breadth 

Front 
breadth 

Chelfe 
length 

Chela; 
height 

Eye- 
stalks 
length 

Locality 

3060 

? 

39 

45 

5.5 

j  r.  31 
U-   36 

jl4 
/21 

16 

Bermuda 

3154 

<5 

38 

45 

5.5 

j  r.  36 
I  I.    45 

jl7 
<30 

16 

(( 

1719 

9 

40 

50 

6. 

i  r.  42 
}  1.  34 

j22 
114 

16 

Ft.  Macon 

4063 

S 

35 

43 

5. 

1.  38 

22 

15.5 

Bermuda 

Its  range,  in  the  adult  state,  is  from  Virginia  to  Brazil,  but  the 
free-swimming  young  {mec/alops)  are  carried  much  farther  north  in 
the  Gulf  Stream  and  often  arrive  alive  on  the  southern  coasts  of  New 
Eno-land. 

Prof.  S.  I.  Smith*  has  recorded  the  frequent  occurrence  of  the 
full  grown  raegalops  of  this  species  in  Long  Island  Sound  and  on  the 

*Amer.  Journ.  Science  (3),  vol  vi,  p.  67,  1875;  and  Trans.  Conn.  Acad.  Sci., 
iv,.  p.  255,  1880. 


308  A.  E.   Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda. 

southern  coast  of  New  England,  and  of  the  early  stages  of  the  adult 
form,  ill  abundance,  on  Fire  Island  Beach,  on  the  south  side  of  Long 
Island,  in  Sei)tember,  1870.  Probably  it  rarely  if  ever  survives  the 
winter  so  far  north.  In  April,  1872,  in  company  with  Professor 
Smith,  I  found  the  young  of  the  previous  year  abundant  and  very 
agile  on  the  outer  beaches  at  Great  Egg  Harbor,  N.  J.  These  had 
the  carapace  about  18  to  24™'"  broad. 

At  Bermuda  we  found  this  crab  common  on  the  shell-sand  beaches 
of  the  south  shore,  near  Tuckers  Town  and  elsewhere,  and  also  on 
the  north  shore  at  Shelly  Bay,  Lorig  Bird  Island  and  Bailey  Bay. 
One  specimen  was  caught  and  ]>rought  in  by  a  dog,  at  night.  Sev- 
eral large  Bermuda  specimens  in  the  Yale  Museum  were  collected 
by  Dr.  C.  Ilartt  Merriam,  April,  1881.  Two  examples  were  in  Mr. 
Goode's  collection.  It  has  been  obtained  by  several  other  collectors. 
Tiie  largest  that  I  have  seen  were  obtained  at  Coopei''s  Island,  by 
the  Field  Nat.  Hist.  Museum  Expedition.  None  of  the  females  that 
I  have  seen  carried  egirs,  though  they  have  been  taken  in  spring, 
midsummer,  and  autumn.  Perhaps  the  number  examined  was  not 
lar<j-e  enousfh  to  made  this  negative  evidence  of  much  value. 

Family  GECARCINID^  I\r.-Edw.     Land  Crabs. 

These  land  crabs  can  readily  be  recognized  by  their  very  convex 
surface,  with  the  margins  rounded  and  dilated  over  and  in  front  of 
the  branchial  regions.  The  front  is  strongly  bent  downward  and 
moderately  wide  ;  orbits  and  eye-stalks  not  very  large.  Chelipeds 
of  the  adult  males  large  and  powerful,  more  or  less  unequal.  Distal 
joints  of  the  legs  granulated  and  fringed. 

Gecarcinus  lateralis  (Frein.)  Guerin.     Common  Land  Crab. 

Ocypoda  lateralis  Freminville.  Aun.  Sci.  nat.,  iii,  p.  234,  1835. 
Gecarcinus  lateralis  Guerin,  Icon.  Regne  Anim.,  pi.  v,  fig.  1.     Rankin,  Crust. 
Bermuda,  p.  525,  190(1. 
M.  J.  Rathbnn,  Bracli.  and  Macrnra  Porto  Rico,  p.  14,  1901. 
Verrill,   these  Trans.,  vol.  xi,  p.  70(5,  fig.  57  ;  The  Bermuda  Is.,  i,   p.  294, 
fig.  57. 
Gecarcinus  lauostoma  fpar.s)  Miers,  Voy.  Challenger,  vol.  xvii,  p.   218.  1886. 
Young,  Stalk-eyed  Crustacea,  p.  241,  1900. 

Figure  2. 

Commonly  the  carapace,  in  life,  is  mostly  of  a  deep  reddish  brown 

or  plum-color  ;  often  this    color  is  replaced    posteriorly  by  a   wide 

transverse   band  of  lighter  color   spotted    with    yellow  ;  this   band 

extends  forward,  along  each  side,  becoming  narrower  and  darker,  dis- 


A.  E.  Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda. 


309 


appearing  near  the  eye-sockets  ;  a  pair  of  small  white  spots  close 
behind  the  eye-sockets  and  another  pair  in  the  cardiac  region.  Legs 
light  grayish  brown  ;  clielipeds  darker  and  more  red  ;  last  joint 
bright  orange.      Under  side  white. — C.  S.  V. 

The  color  is  often  more  reddish  than  above  described,  especially 
when  immature.  The  youngest  individuals  were  much  paler.  The 
dark  purple  and  red  colors  are  protective  at  night. 


Figure  2. — Land  Crab,  Gecarcinus  lalerafis,  front  view,  nat.  size. 
A.  H.  V. 


Drawing  by 


It  is  very  common  in  sandy  waste  places  on  many  of  the  smaller 
islands,  especially  on  those  that  are  uninhabited,  or  nearly  so.  It 
makes  its  deep  burrows  both  near  the  shore  and  on  the  low  hills, 
20  to  30  feet  high,  at  some  distance  from  the  shore  and  where  the 
shell-sand  was  nearly  or  quite  dry.  We  found  them  both  in  open 
land  and  among  cedar  bushes.  Its  burrows  are  often  very  long  and 
deep  ;  some  that  we  dug  out  descended  obliquely  to  the  depth  of 
3  to  4  feet  or  more,  and  then  ran  off  horizontally  4  to  5  feet,  ending 
in  a  small  chamber.  Others,  equally  large,  were  quite  shallow. 
Some  of  the  young  were  exposed  by  turning  over  large  flat  stones, 
under  which  they  had  burrowed.  Many  burrows  were  among  the 
tangled  roots  of  cedars,  etc.,  where  they  could  not  be  dug  out. 

The  largest  Bermuda  specimen  that  I  have  seen  was  obtained  at 
St.  Davids  Island  by  the  expedition  of  the  Field  Nat.  Hist.  Museum. 
They  also  collected  it  at  Cooper's  I.  and  Castle  I.  None  of  the 
specimens  seen  carried  eggs,*  though  some  were  taken  in  midsummer 
(Bermuda  Biol.  Station,  Prof.  Kincaid). 

Measureynents  in  millimeters. 


Sf  umber 

Sex 

Carapace 
length     breadth 

Front 
bread ih 

Chelae 
length 

height 

Locality 

3048. 

6 

39 

48 

10 

r.  j  33 
1.  ]  45 

r.   15 

1.   20 

Bermuda 

1901a. 

6 

36 

44 

9 

30 

16 

Bermuda 

Young 

$ 

26 

35 

8 

r.    j  19 
1.   )  19 

r.     9 

1.     9 

Bermuda 

Young 
489  F.  M 

S 

14 
46 

24 
59 

6 
12.5 

r.    \  12.5 
1.  '(  12.5 
49 

r.     6 

1.     6 

24 

Bermuda 
Davids  I. 

*  Young,  with  carapace  7-9"'"  long,  were  taken  April  24,  1901. 


Ir 


310  .1.  E.   Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda. 

Among  the  particular  localities  where  we  found  it  abundant  were 
Castle  Island,  Charles  or  Goat  Island,  Bailey  Bay  Island,  etc.  It  is 
mainly  no('tiiiiial  in  its  habits.  During  the  spring,  while  we  were  at 
Bermuda,  it  was  very  rarely  seen  out  of  its  burrows  in  the  daytime. 
Perhaps  it  partially  hibernates  in  its  burrows,  at  that  season,  like  C. 
guanhunii,  and  becomes  more  active  in  summer. 

In  the  early  settlement  of  the  islands  it  seems  to  have  been  much 
more  abundant,  at  least  in  the  cultivated  lands,  where  it  was  said  to 
be  injurious.  It  was  the  subject  of  a  law  in  early  times,  by  which 
persons  were  forbidden  to  dig  crabs  on  lands  of  other  perfions,  thus 
causing  damage  to  crops.*  They  were  mentioned  as  then  used  for 
fish  bait. 

This  species  ranges  from  Bermuda  and  the  Florida  Keys  through 
the  West  Indies  to  Venezuela  and  Ascension  Island. 

Cardisoma  guanhumi  (Latr.)     Great  Land-Crah ;  '^Juey." 

Cardisoma  guanhumi  Latreille,  Encycl.  Meth.,  Hist.  Nat.  Insectes,  x,  p.  685, 

1825.     M.-Edw.,  Illust.  Edit.  Cavier,  pi.  xx,  figs.  1— li. 
S.  I.  Smith.  Trans.  Conn.   Acad.  Sci.,  ii,  pp.  86,    143,  pi.  v,  fig.  3,  1870 

(descr.  and  syn.)     Miers,  op.  cit.,  p.  220,  1886. 
M.  J.  Rathbim,  Amer.  Naturalist,  xxxiv,  p.  587,  fig.  6,  1900. 
Rankin,  Crust.  Berm.  Is.,  p.  525,   1900.     M.  J.  Rathbun,  Brach.  and  Macr. 

Porto  Rico,  p.  15,  1901. 
Verrill,   these  Trans.,  vol.  xi,  p.  17  ;  The   Bermuda  Is.,  i,  pp.  37,  264,  295. 

1903.     Young,  op.  cit.,  p.  246,  1900.      Stimpson,  Rep.  Crust.  N.  Pacific 

Expl.  Exped.,  p.  Ill,  1907. 

Figure  3.     Plate  IX,  Figure  1. 

The  color  of  adults  in  life  is  pale  livid  gray,  on  the  carapace,  becom- 
insf  bluish  srav  on  the  margins  and  on  the  legs  ;  ends  of  the  clieli- 
peds  yellow.  The  young  are  brownish  yellow  or  dusky  brown,  like 
the  sand  and  mud.     (A.  H.  Verrill.) 

When  well  grown  the  male  is  about  18-20  inches  across  the  ex- 
tended legs  ;  carapace  about  4  to  5  inches  broad.  Claws  very  un- 
equal in  size,  and  variable  in  form,  often  widely  gaping  in  the  male. 
Some  specimens  are  even  larger.  One  from  Dominica  I.  (coll.  A.  H. 
Verrill)  was  21  inches  in  extent  ;  5  inches  across  the  carapace  ;  the 
larger  claw  (right)  6  inches  long  and  about  3  broad.  Right-handed 
specimens  are  more  numerous  in  our  collection  than  left-handed  ones. 

This  lai'ge  crab  is  found  in  a  few  localities  in  Bermuda,  especially 
at  Cooper's  Island  and  around  the  shores  of  Hungry  Bay.  In  the 
latter  place  its  large  and  deep  holes  were  observed  by  us  4  to  12  feet 

*  See  The  Bermuda  Islands,  i,  p.  706  [294]. 


A.  E.  Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda. 


311 


above  liigh  tide,  and  mostly  among  the  matted  roots  of  cedars,  where 
they  could  not  be  dug  out. 

It  is  mainly  nocturnal  in  its  liabits  and  can  be  taken  at  night,  in 
summer,  by  the  use  of  lanterns  or  torches.  It  was  thus  obtained  by 
Moseley,  at  Hungry  Bay  (Voy.  Challenger).  Prof.  W.  R.  Coe  has 
given  to  the  Yale  Museum  a  large  specimen  taken  in  this  same  way 
in  1903.     Mr.  J.  M.  Jones  sent  a  large  Bermuda  specimen  to  the  Yale 


Figure  3.  —  C«rdt.so)»o  guanhumi ,  large  cliela  of  male  ;  i  nat.  size.     Phot.  A.  H. 
Yerrill. 


Museum  in  1877,  without  a  statement  of  the  exact  locality.  It  is 
also  in  the  collection  made  by  Dr.  C.  Hartt  Merriam  (April,  1881, 
Yale  Mus.),  and  in  that  of  the  Field  Museum  of  Natural  History, 
1905. 

Very  little  seems  to  be  known  in  respect  to  its  breeding  habits  and 
young  stages. 

Measurements* 

Length    Breadth     Length     Height      Length 


Nat.  Mus. 

of 

of 

oi 

of 

of 

number 

Sex 

carapace 

carapace 

chelae 

chelae 

dactylus 

L 

ocality 

7507t 

S 

91 

114 

jr.    75 
/  1.  155 

j  28 
}  60 

j    53 

(  108 

Jamaica 

7669ot 

S 

64 

76 

j  r.-  87 
1  1.    45 

(40 
]19 

j    58 
i    31 

li 

7669?>g 

? 

63 

75 

U-.    57 
■(  1.    47 

j26 

)19 

j    37 
t    30 

t . 

7675§ 

2 

72 

91 

J  r.    79 
/  1.    51 

41 
19 

j    52 
/    36 

*The  first  ten  series  were  made  by  Prof.  S.  I.  Smith  from  specimens  collected 
by  the  "  Albatross'"  in  1884.     The  others  are  bj-  the  writer. 
f  Digits  of  chelae  slender  and  gaping. 
X  Digits  stout.     ,^  Digits  broad. 


'612  A.  E.   Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda. 


Nat.  Mus. 
number 

Sex 

Length 
of 
carapace 

Breadth 

of 
carapace 

Length 

of 
chelae 

Height 

of 
chelae 

Length 

of 
dactylus 

7.533(t|| 

S 

71 

84 

\  r.    61 

■/  1.    .59 

j28 
]26 

j    41 
(    40 

7533/*t 

$ 

72 

86 

\  r.    53 
'/  1.  11(1 

22 

48 

35 

79 

753211 

s 

74 

93 

<  r.  124 
n.    98 

'(  23 

87 
39 

7535t 

6 

68 

85 

\  r.  113 
/  1.     55 

j48 
/22 

75 

37 

75341T 

6 

78 

88 

jr.    98 
/  1.    55 

U7 
]23 

j    69 
(    37 

7551^ 

2 

74 

91 

r.    78 
1.    .54 

38 
20 

j    53 

(    37 

3146^ 

S 

90 

105 

jr.    75 
i  1.  142 

26 
56 

j    48 
1  108 

4061  Y. 

M.  3 

92 

108 

\  r.    72 
M.    - 

r.  27 

50 

31471 

$ 

51 

61 

j  r.    65 
(  1.    39 

32 
15 

6 

— 

125 

r.  1.50 

Locality 
Old  Providence 

(I  (( 

(I  (( 

((  i( 

a  (I 

Curasao 

Bermuda 

Bermuda 

Bermuda 
Dominica 


f  Digits  of  chelag  slender  and  gaping. 

§  Digits  broad. 

II  Digits  broad  and  only  slightly  gaping. 

H  Digits  not  very  slender,  compressed,  gaping. 

Nos.  7533a,  7534,  and  7551  had  hairy  legs.     (S.  I.  Smith.) 


According  to  Mr.  A.  H.  Verrill,  who  found  it  very  abundant  in 
many  localities  in  San  Domingo,  in  1907,  especially  at  Samana  and 
San  Lorenzo,  it  constructs  its  burrows  there  almost  eveiywhere  in 
open  grassy  land  or  savannas,  or  even  in  yards  and  gardens,  but  only 
where  there  is  clay  soil  beneath  the  surface.  It  brings  up  the  soil  iu 
the  form  of  hard  pellets  or  ovoid  balls,  and  deposits  them  around  the 
mouth  of  the  burrows.  Some  of  the  balls  are  often  over  an  inch  in 
diameter.  The  holes  are  sometimes  6  to  8  inches  in  diameter.  They 
abound  both  on  dry  land  and  near  the  water,  sometimes  burrowing 
in  the  banks  of  streams.  He  did  not  find  them  particularly  pugna- 
cious and  th»'  natives  handle  them  freely.  They  are  slow  and  rather 
sluggish  in  their  motions.  About  B^ebruary  they  retire  into  their 
holes  and  close  them  up  Avith  small  piles  of  earth  made  of  pellets, 
remaining  there  for  some  time.  During  this  time  they  are  said  to  be 
fat  and  are  esteemed  as  food,  especially  about  Easter,  by  the  natives. 
At  that  season  tliey  are  sold  in  the  markets.  Later  in  the  season,  in 
summer  and  fall,  they  freely  leave  their  burrows  and  run  about,  both 
at  nischt  and  in  sunlight.     At  such  times  they  are  "lean  "  and  are  not 


A.  E.  Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda.  313 

considei'ed  fit  to  eat.  They  are  veiy  fond  of  meat  and  greedily 
devoured  the  bodies  of  birds  that  had  been  skinned.  They  are  also 
fond  of  the  cocoa-nuts  and  other  fruits.  The  larofe  rainfall  at  San 
Domingo  may  account  for  their  living  in  comparatively  dry  locali- 
ties there.  Their  hibernation  is  probably  connected  with  their  breed- 
ing season.  When  pursued  it  often  takes  to  the  water,  if  near  the 
shore,  but  it  is  not  a  good  swimmer.  On  Dominica  Island  he  found 
it  much  less  common.  There  it  was  more  confined  to  low  lands,  near 
streams. 

Saussure,  who  collected  this  crab  in  Cuba,  Hayti,  and  Jamaica, 
states  that  it  lives  in  large,  deep  holes  near  water,  so  that  the  lower 
part  of  the  hole  is  filled  with  water,  but  where  the  surface  is  dry 
It  dies  in  a  short  time  if  kept  entirely  dry.  He  also  states  that  it  is 
very  pugnacious  and  defends  itself  energetically  when  its  retreat 
is  cut  off,  seizing  a  stick  so  firmly  that  it  can  be  lifted  from  the 
ground  before  letting  go.  He  found  its  holes  mostly  in  places 
shaded  by  bushes,  etc. 

It  is  used  as  food  in  most  of  the  West  Indian  Islands,  Avherever 
abundant.  Sold  in  Porto  Rico  markets  under  the  name  of  "  Juey." 
(Miss  Rathbun.) 

It  h.as  a  wide  distribution,  being  found  on  both  coasts  of  tropical 
America,  and  on  the  West  Coast  of  Africa.  Common  on  most  of 
the  West  Indian  Islands.  Range,  Florida  Keys  to  Brazil.  Dominica 
Island  (A.  H.  Verrill,  Yale  Mus.)  ;  San  Domingo,  abundant  (A.  H. 
V.)  ;  Cape  de  Verdes  (Stimpson)  ;  Florida  Keys  (Smith)  ;  Brazil 
(White)  ;  Texas  (Rathbun). 

Family  GRAPSID^  Milne-Edwards,  1837. 

Carapace  depressed  or  moderately  convex,  more  or  less  quadrilat- 
eral, with  the  lateral  margins  straight  or  slightly  arcuate.  Front 
never  very  narrow,  in  general  decidedly  broad.  Orbits  and  eye- 
stalks  of  moderate  size.  Third  maxillipeds  with  the  paljjus  articu- 
lated at  the  apex  or  at  the  front  outer  angle  of  the  nierus. 
Chelipeds  in  adult  males  usually  subequal,  moderately  developed. 
In  the  walking  legs  the  seventh  joint  is  styliform,  compressed,  and 
either  smooth  or  spiniferous.  The  pleon  at  the  base  usually  covers 
the  whole  width  of  the  sternum  between  the  last  pair  of  legs.  (M. 
J.  Rathbun.) 


i 


314  A.  E.  Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda. 

Key  to  the  Bermuda  genera  of  the  family  Grapsidce* 

A.   Antennfe  covered  by  the  front. 

B.  External  maxilliperls  withoiit  a  piliferous  ridge. 

C.  Antennt¥  excluded  from  the  orbit Goniopsis 

C.  Antennae  entering  the  orbit. 
D.  Carapace  decidedly  broader  than  long. 
E.   Merus  of  maxillii^eds  longer  than  broad. 

F.  Fingers  spoon-shaped  at  tips Grajjsus 

F'.  Fingers  acute Geograjjsus 

E'.  Merus  of  maxillipeds  as  broad  as  long Pachygrapsus 

D'.  Carapace  about  as  long  as  broad,  legs  strongly  fringed  with  hairs.  .P/anes 
B'.  External  maxillipeds  with  a  piliferous  ridge. 

C.  Lateral  margins  straight.     Carapace  transverse,  usually 

quadi'ate Sesarma 

C .  Lateral  margins  arcuate  and  entire Cyclograpsus 

A'.   Antennae  visible  from  above  ;  two  deep  frontal  notches. 

B.  Merus  of  maxillipeds  large,  as  broad  as  ischium Plagusia 

B'.  Merus  of  maxillipeds  small,  much  narrower  than  ischium Percnon 

Goniopsis  cruentatus   (Latr.)   DeHaan.     Mangrove   Crab. 

Cancer  ruricola  DeGeer,  Memoires,  Insectes,  vii,   p.  417,   pi.   xxv,  1778  (non 

Linne). 
Grajjsus  cruentatus  Latreille,  Histoire  Crust,  et  Insects,  vi,  p.  70,  1803.     Des- 

marest,  Consid.,   p.    132.     M. -Edwards,  Hist.   nat.    des  Crust.,  ii.  p.   85. 

Gibbes,  op.  cit.,  p.  181. 
Goniopais  cruentatus  DeHaan,  F.  Jap.,  p.  33,  1835;   M.-Edw.,  Ann.  Sciences 

nat.  3,  XX,  p.    164,  pi.  7,  fig.    2,  1853.     Stimpson,  Proc.   Acad.  Nat.   Sci., 

Philad.,  1858,  p.  101.     Smith,  Crust.  Brazil,  these  Trans.,  ii,  p.  11,  1869 

(syn.,  no  descr.).     Miers,  Voy.  Challenger,  xvii,  p.  267.     (Bermuda.) 
M.  J.   Rathbun,  Brachyura  and  Macrura  of  Porto  Rico,  p.    15,  pi.   i,  fig.    2 

(colored),  1901.     Verrill,   The  Bermuda  Is.,   vol.  i,   p.  547,  fig.  250,  1903. 

Rankin,  Crust.  Berm.  I.,  p.  527. 
Grapsus  longipes  Randall,  Journal  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.,  Philad.,  viii,  p.  125,  1839. 
Goniojjsis  ruricola  White,  List  of  Crust,  in  the  British  Museum,   p.  40,  1847. 

Saussure,  op.  cit.,  p.  30,  pi.  2,  fig.  18,  1858. 
Grapsus  pelli  Herklots,  Addit.  Faunam    Carcin.,  Afr.  Occid.,  8,  pi.  1,  figs. 

6,  7,  1851  (t.  Kingsley). 
Goniograpsus  cruentatus  Dana,  Amer.   Jour.    Sci.  (2),  xii,  p.    285,  1851  ;  U.  S. 

Expl.  Exped.,  Crust.,  p.  342,  pi.  21,  fig,  7,  1852, 
Goniograpsus  cruentatus  Kingsley,  Synopsis  Grapsidte,  Proc,   Acad,  Nat.  Sci. 

Philad.,  1880,  p.  190  (syn.  and  descr.).     Young,  op.  cit.,  p,  278,  1900. 

Figure  4,      Plate  XI,  Figure  1.      Plate  XII,  Figure  Aa. 
In  life  a  large  female  had  the  carapace  veiy  dark  brown  or  black, 
witli    small,  squarish,  greenish  markings,  becoming  more  numerous 

*  This  Key  is  taken   from  that  of  Miss  M,  J.  Rathbun,  Porto  Rico  Brachyura 
and  Macrura,  p.  15,  with  slight  alterations. 


A.  E.  Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda. 


315 


posteriorly  ;  along  the  lateral  margins  and  across  the  posterior 
border  there  is  a  series  of  small  -white  blotches,  about  2  to  3™""  in 
diameter,  the  posterior  ones  smaller.  The  legs  and  chelipeds  abova 
are  red,  variegated  with  black  and  white  spots,  the  black  markings 
being  most  abundant  on  the  posterior  legs  ;  the  anterior  ones  and 
the  chelipeds  being  more  red  ;  the  first  joint  of  the  chelipeds  is 
mostly  red,  with  the  black  and  white  marks  only  at  the  edges  ;  the 
second  and  third  joints  on  all  the  legs  are  red  with  black  edges, 
without  spots.  The  chelae  are  mostly  yellowish,  becoming  white  at 
the  tips  and  reddish  at  the  joints  ;  the  last  joint  of  the  other  legs  is 
yellow.  All  the  legs  are  white  beneath,  except  on  the  last  three 
joints.  Abdomen  dark  purplish  brown  below,  whitish  above  ante- 
riorly. Eye-stalks  colored  like  carapace  above,  light  red  below. — 
C.  S.  V. 


Figure  4. — Mangrove  Crab,    Go7iiopsis  cruentatus.     Carapace,   about  nat.  size. 
Phot.  A.  H.  V. 

Most  of  the  specimens  are  much  brighter  colored  than  the  above, 
especially  when  the  adherent  dirt  is  removed.  The  larger  males 
usually  have  a  large  amount  of  red  on  the  back  of  the  carapace  and 
chelae. 

The  variations  in  this  species  seem  to  be  less  than  in  many  others 
of  this  family, 


Measurements.* 

Breadth 

Length 

Breadth 

at 

Breadth 

N.  Mus. 

*   of 

of 

anterior 

of 

number 

Sex 

carapace 

carapace 

angles 

front 

Locality 

7542 

9 

31.0 

38.2 

35.5 

20.0 

Old  Providence 

u 

2 

34.7 

42.5 

39.0 

22.0 

a                li 

(( 

S 

44.5 

55.0 

48.0 

28.0 

li                    n 

*  The  first  ten  series  of  measurements  were  made  by  Professor  S.  I.  Smith 
from  specimens  collected  by  the  "  Albatross,"  in  1884.  The  others  are  by  the 
writer. 

Trans.  Conn.  Acad.,  Vol.  XIII.  33  Jan.,  1908. 


316 


A.  E.  Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda. 


N.  Mu8. 
number 

7542 

Sex 

6 

Length 

of 
carapace 

34.0 

Breadth 

of 
carapace 

39.5 

Breadth 

at 
anterior 
angles 

37.0 

Breadth 
of 
front 

20.4 

Locality 
Old  Providence 

<> 

6 

48.3 

58.0 

50.3 

27.8 

i(             11 

<< 

6 

42.0 

48.0 

44.2 

25.0 

((             i( 

K 

S 

41.3 

48.0 

45.0 

24.0 

((             (< 

7677 

6 

41.6 

48.2 

45.8 

24.6 

Jamaica 

7537 

2 

35.8 

43.3 

40.8 

23.3 

Old  Providence 

<( 

5 

33.0 

39.0 

36.9 

20.7 

(<             << 

3047  Y. 

M  $ 

33 

40 

38 

22 

Bermuda 

3047a 

S 

27 

31 

30 

17 

I'JOlo 

$ 

40 

45 

43 

26 

IQOlb 

? 

26 

29 

29 

16 

1901c 

2 

24 

30 

29 

16 

1901d 

6 

18 

23 

23 

13.5 

The  chelae,  whicli  are  nearly  equal,  measure  in  No.  3047  (see  pi.  xi, 
fig.  1)  27"^'"  long,  14.5  wide  ;  in  3047a,  they  are  19"^"  by  10""""  ;  in 
1901a,  SS"""  by  20°"". 

It  has  been  taken  at  Bermuda  by  most  collectors.  It  was  in  the 
collections  of  G.  Brown  Goode,  A.  Heilprin,  Prof.  T.  Kincaid,  Dr. 
T,  H.  Bean,  Prof.  E.  L,  Mark,  Bermuda  Biol.  Sta.,  and  others. 

It  was  taken  by  us  in  several  localities,  especially  at  Coney 
Island,  Hungry  Bay,  and  at  Somerset  I.,  near  the  shore  of  "  The 
Scaui'."  It  is  common  among  mangroves,  living  among  the  tangled 
roots  in  burrows,  where  it  is  not  easily  captured,  owing  to  its  shy- 
ness and  agility.  It  sometimes  actively  climbs  up  the  aerial  roots 
and  trunks  of  the  mangroves,  when  disturbed.*  We  also  sometimes 
found  it  in  heaps  of  stones,  at  high-water  mark,  where  it  was  more 
easily  captured.  Its  colors,  though  showy,  seem  to  be  protective  in 
many  places  where  it  lives,  for  the}^  match  the  colors  of  the  dead 
leaves  and  other  objects  in  the  swamps.  Perhaps  they  are  more 
particularly  nocturnally  protective,  for  it  is  most  active  at  night. 

It  has  a  ver}^  extensive  distribution,  being  found  on  nearly  all 
tropical  American  shores.  It  ranges  from  Florida  to  Rio  Janeiro, 
Brazil  (Dana),  and  throughout  the  West  Indies.  West  Coast  of 
Africa  at  Asliantee  (J.  E.  Benedict)  ;  Liberia  ;  Guinea  ;  Gabun  ; 
Angola,  etc.  West  Coast  of  Central  America  (Kingsley).  Florida 
Keys  and  Abrolhos  Reefs,  Brazil  (Smith). 

*  In  such  cases  it  can  easily  be  caught  by  shaking  them  ofP  from  the  branches 
of  the  trees  into  hand-nets  held  below  them. 


J 


\ 


A.  E.  Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda.  317 

Grapsus  grapsus  (Linn.).     Cliff  Crab.     Red  Shore-Crab. 

Cancer  grapsus  Linn^,   Systema  Naturae,  eel.  xii,  i,  p.   1048,  1767;  Amoenit. 

Acad.,  2d  ed.,  iv,  p.  252,  pi.  3,  fig.  10,  1788. 
Grapsxis  2}ietus  Lamarck,  Systeme  Animaux  sans  Verteb.,  p.  150,  1801. 
Desmarest,  Consider.  General.  Crust.,  p.  130,  pi.  16,  fig.  1,  1825. 
M. -Edwards,  Hist.  Nat.  Crust.,  ii,  p.  86,  1837  (Antilles)  ;  Eegne  animal  de 

Cuvier,  3'"''  edit.,  pi.  22,  fig.   1. 
Gibbes,  Proc.  Amer.  Assoc.  Adv.  Sci.,  3d  meeting,  p.  181  (17),  1850  (Florida). 
Dana,  U.  S.  Expl.  Expd.,  Criist.,  p.  336,  1852  (Maderia,  Cape  Verdes,  Peru, 
Paumotu  Archipelago,  Sandwich  Is.).     S.  I.   Smith,  Trans.  Conn.  Acad. 
Sci.,  iv,  p.  257, 1880  (synonymy  and  table  of  measurements). 
Miers,  Proc.  Zool.    Soc.   London,  1877,  p.  73  (Galapagos  Is.  ;  ]>(G.  altifrons 

Stimp.). 
Hilgendorf,  Monatsb.  Akad.  Wissensch.  Berlin,  1878,  p.  807  (Mozambique). 
Grapsus  maeulatus  M.-Edwards,  Ann.   Sci.   nat..  Ill,  xx,  p.   167  (133),  pi.  6 
(=  pi.  22,  Eegne  animal  de  Cuvier,  Criist.),  1853  (Antilles).* 
Stimpson,    Ann.    Lyceum   Nat.    Hist.    New   York,    vii,  p.    229   (101),    1860 

(Florida). 
Kingsley,  Proc.   Acad.   Nat.   Sci.   Philadelphia,  1879,   p.  401  (Santa  Cruz, 
Tahiti).     Miers,    Voy.    Challenger,   vol.   xvii,  p.  255,   1886.     Young,  op. 
cit.,  p.  280,  1900.     J.  E.  Benedict,  Crust.  West  Africa,  Proc.  U.  S.  Nat. 
Mus.,  xvi,  p.  538,  1893. 
Grapsus   ornatus  M.-Edwards,  Ann.    Sci.    nat.,   Ill,    xx,  p.    168    (134),  1853 

(Chili). 
Grapsus  Webbi  M.-Edwards,  Ann.  Sci.  nat..  Ill,  xx,  p.  167  (133),  1853. 

Stimpson,  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Philadelphia,  1858,  p.  102  (48). 
Graiisus  altifrons  Stimpson,  Ann.   Lyceum  Nat.    Hist.  New  York,  vii,  p.  230 

(102),  1860  (Cape  St.  Lucas). 
Grapsus  grapsus  M.  J.  Rathbuu,  Brachyura  and  Macr.   Porto  Rico,  p.  16,  1901 
(descr.  and  distr.).    Rankin,  Crust.  Berm.,  p.  537,  1900.    Verrill,  The  Ber- 
muda Is.,  i,  p.  94. 

Plate  X,  Figure  6.     Plate  XI,  Figure  2. 

This  is  a  large  and  conspicuous  species,  remarkable  for  its  agility 
and  swiftness.  It  runs  and  climbs  over  the  rough  and  eroded  rocks 
and  cliffs  between  tides,  and  even  to  some  distance  above  high-water 
mark,  often  ascending  the  nearly  perpendicular  cliffs  with  great 
agility.  When  pursued  by  man  it  usually  escapes  by  rapid  running, 
often  hiding  in  some  deep  crevice  or  cavernous  place.  If  hard 
pressed  it  will  take  to  the  water,  where  it  can  usually  be  caught  with 
a  landing  net,  for  it  cannot  swim  very  rapidly.     Sometimes  several 

*  The  name  C.  maeulatus  in  the  binomial  system  dates  from  Edwards'  edition 
of  Catesby,  Nat.  Hist.  Carolinas,  1771,  vol.  ii,  pi.  xxxvi,  where  it  is  well  figured 
in  colors. 


318  A.  E.  Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda. 

can  be  seen,  at  a  distance,  clustered  together  on  the  exposed  cliffs, 
for  their  bright  red  chehv  and  large  size  render  them  very  conspicu- 
ous, but  they  usually  run  away  rapidl}^  or  plunge  into  the  water 
when  approached. 

It  is  not  easy  to  explain  how  it  could  have  acquired  such  bright 
colors  by  natural  selection,  for  in  Bermuda  and  most  other  regions 
where  it  abounds  the  colors  appear  not  at  all  protective,  unless  at 
night,  but  quite  the  reverse.  Possibly  the  colors  were  originally 
developed  in  some  region  where  its  surroundings  were  different, 
and  red  colors  prevailed  among  the  rocks  ;  but  its  colors  may  be  noc- 
turnally  protective.  At  present  the  species  has  spread  all  around  the 
world  in  tropical  seas,  and  it  does  not  much  need  color  protection, 
owing  to  its  watchfulness  and  agility,  yet  it  is  often  killed  by  sea-fowl, 
and  also  by  the  Octopus. 

The  colors  are  somewhat  variable.  Some  are  much  redder  than 
others.  A  large  one,  in  life,  had  the  carapace  very  dark  brown, 
thickh^  and  irregularly  mottled  and  spotted  with  bluish  and  grayish 
white ;  the  lighter  color  predominating  in  the  radial  grooves. 
Chelipeds  with  the  chelfe  and  car|)al  joints  bright  dark  red,  white 
at  tips  of  claws  ;  basal  joint  pale  blue,  red  at  the  ends.  Legs  dark 
reddish  brown  above,  thickly  blotched  with  bluish  white,  and 
bright  red  at  each  joint.  The  posterior  pair  of  legs  are  tinged  with 
orange  on  the  lighter  parts.  Beneath,  orange  red  and  light  blue  ; 
branchial  areas,  oral  organs,  and  area  in  front  of  mouth  mostly  light 
l)lue  ;  sternum  and  under  side  of  legs,  orange  and  blue. 

The  sexes  differ  very  little  in  size  or  color.  The  larger  males  are 
often  brighter  red  than  the  females,  but  not  constantlv  so.  The 
ground-color  is  often  blood-red  with  most  of  the  small  yellow  spots 
round  and  about  1  to  2""^  in  diameter.  The  chelae  of  the  males  are 
usually  a  little  larger  than  those  of  the  females.  The  right  and  left 
differ  but  little  in  the  male.  Some  females  taken  by  us  in  April, 
1901,  carried  eggs. 

This  species  also  varies  considerably  in  its  form  and  the  propor- 
tions of  length  to  breadth  of  the  carapace,  as  shown  by  the  following 
table  of  measurements.  The  front  is  often  nearly  or  quite  perpen- 
dicular, but   in  other  cases  more  or  less  oblique. 


A.  E.  Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda. 


319 


Measurementf 

.  * 

Breadth 

Length 

Breadth 

aci'oss 

N.  Mns. 

of 

of 

ant. 

Br.  of 

Height 

number 

Sex 

carapace 

carapac 

3    angles 

front 

of  front 

Localities 

7647ot 

5 

44.0 

48.3 

35.3 

18.5 

8.0 

St.  Thomas 

7647&t 

? 

37.5 

40.5 

30.4 

15.0 

7.2 

"          '•       Yale 

7647cf 

$ 

38.0 

42.3 

31.7 

15.8 

7.5 

(i                     ii 

7647rft 

2 

27.5 

30.4 

23.8 

11.7 

4.6 

it               u 

7647e§ 

$ 

20.0 

22.9 

18.4 

8.5 

3.5 

a              a 

7647/11 

$ 

33.5 

37.7 

28.6 

14  0 

6.0 

n              a 

7647gt 

$ 

37.7 

41.6 

30.8 

15.2 

6.5 

Yale 

764  7/i* 

t 

50.0 

53.0 

38.2 

20.0 

9.0 

a              ii 

7647i* 

6 

54.3 

60.0 

41.5 

21.5 

10.0 

a              a 

7543f4 

6 

37.0 

42.0 

30.2 

15.0 

6.4 

Old  ProA'idence 

75iSbt 

2 

37.6 

42.0 

30.4 

15.2 

6.5 

(1                       u 

7564at 

S 

38.6 

43.2 

31.5 

15.5 

6.9 

Sabonilla 

7564611 

S 

35.1 

38.0 

29.0 

14.4 

6.1 

a 

7564c^ 

$ 

24.0 

27.0 

21.2 

9.8 

3.8 

a 

7564t<^T 

9 

24.2 

27.1 

21.6 

10.0 

4.0 

Yale 

7564<?TT 

S 

"  27.0 

30.0 

23.1 

11.0 

4.3 

i  i 

7564/1T 

S 

21.0 

23.5 

19.0 

8.9 

3.5 

i  i 

7840TT 

$ 

25.0 

21.8 

21.8 

10.1 

4.2 

Cui-agao 

Yale  Mus. 

S 

37.2 

40.5 

29.5 

14.7 

— 

Bermuda 

4064  Y.  M 

.  S 

67.0 

73.8 

47.7 

26.8 

— 

Bermuda 

4066  YM**  5 

60.0 

72.5 

46.0 

26.0 

— 

La  Paz.,  L.  Cal. 

4062  Y.  M 

i 

65.0 

73.0 

58 

30.0 

12 

Bermuda 

1901Y.M.a5 

50 

58 

42 

21 

— 

1901b 

2 

54 

61 

42 

22 

— 

1901c 

2 

58 

62 

34 

27 

— 

1901d 

2 

51 

57 

40 

23 

— 

1898a 

$ 

66 

72 

49 

30 

— 

( i 

18986 

2 

55 

60 

41 
Chelce. 

24 

— 

Rig 

ht 

Left 

length 

height 

ength 

height 

1901a 

6 

30 

18 

26 

15 

19016 

2 

24 

14 

24 

14 

1901c 

2 

25 

17 

23 

13 

1898o 

■S 

45 

27 

44 

20 

*The  first  19  series  are  by  S.  I.  Smith  from  specimens  collected  by  "the  Alba- 
tross "  in  1884,  mostly  now  in  the  U.  S.  Nat.  Museum. 

f  The  front  is  perpendicular.  l  The  front  Is  slightly  oblique. 

§  The  front  is  considerably  oblique.  ||  The  front  is  very  slightly  oblique. 

^  The  front  is  nearly  perpendicular.  **  The  front  is  decidedfy  oblique. 

In  nearly  all  the  Bermuda  specimens  measured  the  front  is  neai'ly  per- 
pendicular and  very  concave. 

Nos.  7564rf,  coll.  Jan.  17-24,  and  7840,  coll.  Feb.  10-18,  carried  eggs. 

**  The  right  chela  in  this  was  43"""'  long,  27™"'  broad  ;  the  left  was  44'"'"  long, 
27mm  broad.' 


320  A.  E.  V  err  ill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda. 

It  has  been  taken  at  Bermuda  by  nearly  all  collectors. 

We  found  it  very  common  on  most  of  the  precipitous  and  rocky 
shores  of  Bermuda  in  1898,  but  it  was  far  less  common  in  March  and 
April,  1901.  Probably  the  cold  period  earlier  in  the  winter  and 
spring  of  1901,  which  was  so  fatal  to  the  fishes,*  also  killed  off  many 
of  the  crabs  of  this  and  allied  species. 

This  species  is  found  on  all  tropical  coasts.  On  the  Atlantic  coast 
it  extends  from  Florida  to  Brazil.  On  the  Pacific  side  it  ranges  from 
Peru  to  Lower  California.  West  Africa,  at  many  localities.  Cape 
Verde  Islands  (Dana,  Stimpson).  Ascension  I.  and  Fayal  (Bene- 
dict). Young  individuals  were  taken  by  us  on  the  reefs  and 
serpentine  atolls  at  Bermuda.  Miss  Rathbun  has  recorded  an 
instance  of  a  young  one  taken  on  the  Pacific  far  from  land.  Small 
specimens  often  occur  among  barnacles,  etc.,  on  the  bottoms  of  vessels. 

Pernambuco,  Brazil,  New  Zealand,  Tahiti,  Natal,  Mauritius  (Kings- 
ley).      Hawaiian  Is.  (Dana). 

Four  specimens  were  taken  from  the  bottom  of  a  vessel  recently 
arrived  from  Swan  Island,  W.  Indies,  at  Woods  Hole,  Mass.,  July 
14,  1887,  (t.  S.  I.  Smith  in  MSS.). 

Geograpsus  lividus  (Edw.)  Stimp. 

Grapsus  lividus  A.  Milne-Edw.,  Hist.  Nat.  des  Crust.,  ii.  p.  85,  1837;  Melang. 

Carcinol.,  p.  135. 
Geograpsus  lividus  Stimpson,  Proc.  Acad.    Nat.  Sci.,  Philad.,  1858,  p.  101  ; 
Notes  on  North  Amer.  Crust.,  Annals  Lye.  Nat.  Hist.,  N.  York,  vii,  p.  230; 
1860.     Kingsley,  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.,  Philad.,  p.  195,  1880  (description). 
M.  J.  Rathbun,  Proc.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus.,   xxi,  p.  601,  1898;    Brach.  and  Macr. 
Porto  Rico,  p.  16,  1901  ;  Verrill,  these  Trans.,  xi,  p.  574,  1900. 
Geograpsus  occidentalis  Stimpson,  Annals  Lye.  Nat.  Hist.  N.  Y.,  vii,  p.  230, 
1860  (West  Coast). 

Figure  5.     Plate  XXVI,  Figure  1. 
In  life,  the  carapace  in  our  specimens  was  light  yellowish  brown, 
marbled  or  irregularly  reticulated  with  very  dark  brown  streaks,  or 
umber-colored  markings,  most  numerous  anteriorl}^  ;  legs  olive-brown 
above,  paler  beneath  ;  abdomen  pale  bluish  gray.     (C.  S,  V.) 

*See  The  Bermuda  Islands,  i,  p.  91  ;  these  Trans.,  vol.  xi,  p.  503. 


A.  E.  Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda. 


321 


Nat.  Mus. 
number 

7;344a 

Sex 

S 

Length 
carapace 

20.0 

Breadth 
carapace 

24.0 

Br.  at 
ant.  angles 

20.6 

Br.  of 
front 

10.4 

Locality 
Sabonilla 

73446 

S 

17.0 

30.9 

17.6 

8.8 

7344c 

$ 

11.9 

15.0 

13.0 

6.4 

7344d 

2 

lo.O 

19.0 

16.1 

8.0 

7344e 

2 

17.5 

21.6 

18.4 

9.0 

7344/ 

? 

19.0 

33.5 

20.0 

10.0 

ISUg 

$ 

19.9 

24.5 

20.3 

10.1 

7344/1 

2 

22 

27.0 

22.0 

11.0 

7344t 

S 

22.5 

28.0 

23.4 

11.3 

36 

2 

18.3 

23.8 

19.2 

10.0 

Bermuda  (Go 

Nos.  7344a — i  were  measured  by  Prof.  S.  I.  Smith. 

Nos.  7344e  and  /  were  carrying  eggs.     Taken  by  the  -'Albatross,"  March,  1884. 

A  single  Bermuda  specimen  (No.  36)  was  in  the  collection  of  G. 
Brown  Goode,  The  Yale  party  took  two  adult  specimens  in  1898. 
A  larger  broken  5  specimen  is  in  the  collection  of  the  Bermuda 
Biol.  Station,  1903,  taken  at  Hungry  Bay.  Breadth  between  outside 
of  orbits,  23""";  length  of  chela,  21;  height,  10.5"^"'.  It  occurs  under 
stones  on  rocky  shores  and  sometimes  on  coral  reefs. 


Figure  5. — Geocjrapsus  lividus,  from  Bermuda,  x  about  1^.     Phot.  A.  H.  V. 

Its  known  range  is  extensive  ;  from  Florida  to  the  Antilles  and 
Columbia.  On  the  West  Coast,  from  Cape  St.  Lucas  to  Chili  ( G. 
occidentalls  Stimp.).     James  I.,  Galapagos  (M.  J.  Rathbun). 

Pachygrapsus  transversus  Stimpson.     Mottled  Shore-Crab. 

Grapsus  transversus  Gibbes,  Proc.  Araer.   Assoc.  Adv.  Sci.,  3d  meeting,  p. 

181  (17),  1850  (Florida). 
Pachygrapsus  transversus  Stimpson,  Ann.  Lye.  Nat.  Hist.  New  York,  vii,  p. 

64  (18),  1859  ;  Amer.  Jour.  Sci.  (2),  xxvii,  p.  446,  1859. 


322 


A.  E.   Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda. 


Smith,  Report  Peabody  Acad.  Sci.  Salem,  1869,  p.  91,  1871  {Pacific  coast  Cen- 
tral America);    Trans.  Conn.  Acad.,  iv,  259,  1880  (synon.  and  measure- 
ments). 
M.  J.  Rathbun,  Branner-Agassiz  Exp.  Brazil,  p.   1:^7 ;  Brach.  and  Macr.  of 

Porto  Rico,  p.  17,  1901  (descr.). 
Kingsley,  Proc.  Boston  Soc.  Nat.  Hist.,  xx,  p.  158,  1879  (descr.) ;  Proc.  Acad. 
Nat.   Sci.   Philadelphia,  1879,   p.   400;  op.   cit.,   p.    199,   1880  (syn.  and 
descr.). 
Goniograpsus  innotatus  Dana,  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Philadelphia,  1851,  p.  249 
(3),  1851  (South  America) ;  Crust.  U.  S.  Expl.  Exped.,  p.  345,  pi.  21,  fig.  9, 
1852. 
Metepograpsus  miniatus  Saussure,  Crust.  Mexique  et  Antilles  (Mem.  Soc.  Phys. 
Hist.  nat.  Genfeve,  xiv),  p.  28,  pi.  2,  fig.  17,  1858.    (Parasited,  t.  Rathbun.) 
Metopograpsus  dubius  Saussure,  op.  cit.,  p.  29,  jjI.  2,  fig.  16,  1858. 
Pachygrapsiis  intermedius  Heller,  Zool.  Bot.  Verein  Verhandl.,  Wien,  xii,  1862, 
p.    521   (Bi-azil) ;  Reise   der  No  vara.  Crust.,  p.  44,  1865.     Smith,  Trans, 
Conn.  Acad.,  ii,  p.  37. 
Pachygrapsus  socius  Stimpson,  Ann.  Lye.  Nat.  Hist.  New  York,  x,  p.  114 
1871  (Cape  St.  Lucas,  Panama,  Peru). 

Plate  XII,  Figures  3— 3&. 

This  species  is  very  variable  in  colors,  but  the  tints  are  evidently 
decidedly  protective.  The  mottlings  of  yellow,  olive,  and  brown 
closely  resemble  the  colors  of  the  stained  and  weather-beaten  rocks 
and  dead  algae  among  which  it  usually  lives. 

In  life,  the  ground-color  of  the  carapace  is  most  frequently  dull 
olive-green,  yellowish,  or  yellowish-brown,  sometimes  dull  gray,  more 
or  less  covered  by  irregular  mottlings  of  darker  brown,  reddish,  or 
dark  olive,  usually  darkest  anteriorly,  where  the  transverse  ridges 
are  often  edged  with  reddish  or  dark  brown,  making  them  more  con- 
spicuous ;  large  chelje  are  often  plain  light  brown  or  reddish  brown, 
usually  with  pale  tips,  but  in  some  cases  they  are  blotched  with 
darker  brown,  or  tinged  with  bright  red  on  some  parts,  especially  at 
the  jomts.  The  pereiopods  are  usually  banded  with  darker  and 
lighter  brown. 

Measurements.  * 


Sex 

Length 

Breadth 

Front 

Locality 

2 

lO.l-nm 

13.2 

7.2 

Provincetown 

li 

11.0 

15.0 

8.3 

Florida 

i . 

11.4 

15-9 

8.8 

( ( 

li 

11.5 

15.(5 

8.6 

Brazil 

n 

13.7 

18.2 

9.8 

Acajutla 

n 

14.2 

19.0 

10.8 

Bermuda 

s 

10.0 

12.8 

7.0 

Paita,  Peru 

*  Many  of  the  measurements  are  by  Prof.  S.  I.  Smith, 


A.  E.  Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda.  323 

Sex 


Length         Breadth 

Front 

Locality 

10.5 

13.7 

7.6 

Beriuiida 

10.5 

13.9 

7.6 

Panama 

10.7 

14.1 

7.8 

Bermuda 

10.7 

14.2 

7.7 

Panama 

11.0 

14.3 

7.6 

Brazil 

12.4 

16.4 

9.0 

Bermuda 

12.5 

16.3 

8.9 

Florida 

13.1 

17.2 

9.6 

Bermuda 

13.8 

17.4 

9.8 

Panama 

14,5 

18.2 

10.0 

Brazil 

15.2 

19.4 

10.6 

Panama 

15.3 

19.7 

10.6 

Brazil 

9.2 

13.0 

7.0 

Bermuda 

13.0 

17.0 

10.0 

Bermudaf 

15.5 

21.0 

15.0 

Bermuda:]: 

f  Length 

of  largest  chela, 

13""";  height,  6 

mm 

:j:  Length 

of  largest  chela, 

11.5""";  height. 

5.5™"'. 

The  proportion  of  length  to  breadth  of  the  carapace  varies  from 
1:1.25  to  1:1.41,  but  is  usually  about  1:1.30  to  1:1.35. 

A  parasitic  isopod  crustacean  sometimes  infests  its  branchial 
cavities  and  in  some  cases  causes  an  enlargement  or  distortion,  due  to 
the  swelling  of  the  cai'apace  on  one  side.  The  parasite,  which  is  allied 
to  Bopyrus  and  Cepon,  is  relatively  large.*  It  occurred  in  about  25  per 
cent,  of  the  adult  specimens  examined  from  some  localities.  Some 
of  the  specimens  collected  in  April  carried  eggs.  Some  were  then 
soft-shelled.  Specimens  collected  in  June  and  July  (Berm.  Biol.  Sta.) 
also  carried  eggs. 

This  appears  to  be  the  most  abundant  shore  crab  at  Bermuda.  It 
is  to  be  found  everywhere  between  tides  where  there  are  loose  stones 
or  masses  of  dead  alg©  under  which  it  can  conceal  itself.  It  is  also 
to  be  seen  running  actively  about  in  such  localities,  where  it  is  often 
associated  with  /Sesarma  JRlcordi  and  Planes  minutus. 

It  is  sometimes  found,  also,  on  the  coral  reefs.  Also  among  the 
roots  of  mangroves. 

It  has  been  taken  in  Bermuda  by  nearly  ever3^  collector  of  Crus- 
tacea. 

It  has  a  very  wide  distribution  in  all  tropical  and  subtropical  seas. 
It  has  been  found  among  the  barnacles,  etc.,  scraped  from  the  bot- 

*  These  parasites  have  recently  been  sent  to  Miss  Harriet  RichardsoTi,  who 
identifies  them  as  Leiclija  distorla  {Cepon  distorta  Leidy).  It  was  originally 
found  in  the  gill-cavity  of  a  "  fiddler-crab  "  (Gelasinius  pugilator)  by  Leidy  on 
the  coast  of  New  Jersey.     It  has  seldom  been  found  by  later  collectors. 


32-4 


A.  E.  Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda. 


toms  of  vessels  far  from  its  usual  habitats.  In  this  way  its  range 
may  have  been  greatly  extended  by  commerce  in  modern  times. 
Adult  living  specimens  were  taken  at  Provincetown,  Mass.,  in  1879. 
They  occurred  among  barnacles,  etc.,  on  the  bottom  of  a  whaling 
vessel  returned  from  a  cruise  in  the  Gulf  Stream  reo^ion  and  were 
associated  with  other  southern  species.     (See  S.  I.  Smith,  1884.) 

It  ranges  from  Florida  and  Bermuda  to  southern  Brazil  ;  from 
Peru  to  the  Gulf  of  California  ;  West  Africa  at  Loanda,  etc.  Cape 
Yerde  Islands  and  Madeira  ;  East  Indies  ;  Australia  ;  New  Zealand  ; 
Tahiti  ;  Galapagos  Is.;  Pernambuco,  etc.  ;  Brazil,  on  stone  reefs,  and 
Maceio  on  coral  reefs  (M.  J.  llathbun);  Rio  (Heller);  Australia 
(Miers). 

Pachygrapsvis  gracilis  (Saussure)  Stiinp. 

Metopograpsus  gracilis  Saussure,  Meiu.  Soc.  Phys.  Hist>  Nat.  Geneva,  xiv,  p. 

443,  pi.  II,  f.  15,  15a,  1858. 

Paehygrapsus  gracilis  Stimpson.  Ann.  Lye.  Nat.  Hist.  N.  York,  x,  p.  113.  1871. 

King.sley,  Proc.   Boston  Soc.  Nat.  Hist.,  xx,  p.   159,  1870  (descr.).     Synop. 

Grapsidae,  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.,  Philad.  for  1880,  p.  200  (syn.  and  descr.) 

M.  J.  Rathbun,  Branuer-Agassiz  Exp.,  p.  137,  1900;  Brach.  and  Macr.   of 

Porto  Rico,  p.  17,  1901. 

Figures  6,  Qa.     Plate  XII,  Figure  2. 

This  is  usually  smaller  than  the  preceding,  and  is  much  less  com- 
mon. Its  colors  are  similar,  but  the  reticulations  and  mottlings  are 
darker  brown.  It  can  best  be  distinguished  by  the  more  prominent, 
thin,  and  nearly  straight,  front  ;  the  straighter  sides  of  the  carapace, 


Figure  6. — Paclnjgiajjsus  gracilis,   carapace  enlarged;    6rt,    one   of  the   chelae. 
After  Saussure. 

which  is  not  plicated  over  the  cardiac  region  ;  and  by  the  chehe, 
which  have  small  denticles  on  the  upper  side  of  the  carinate  manus, 
and  on  the  dactylus.  The  manus  has  fine  oblique  ridges  above,  and 
the  carpus  is  covered  with  fine  oblique  and  irregular  ridges. 

It  aj)i)ears  to  be  rare  at  Bermuda,  or  at  least  is  seldom  taken  there. 
A  few  good  specimens  were  found  at  Bermuda  by  us  in  1898  and 
April,  1901  ;  one  of  the  latter  carried  eggs.  A  specimen  was  also 
obtained  by  Mr.  Goode,  187G.     It   has  been   found   at  the   Florida 


A.  E.  Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda. 


825 


Keys,  Yucatan,  and  in  the  West  Indies.  Brazil,  on  mangroves 
(Rathbun.)  It  is  most  frequently  found  among  the  roots  of  man- 
groves. 


Measuretnents. 


No. 
4018a 

Sex 

Car 
length 

11 

apace 
bi-eadth 

14 

Between 
orbits 

10 

Chelse 
length       height 

9                4 

Looality 
Bermuda 

4018^ 
4018c 

?eggs 

10.5 
15.5 

13 
20.5 

9 

14 

7.5 
11 

3.5 
5.2 

4018d 

2 

13 

16.5 

10 

8.5 

4 

a 

Planes  m.inutus  (Linn.)  Dana.     Gulf-weed  Crab. 

Cancer  minutus  Linne,  Syst.  Naturae,  ed.  12,  i,  p.  1040,  1767.     Fabricius,  Syst. 

Ent.,  p.  402,  1775. 
Grapsus  minutus  Latreille,  Hist.  nat.  Crust,  et  Insectes,  vi,  p.  68,  1803. 
Grajjsus  cine  reus  Say,  Jour.  Acad.  Nat.   Sci.  Philad.,  i,  p.  99,  1817  {nonGrap- 

sus  cinereus  Bosc,  nee  Grajisus  (Sesarma)  cinereus  Say,  1818). 
Grapsus  pelagicus  Say,  op.  cit.,  p.  442,  1818. 

Nautilograpsus  minutus  H.  Milne-Edwards,  Hist.  nat.  Crust.,  ii,  p.  99,  1837. 
Smith  and  Harger,  these   Trans.,  iii,  p.    26,  1874.     Smith,  op.  cit.,  i^T,  p. 

263  ;  V,  p.  120.     Stimpson,  Crust.  N.  Pacific  Expl.  Exped.,  p.  121,  1907. 
Ptoses  Z/(')mcpana  Bell,  British  Stalk-eyed  Crust.,  p.  135  (cut),  1844.      White, 

List  of  Crust.  British  Mus.,  p.  41,  1847. 
Planes  minutus  Dana,  United  States  Expl.  Exped.,  Crust.,  p.  346,  1852. 
Kingsley,  Synopsis Grapsidte,  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci.  Philad.,  for  1880,  p.  202 

(descr.  and  syn.). 

Figure  7.     Plate  XIII,  Figures  a—f.     Plate  XXVII,  Figure  6. 

In  life,  this  small  crab  varies  greatly  in  form  and  color.  Usually 
it  is  irregularly  mottled  or  blotched  with  light  greenish  yellow  or 
pale  yellow  on  a  darker  olive-green  ground-color,  usually  with  a  large 
blotch  or  spot  of  pale  yellow  or  whitish  on  the  back  of  the  carapace, 
thus  imitating  the  olive-green  colors  of  the  gulf-weed  [Sargass^cm) 
and  the  whitish  patches  of  Bryozoa  {Biflastra)  with  which  the  Sar- 
gassum  is  commonly  covered.  Thus  its  colors  are  eminently  protec- 
tive,   for   it   naturally   lives   in    the    open    sea    among    Sargassmn. 


Sex 

6 

? 

S 
? 
S 


Measui 

ements  of  Be> 

•muda  speci 

nens. 

Carapace 
length 

Carapace 
breadth 

Front 
breadth 

Chela, 
larger, 
length 

Chela, 

larger, 

height 

16 

17 

9 

16 

8 

13 

13 

8 

9 

5 

15 

15 

8 

12 

6.5 

15 

15 

8 

13 

7.5 

19.5 

20 

10.5 

14 

7.5 

18 

19 

10 

16 

10 

820 


A.  E.  Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda. 


The  last  two  are  from  the  region  of  the  Gulf  Stream. 

Some  of  the  specimens  taken  in  April,  1901,  were  carrying  eggs- 
Several  of  tliose  collected  bj^  the  Bermuda  Biological  Station  in  June 
and  July,  1903,  also  carried  eggs. 

Wherever  fresh  masses  of  Stirgassum  are  cast  up  by  the  waves  this 
crab  can  almost  always  be  found  beneath  them,  often  in  considerable 
numbers.  It  is  usually  associated  with  small  specimens  of  Portunus 
Sayi  and  two  species  of  shrimp  [Latreiites  ensiferus  and  Leander 
tenuicoi'iiis).  It  is  contained  in  all  the  Bermuda  collections  that  I 
have  examined. 

The  36  specimens  illustrated  on  my  plate  V,  to  show  their  varia- 
tions in  form  and  color,  were  all  taken,  with  many  more,  under  a  sin- 
gle mass  of  Sargassnm  in  March,  1901,  by  A.  H.  Verrill. 

It  is  a  good  swimmer,  however,'  having  long  legs  bordered  by  a 
dense  fringe  of  hairs,  so  that  it  is  not  entirely  dependent  on  the  Sar- 
gassum. 


Figure  7. — Gulf-weed  crab,   Planes  minutus.  enlarged  IJ.     The  hairs  of  the  legs 
are  mostly  omitted.     J.  H.  Emerton  del. 

It  is  widely  distributed,  occurring  in  all  tropical  and  subtropical 
seas  in  floating  Sargassum. 

In  the  Atlantic  it  occurs  along  the  course  of  the  Gulf  Stream  as 
far  north,  at  least,  as  George's  Bank  and  off  Nova  Scotia.  It  is 
sometimes  cast  ashore  on  the  coasts  of  New  England  and  Great  Brit- 
ain. Prof.  Smith  has  recorded  a  large  specimen  found  at  Woods 
Hole,  Mass.,  by  V.  N.  Edwards,  Sept.  11,  1877.  Southward  it  extends 
to  Brazil  and  Falkland  Is.  (Kingsley)  ;  on  the  Pacific  coast  from 
Peru  to  the  Gulf  of  California.  Also  found  in  the  central  Pacific 
and  Indian  Oceans  ;  Mediterranean  (Heller).  West  Coast  of  Africa, 
Cape  St.  Lucas  (Stimpson);  Indian  Ocean  (M.-Edw.)  ;  New  Zealand 
and  Natal  (Kingsley). 


A.  E.  Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda.  327 

Sesarma  Ricordi  M.-Edw. 

Sesarma  Ricordi  H.   M.-Edw.,  Ann.  Sci.  Nat.,  ser.  3,  vol.  xx,  p.   183,   1853. 

Kingsley,  Proc.  Acad.  Nat.  Sci..  Philad.,  for  1880.  p.  217.     M.  J.  Rathbun, 

Synopsis  Sesarmae,  Proc.  Biolog.   Soc.   Washington,  xi,  p.  91,  1897  (descr. 

and  synon.). 
Brachy.  and  Macr.  Porto  Rico,  p.   18,    1901  (descr.).    Verrill,   these    Trans., 

X,  p.  574,  1899. 
Seaavma  anr/xistijjes   Stimpson    (jjars)  Smith,   these  Trans.,  ii,   p,  159,    1869 

{non  Dana,  t.  M.  J.  Rathbnn). 
Sesarma  cinerea  Stone,  in  Heilprin,  op.  cit.,  1898.     Rankin,  op.  cit. ,  p.  526, 

1900  {non  Say,  sp.). 
Sesarma  Sfimpsonii  Miers,  1881,  not  of  1886  (t.  Rath  bun). 

Plate  X,  Figure  2.     Plate  XI,   Figure  3,  var. 

This  common  species  is  very  variable  in  colors  in  life.  The  cara- 
pace is  usually  irregularly  and  variously  mottled  with  olive-brown, 
olive-green,  or  reddish  brown  on  a  yellowish  green  or  light  olive 
ground  color,  in  most  cases  pretty  closely  imitating  the  varied  colors 
of  the  dead  algae  and  stained  stones  among  which  it  most  commonly 
lives. 

Miss  Rathbun,  who  has  examined  many  of  the  original  types, 
unites  several  nominal  species  with  this.  It  seems  to  be  distinct 
from  the  true  cinerea  and  angnstlpes,  with  both  of  which  it  has 
often  been  confused.  Probably  the  real  cinerea  does  not  occur  at 
Bermuda.* 

The  carapace  of  the  typical  variety  appears  neai'ly  smooth  to  the 
eve  over  most  of  the  surface,  but  under  a  lens  shows  minute 
sparse  granules  and  hairs,  which  become  more  evident  anteriorly  and 
on  the  front,  while  on  the  sides,  posteriorly,  there  are  faint  oblique 
plicae.  The  lateral  margins  ai"e  nearly  straight  or  only  slightly 
sinuous  ;  the  front  is  a  little  sinuous  on  the  edge  with  a  slight 
median  notch.     The  carapace  is  only  slightly  broader  than  long. 

Measurements  of  Bermuda  specimens. 


Num- 
ber 

Sex 

Carapace 

length 

Carapace 
breadth 

Front 
breadth 

ChelsB 
length 

Chelfe 
height 

a 

2 

17 

18 

10 

7 

4 

b 

5 

16 

17 

9 

12 

7.5 

c 

S 

14 

15 

8 

10 

6 

d 

6 

13 

13.5 

7 

9 

5.5 

e 

3 

14.5 

15 

7.5 

10 

6 

*  Dr.  Rankin   has  kindly  sent   me  for  examination   the  specimens   that   he 
recorded  (1900)  as  S.  cinerea.     They  prove  to  be  S.  Ricordi. 


328  A.  E.  Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda. 

This  is  one  of  the  most  common  species,  taken  by  nearl}'  all  col- 
lectors in  Bermuda.  It  is  often  seen  running  actively  about  among 
the  stones  and  dead  seaweeds,  from  low  tide  nearly  to  hitrh-water 
mark,  usually  associated  with  Pachi/grapsus  transversus.  It  may 
almost  always  be  found  under  masses  of  Sargassuni  cast  up  on  the 
shores  as  well  as  under  stones. 

Its  range  extends  from  Florida  through  the  West  Indies  to 
Trinidad. 


Sesarma  Ricordi,  var.  terrestris,  subspecies  or  var.  nov. 

Plate  XI,  Figure  3. 

This  form  first  attracted  my  attention  on  account  of  its  peculiar 
habits.  Unlike  most  Sesarmce,  it  lives  away  from  the  water,  often 
in  very  dry,  barren,  sandy  fields  or  pastures,  under  stones,  though  it 
was  also  found  not  far  from  the  shore  but  where  the  soil  was  dry. 
It  runs  very  rapidly  when  disturbed,  and  hides  in  holes  or  under 
other  stones,  but  does  not  seek  the  water.  Its  color  was  darker  than 
in  the  ordinary  form,  and  the  carapace  was  usually  more  or  less  cov- 
ered by  short  hairs  and  adherent  dirt,  obscuring  the  colors,  and  giving 
it  a  gray  appearance.  Although  so  different  in  appearance  and 
habits,  it  agrees  so  closely  in  form  and  structure  that  it  seems  to  be 
only  a  variety  that  has  acquired  terrestrial  habits,  with  trivial 
changes  adapting  it  better  for  this  mode  of  life.*  But  no  really 
intermediate  specimens  were  found.  Thus  it  seems  to  be  a  form  or 
subspecies  of  some  considerable  antiquity  and  constancy. 

The  carapace  appears  more  rough  and  uneven  than  in  the  ordinaiy 
form,  for  it  is  more  strongly  areolated  and  the  branchial  areas  are 
more  swollen,  so  that  the  vertical  thickness  is  greater  and  the  reticu- 
lated areas  of  the  sides  are  broader,  giving  a  larger  surface  for 
aeration  of  the  water,  and  indicating  larger  gill  cavities  and  gills. 
The  dorsal  surface  of  the  carapace  is  covered  with  more  numerous 
and  larger  granules,  bearing  numerous  short  dark  hairs,  very  evident 
under  a  lens  of  low  power,  and  capable  of  holding  adherent  dirt  : 
the  plicae  on  the  postero-lateral  sides  are  stronger  and  more  granu- 
lous  ;  the  lateral  marginal  edge  is  more  sinuous  anteriorly,  owing  to 
the  more  swollen  branchial  chamber.  The  anterior  frontal  margin 
is  less  sinuous,  the  median  indentation  often  being  obsolete  or  faint. 

*  The  specimens  have  also  been  studied  by  Miss  M.  J.  Eathbun,  who  agrees 
with  me  in  its  relations. 


A.  E.  Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda.  329 

The  ambulatory  legs  are  distinctly  larger  and  longer  than  in  the 
common  form.  When  the  legs  are  folded  the  tooth  on  the  distal 
angle  of  the  merus  joint  of  the  legs  of  the  3d  and  4th  pairs  reaches 
considerably  (2-3™'")  beyond  the  outer  orbital  angle,  while  in  Hicordi 
it  just  reaches  it,  or  only  slightly  exceeds  it  (.5™°'  or  less).  The 
proportion  of  the  merus  joints  of  these  legs  to  the  breadth  of  the 
carapace  is  1  :  1.36.  In  Ricordl,  1: 1.5.  Ratio  of  same  to  length  of 
carapace,  1:  1.2.     In  JRicordi,  1: 1.4. 

The  colors,  when  living,  appear  dull  or  sordid  yellowish  bi'own,  or 
mud-color,  due  to  adherent  dirt,  often  mottled  with  reddish  brown. 
Fresh  specimens  cleaned  in  alcohol  w^ere  variegated  with  pale  bluish 
gray,  dark  brownish  gray,  and  blackish,  with  some  yellowish  white  ; 
an  irregular  jjale  band,  speckled  witli  dark  gray,  extends  from  eye  to 
eye.  Legs  above  variegated  with  similar  colors,  but  paler,  the  dark 
brown  color  mostly  in  irregular  transverse  bands.  Chelae  w4iitisli  or 
pale  yellow  ;  legs  bluish  white  beneath.  Some  specimens  have  the 
carapace  finely'  specked  with  red. 


Measuretnents 

of  Bermuda 

specimens. 

Num- 
ber 

Sex 

Carapace 
length 

Carapace 
breadth 

Front 
breadth 

Chela3 
length 

Chelee 
breadth 

3148« 

$ 

18.0 

20.0 

11.0 

15 

8.5 

31486 

S 

16.0 

17.0 

9.0 

12 

7.0 

3148c 

s 

17.5 

18.5 

9.7 

10 

5.5 

d 

?• 

17.0 

19.0 

11.0 

10 

5.5 

e 

s 

13.5 

15.5 

8.0 

10 

7.0 

This  subspecies  is,  perhaps,  in  process  of  gradual  differentation, 
and  destined  to  eventually  become  a  valid  species  with  true  terres- 
trial habits  should  it  not  be  prematurely  exterminated.  At  present 
it  has  few  enemies.  It  lives  in  waste  uninhabited  places.  It  is  not 
uncommon  in  several  localities.  We  found  it  not  far  from  Hungr}"- 
Baj-;  on  the  low  barren  hills  of  some  of  the  smaller  islands  in  places 
partly  covered  with  sparse  grass  ;  and  in  other  localities. 

Several  good  specimens  in  the  Yale  Museum  were  collected  by 
J.  M.  Jones,  before  1867.  They  have  no  special  labels  as  to  seasons 
or  stations. 

This  variety  approaches  S.  cbterea  Say  in  some  characters  more 
nearly  than  does  the  common  form.  In  respect  to  the  granulation 
of  the  front  and  frontal  lobes,  the  specimens  of  S.  cinerea  in  the 
Yale  Museum,  from  Indian  River  and  St.  Augustine,  Fla.,  labelled 
as  S.  ciyierea  by  Miss  Rathbun,  and  which  I  have  compared  with  this 


330 


.1.  E.  Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda. 


form,  are  even  less  granulated.*     Indeed,  the  latter  are  scarcely  more 
granulated  than  the  ordinary  form  of  liicordi. 

However,  the  front  of  S.  clnerea  is  narrower  and  more  arched  than 
in  S.  liicordi ;  its  lower  margin  is  less  sinuous,  narrows  more  toward 
the  ends,  and  is  less  turned  up  at  the  edge,  so  that  it  is  less  concave 
above.  The  orbital  notch  is  not  so  deep.  Still  these  differences  are 
but  slight.  The  carapace  seems  to  be  slightly  less  convex.  The 
chelae  are  essentially  the  same  in  both,  and  the  carpal  joint  is 
roughened  in  the  same  way.  The  merus  joints  of  the  pereiopods 
are  about  equally  flattened  in  both;  the  brush  of  hairs  on  the  under 


Figure  8. — Sesarma  cinerea  (from  Florida),  slightly  enlarged.     Phot.  A.  H.  V. 

side  of  the  last  two  joints  is  nearly  the  same  in  both,  though  per- 
haps a  little  smaller,  and  with  shorter  hairs  in  aS.  cinerea.  The 
differences  are  so  slight  that  it  seems  not  improbable  that  S.  cinerea 
is  another  semiterrestrial  race  or  subspecies  that  has  been  derived 
from  S.  liicordi,  under  a  somewhat  different  environment.  In  fact, 
all  those  species  that  live  more  or  less  on  the  dry  land  or  in  trees 
(e.  g.,  S.  Moberti,  an  arboreal  West  Indian  species)  must  have  been 
originally  derived  from  amphibious  or  aquatic  species,  but  the  dif- 
ferentiation has  gone  farther  in  some  than  in  others.  Doubtless  they 
all  go  into  the  sea  to  breed,  and  probably  they  all  have  similar  zoea 
and  megalops  larval  stages. 

But  in  the  case  of  the  Bermuda  forms,  it  is  easy  to  believe  that 
they  have  acquired  different  breeding  habits  or  different  breeding 

*  In  Miss  Rathbun's  analytical  table  of  Sesarmce  (Synopsis  American  Sesarmae, 
Proc.  Biolog.  Soc.  Washington,  xi,  pp.  90,  91,  1897),  the  smoothness  of  the 
snprafrontal  lobes,  "  smooth  or  nearly  so,"  is  made  a  diagnostic  character  for  S. 
liicordi,  while  S.  cinerea.  is  pnt  in  a  group  having  the  suprafrontal  lobes 
"  tuberculate or  granulate, "and  in  a  subgroup  having  them  "  faintly  granulate." 
The  degree  of  granulation  seems  to  be  variable. 


A.  E.  Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda.  331 

seasons,  so  that  they  may  no  longer  interbreed.  It  is  also  probable 
that  the  young  crabs  of  var.  terrestrls,  when  they  quit  the  megalops 
stage  at  the  shore,  have  inherited  the  instinct  to  seek  the  uplands. 
A  careful  study  of  these  species  in  summer  might  settle  these  points. 

Sesarma  Miersii  Eathbiin. 

Sesanna  (Holometopus)  Miersii  M.  J.  Rathbun,  Synopsis  American  Sesarmae, 
Proc.  Biolog.  Soc.  Wash.,  xi,  p.  91,  1897  (descr.  and  synon.);  Branner- 
Agassiz  Exp.  to  Brazil,  p.  138,  1900.  Verrill,  these  Trans.,  vol.  x,  p.  574, 
1900. 

SesctDua  Stimpsoni  Miers,  Rep.  Voy.  Challenger,  Zool.,  xvii,  p.  270,  1886  (not 
of  1881). 

Plate  XII,  Figure  5. 

This  species  can  be  distinguished  from  the  preceding  by  the  tuber- 
culated  or  distinctly  granulated  protogastric  region  of  the  carapace, 
which  in  the  latter  is  nearly  smooth. 

Ordinary  mature  specimens  have  the  carapace  about  19"""  long 
and  21™"'  wide. 

Miss  Rathbun  refers  a  young  specimen,  collected  by  us  in  1898,  to 
this  species.     It  appears  to  be  very  rare  in  Bermuda, 

It  ranges  from  Bermudas  and  the  Bahamas  to  Rio  Janeiro,  Brazil, 
Rio  Parahyba  do  Norte  (Rathbun),  It  lives  mostly  among  the  roots 
of  mangroves, 

Cyclograpsus  integer  Edw. 

Cijclograpsus   integer  Milne-Ed w..    Hist.    Nat.    des   Crnst.,    ii,    p.    79,    1837. 
'     Kingsley,  Proc.   Acad.   Nat.  Sci.,  Philad.,  Carcinol.  Notes,  iv,  p.  221,  1880, 
Rankin,  Crust.  Bermuda,  p.  526,  1900.     M.  J.  Rathbun,  Brach.  and  Macr.  of 
Porto  Rico,  p.  18,  1901. 

Plate  XII,   Figure  1. 

This  species  is  easily  recognized  by  its  smooth  carapace,  with 
convex  sides.     It  is  very  rare  in  Bermuda, 

It  was  not  found  by  us,  nor  has  it  been  taken  by  any  recent 
collector.  A  single  specimen  in  the  collection  of  Mr,  Goode  was 
identified  as  this  species  by  Pi"of,  S,  I.  Smith,  The  same  one  was 
recorded  by  Rankin.  The  only  other  record  is  that  of  Heilprin, 
also  a  single  specimen.     It  sometimes  occurs  on  coral  reefs. 

It  ranges  from  Florida  to  Brazil,  and  throughout  the  West  Indies, 
Florida  (Kingsley)  ;  Porto  Rico  (Rathbun)  ;  Brazil  (M.-Edw.). 

Trans,  Conn.  Acad.,  Vol.  XIII,  34  Jan.,  1908, 


li 


332  A.  E.   Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda. 

Plagusia  depressa  (Fabr.)  Say. 

Cancer  depressus  Fabr.,  Eiit.  Syst.,  Supl..  p.  406,  1775. 

Plagusia  Sayi  DeKay,  N.  York  Fauna,  p.  Ifi.  Stimpson,  Notes  on  N.  Amer. 
Crnst.,  i,  p.  18  [64];  ii,  p.  104  1:^32]. 

Plagusia  depressa  Say,  Jouiii.  Acad.  Nat.  Sei.  Philad.,  i,  p.  100,  1817. 
Eathbun.  Dec.  Crust.  W.  Africa,  p.  281  (distribution).  Results  of  Branner- 
Agassiz  Exped.  to  Brazil,  Biolof^.  Soc.  Wash.,  ii,  p.  1:}8,  1900;  Brach.  and 
Macr.  Porto  Rico,  p.  1!»,  11)01.  Verrill,  these  Trans.,  vol.  x,  p.  575,  1000. 
Benedict,  Notice  Crust.  W.  Africa,  p.  5:58,  18!»:1 

Plagusia  squamosa  Dana  [non  Edw.).  Stimpson.  Crust.  N.  Pacific  Expl. 
Exp.,  Smithsonian  Misc.  Coll.,  xliv,  p.  122,  1007. 

Figure  0.     Plate  X,  Figure  1. 

When  full  grown  this  is  a  large  and  handsomely  colored  crab, 
remarkable  for  its  shyness  and  agilit3^  Its  colors,  which  are  variable, 
are  evidently  protective,  and  by  no  means  conspicuous  when  resting 


Figure  9. — Plagusia  depressa,  carapace  and  chelas  of  adult  male,  about  nat.  size. 
Phot.  A.  H.  Verrill. 

anions:  the  rouffh  and  stained  shore  ledsres  where  it  usually  lives. 
It  is  much  less  conspicuous  than  Grapstcs  (/rc(psus,  which  lives  in 
similar  situations. 

Some  large  specimens  had  a  grayish  or  yellowish  ground  color, 
mottled  and  spotted  with  brown  and  red  ;  the  spots  are  often  bright. 


A.  E.   Verrill—Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda.  333 

Measui'ements  of  Bermuda  specimens. 


No. 

Sex 

Carajjace 
length        breadth 

Front 
width 

length 

ChelEe 

height 

31 

i. 

51 

49.5 

34 

28 

13 

3158 

? 

45 

48 

,    21 

r.  18 

6 

879  F.  M. 

^ 

47 

50 

17 

1.  22 

11 

Sometimes  it  may  be  seen  running  with  great  rapidity  over  the 
rougli  ledges  and"  cliffs,  often  above  high-tide  mark,  in  the  same 
manner  as  Grcq^sus  grapsus,  but  it  is  even  more  alert,  and  swifter  in 
its  motions,  so  that  its  capture  is  difficult.  It  readily  takes  to  water 
when  pursued  and  swims  very  well. 

Although  not  rare,  it  has  occurred  in  but  few  Bermuda  collections, 
and  usually  singh',  owing  probably  to  the  difficulty  of  capturing  it. 

In  1898,  April  to  June,  we  found  it  common  oh  the  rough  shore 
ledges  between  tides  and  above  high-water  mark  at  Castle  Island, 
Baile}^  Bay,  and  other  localities,  where  also  its  recently  cast-off  shells 
were  often  found  considerably  above  high  tide,  as  they  had  been  left 
by  the  crabs.  In  1901,  at  the  same  season,  we  could  not  find  a  single 
specimen,  even  of  the  cast-off  shells,  at  the  same  localities,  or  else- 
where. Probably  the  species  had  been  greatly  reduced  in  numbers 
by  the  unusually  cold  period  in  the  preceding  February,  when  great 
quantities  of  the  native  fishes  also  perished.* 

It  was  represented  by  a  single  specimen  in  Mr.  Goode's  collection. 
It  was  also  taken  by  the  Field  Nat.  Hist.  Museum  expedition  in 
1905,  and  by  Prof.  T.  Kincaid,  1903.  A  small  specimen  is  also  in 
the  collection  of  the  Bermuda  Biological  Station,  1903. 

It  has  an  extensive  geographical  range.  On  the  Atlantic  coast  it 
ranges  from  South  Carolina  to  Brazil,  and  throughout  the  West 
Indies.  Pernambuco,  Brazil  (M.  J.  Rathbun).  On  the  eastern  side 
of  the  Atlantic  it  extends  from  the  Mediterranean  to  South  Africa. 
St.  Helena,  Ashantee  (Benedict).  Hong  Kong,  Benin  Is.,  Hawaiian 
Is.,  Loo  Choo  Is  ,  and  Madeira  (Stimpson). 

At  Woods  Hole,  Mass.,  a  single  specimen  was  taken  among  barna- 
cles from  the  bottom  of  a  vessel  that  had  just  arrived  from  Swan 
Island,  West  Indies,  Jl.  14,  1887.     (t.  S.  1.  Smith  in  MSS.) 

*  See  p.  320  above,  and  the  Bermuda  Islands,  i,  p.  94  [506],  1901. 


834  A.  E.  Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda. 

Percnon  planissimum  (Herbst),  M.  J.  Rathbnn.     Flat  Crab. 

Cancer  planissimus  Herbst,  Natiirh.  Krabb.,  p.  3,  pi.  lix,  fig.  3,  1804. 
Acanthopus  2)Ianissimus  Stimpson,  op.   eit  ,   p.    104   [242],    1860;  Crust.    N. 

Pacific  Expl.  Exp.,  Smithsonian  Misc.  Coll.,  xlix,  p.  123,  1870  (1907).  (descr. 

colors)  Bonin  Is. 
Acantho2ms  Gibhesii  Milne-Edw.,  Mel.  Carcin  ,  p.  146. 
Leiolophus  planissimus  Miers,  Catal.  Crust.  N.  Zealand,  p.  46,  1876. 
Percnon  planisnimum  Rathbnn,  Dec.  Crust.  W.  Africa,  Proc.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mns., 

xxii,   p.   281,  1000  ;  Brach.  and  Macr.    Porto  Rico,  p.   19,  1901.      Verrill, 

these  Trans.,  vol  x,  p.  575,  1900. 

Plate  X,    Figure  8.     Plate  XII.  Figure  4. 

Easily  recognizable  on  account  of  its  very  flat,  smooth  body,  and 
the  slits  in  the  front  and  in  the  eye-sockets.  Its  structure  is  admira- 
bly adapted  to  its  habit  of  living  in  the  confined  spaces  under  stones. 

In  life  the  carapace  is  usually  variegated  or  mottled  with  brown, 
pinkish  flesh-color  and  salmon  ;  there  is  generally  a  median  longitu- 
dinal stripe  of  bright  pale  blue  ;  the  legs  are  banded  with  reddish 
brown  and  light  ])ink.  Ventral  side  of  body  pale  blue  ;  of  legs 
pale  pink  (C.  S.  V.). 

One  female  taken  in  April,  1901,  carried  eggs  ;  also  one  taken  in 
midsummer,  by  Prof.  Kincaid. 

Measurements  of  Bermuda  specimens. 


Number 

Sex 

Carapace 
length          breadth 

Front 
width 

Ch 
length 

elae 

height 

80 

3 

25.5 

23.0 

12.5 

8.4 

3005 

? 

25.0 

24.0 

10 

9.0 

5.0 

3005a 

5 

20.0 

18.0 

8 

7.5r. 

■      5.0 



3 

20.0 

17.0 

6 

7 

4.0 

Figured 

? 

19.0 

16.5 

6 

5 

3.5 

The  chelae  are  feeble  in  the  females  but  large  in  the  males.  In  the 
males  the  two  are  unequal;  the  large  chela  has  a  large  and  long  tuft 
of  soft  hairs  on  inside  of  nierus. 

It  was  found  very  commonly  by  us  in  1898  and  1901,  on  many 
rocky  shores  under  stones  at  about  low-tide  level.  It  was  in  the 
collections  of  J.  M.  Jones  ;  G.  Brown  Goode  ;  Prof.  Kincaid,  1903  ; 
Field  Museum  E.vped.,  1905  ;  Bermuda  Biological  Station,  1903,  and 
others. 

It  is  widely  distributed  throughout  the  West  Indies  to  Brazil. 
Azores  :  Spain  ;  Madeira  ;  West  Africa  and  South  Africa  ;  Mauri- 
tius to  Japan,  and  Hawaiian  Is.,  Bonin  Is.  Cape  St.  Lucas  to  Chili 
(Rathbun).     Colon  (Yale  Mus.). 


A.  E.  Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda.  335 

Superfamily  or  tribe  CYCLOMETOPA^CANCROIDEA  (see  p.  14). 

Family  Pilumnid^. 

Key  to  the  Bermuda  gener^a  of  the  family  PilumnidcB* 

A.  The  ridges  that  define  the  efferent  branchial  channels,  if  present,  are  usually 
low  and  are  confined  to  the  posterior  part  of  endostome,   never 
reaching  to  anterior  boundary  of  buccal  cavern. 
B.   Fronto-orbital  border  less  than  half  the  greatest  width  of  carapace. 

C.  Antero-lateral  borders  of  carapace  sharp,  crest-like ;  upper  border  at  least 
of  arms,  and  of  fourth,  fifth,  and  sixth  segments  of  legs  sharp  and 

crest-like -.. Platypodia 

C.  Antero-lateral  borders  of  carapace  and  upper  borders  of  legs  not  crest - 
like 
D.   Antero-lateral  borders  divided  into  lobes  or  teeth. 

E.  Carapace  usually  conspicuously  lobulate,  graniilate,  and  hairy,  che- 

lipeds  and  legs  also  granulate  and  hairy Acto&a 

E'.  Carapace,  chelipeds,  and  legs  not  sharply  granulate  and  hairy. 

F.   Fingers  sharp-pointed,  not  hollowed Cycloxanthops 

F'.  Fingers  blunt-pointed,  hollowed  at  tip. Xanthodius 

B'.  Fronto-orbital  border  half  or  more  than  half  the  greatest  width  of  the 
carapace.     (True  of  American  species  of  Liomeva.) 
C.  Carapace  transversely  oval. 

D.  Ambulatory  legs  Avith  upper  margins  of  the  carpal  joint  bearing  a 

horned  or  lunate  crest . Heteractcea 

D'.  Ambulatory  legs  with  upper  margins  smooth  or  nearly  so. 

E.  Antero-lateral  teeth  strong,  greatly  projecting.      Carapace   deeply 

areolated Leptodius 

E'.  Antero-lateral  teeth  small,   little  projecting.     Carajjace  slightly  or 
not  at  all  areolated.     Carapace  without  transverse  granulated  lines. 

Fingers  somewhat  hollowed  at  tip Liomera 

C.  Carapace  more  or  less  hexagonal,  or  subquadrate. 
D.  Ambulatory  legs  spinulose. 
D'.  Ambulatory  legs  not  spinulose. 

F.  Front   of    moderate   width.     Postero-lateral  margins   not   strongly 

converging Eupanopeus 

A'.  The  ridges  that  define  the  efferent  branchial  channels  extend  to  anterior 
boundary  of  buccal  cavern  and  are  often  very  strong. 
B'.  Fronto-orbital  border  just  about  half  or  less  than  half  greatest  breadth  of 
carapace,  which  is  broad  and  transversely  oval. 
C.  The  basal  antennal  joint  does  not  nearly  reach  the  front. 
C.   The  basal  antennal  joint  reaches  the  front. 

D.  Anterior  margin  of  merus  of  outer  maxillipeds  not  notched. ^wrj/fmm 

*  This  table  is  taken  from  that  of  Miss  M.  J.  Eathbun  (Brachyura  and  Mac- 
rura  of  Porto  Rico),  with  some  alterations  and  omissions.  It  includes  two  addi- 
tional genera  {Heteractcea  and  Lobopilumnus). 


336  A.  E.  Terr  ill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda. 

B'.  Fronto-orbital  border  much  more  than  half  greatest  breadth  of  carapace. 

C.  Carapace  nodose ..  Lahopilumnus 

C.  Carapace  not  nodose. 

D.  Meiiis  of  external  maxillipeds  as  long  as  or  longer  than  broad. 

E.   Frouto-()rl)ital   border    about  two-thirds  greatest   breadth    of    cara- 
pace   - Pihimnus 

E'.  Fronto-orbital  border  much  more  than  two-thirds  greatest  breadth 
of    carapace ;  arm  scarcely  projecting   beyond   lateral   border   of 

carapace Eviphia 

D'.  Merus  of  external  maxillipeds  about  twice  as  broad  as  long.  .Domecia 

Platypodia  spectabilis  (Herbst)  Rathbun.     Calico  Crab;  Bandana  Crab. 

Cancer  sjjectabilis  Herbst,  Natur.  Krabb.,  ii,  15:5,  pi.  xxxvii,  f.  5,  1794. 

Cancer  lobafa  M.-Edw.,  Hist.  Nat.  Crust.,  i,  p.  375,  18o4. 

Attergatis  lobatus  Stimpson,  Ann.  Lye.   Nat.   Hist.   N.  York,  vol.  vii,  p.  202 

[74],  1860. 
Lophactaia  lobata  A.  M.-Edw.,  N.  Arch.  Mus.,   Mem.,  i,  p.  249,  pi.  xvi,  fig. 

3,  8a;  Miss.  Sci.  Max.,  p.  242,  1879.     Raukin,  op.  cit.,  p.  529,  1889. 
Cancer  vemistus  Desb.  &  Scramm.,  Crust.  Guadeloupe,  p.  23    {t.  A.  M.-Edw.). 
Platypodia  spectabilis  M.  J.  Rathbiin,    Amer.    Inst.  Jamaica,  i,  p.    13,   1897  ; 

Brachyura  and  Macrura  Porto  Rico,  p.  26,   1901.      Verrill,  Trans.  Conn. 

Acad.,  xi,  p.  17,  pi.  i,  fig.  2,  1901  (deser.  colors). 

Figure  10.     Plate  XIV,  Figure  6. 

This  is  a  small  and  rather  rare  species,  easily  distingiiisliable  by  the 
form  of  its  carapace  and  its  remarkable  coloration,  which  appears  to 
be  highly  protective  when  the  crab  lives  among  the  common  bright 


Figure  10.— Calico  Crab,  Flatupodia  spectabilis,  enlarged  about  1|  times.  After 
A.  M.-Edw. 

rod  and  orange-colored  sponges  (  Tedau'Ki  i</nls),  actinijc,  etc.,  with 
which  it  agrees  well  in  colors,  while  their  irregular  arrangement 
serves  to  break  up  the  outline  of  the  carapace. 


.   A.  E.  Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda.  337 

A  specimen  taken  in  Castle  Harbor,  near  VValsinghani  Bay,  May 
5,  1901,  had  the  colors  as  follows  :  Carapace  deep  orange  red,  vary- 
ing to  scarlet,  with  irregular  paired  spots  of  pale  orange,  concen- 
trically bordered  with  white  and  pnrplish  brown.  The  spots  are 
of  various  sizes  and  shapes  on  the  carapace,  the  larger  ones  often 
centered  with  smaller  spots  of  purplish  brown.  On  the  chelipeds 
and  legs  the  spots  become  transverse,  and  are  mostly  at  the  joints, 
and  larger  above  than  below.  Dactylus  and  thumb  black.  Sternum 
orange  with  margined  spots  at  the  bases  of  the  legs.  Abdomen 
with  two  large  spots  of  the  same  kind  beneath,  and  smaller  ones  on 
the  basal  segments.  Eye-stalks  pale  orange,  with  a  purplish  brown 
spot  on  the  upper  side. 

Our  largest  specimens  had  the  following  coloration  in  life  :  The 
carapace  was  bright  orange-red,  with  pale,  particolored,  broad,  irreg- 
ular streaks,  blotches,  and  angular  or  rounded,  often  ocellated  spots 
of  variable  sizes.  The  larger  patches  of  color  are  frequently  quite 
unsymmetrically  developed.  The  ocellated  spots  have  a  small  bright 
yellow  center,  surrounded  by  a  broad  circle  of  white,  which  is 
bordered  externally  with  bright  blue  and  enclosed  by  a  narrow 
black  line.  Sometimes  similar  but  smaller  ocellated  spots  occur  on 
the  larger  pale  blotches,  in  lines  and  groups,  or  singly,  while  others 
are  scattered  on  the  ground-color.  The  chelipeds  and  legs  are  simi- 
larly colored,  but  on  them  the  spots  mostly  take  the  form  of  half 
bands,  with  angular  patches  at  the  joints.  Claws  tipped  with  black. 
Small  specimens  are  paler.  (A.  H.  V.)  These  colors  soon  fade  in 
alcohol. 

Measurements  of  Bermuda  specimens. 


No. 

Sex 

Cai 
length 

apace 
breadth 

Front 
width 

length 

Chelae 

height 

4007 

6 

16 

24 

6 

(r.  13 
}  1.  14 

r.  8 
1.  8 

4008 

6 

13 

18 

5 

1.  11 

6 

4008a 

? 

9.5 

13 

4 

1.    6 

4 

This  handsome  species  is  rare  at  the  Bermudas.  It  occurs  among 
rocks  and  cavernous  corals,  sponges,  etc.  Sometimes  found  on  the 
reefs.  We  found  it  only  in  April,  1901  (five  specimens),  on  serpuline 
atolls,  near  Hungry  Bay;  Castle  Harbor,  etc.  (coll.  A.  H.  Verrill). 

A  single  specimen  occurred  in  the  collection  of  Mr.  Goode.  It 
was  taken  at  Hungry  Bay  by  the  Bermuda  Biol.  Station,  July,  1903. 

Several  specimens  were  also  taken  in  1906  by  A.  H.  Verrill  at 
Dominica  Island,  where  thej^  occurred  in  the  cavities  in  and  beneath 


338 


A.  E.  Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda. 


large  reef  corals.  It  has  been  recorded  from  Florida  and  through 
the  West  Indies  to  Brazil.  Fernando  de  Noronba  (Pocock).  Colon 
(Stimpson).     Porto  Rico  (Ratlibiiii). 

Actsea  setigera  (M.-Edw.)  A.  M.-Edw. 

Xantho  Si-tiger  M.-Edw.,  Hist.  Crust.,  i,  p.  390,  1834. 

Actcea  sefigera  A.  M.-Edw.,  Nouv.    Arch.   Mus.,  i,   p.   271,  pi.   xviii,   fig.  2, 

1865  ;  Miss.  Sci.  Mex.,  v,  p.  244,  1879.    Rantin,  op.  cit.,  p.  529, 1900.    M.  J. 

Rathbun,  Brach.  and  Macr.  Porto  Rico,  p.  34,  1901. 

Figure  11. 

While  living  this  small  crab  is  densely  covered  with  short  hairs  to 
which  fine  white  shell-mud  adheres,  often  effectually  concealing  it 
when  resting  on  the  bottom.  When  cleaned  the  color  is  reddish 
brown  to  purplish  red,  with  paler  legs.  The  carapace  and  legs  are 
closely  granulated  beneath  the  hairs  ;  the  dactylus  of  the  chelae  is 
deeply  grooved  and  hairy. 


Figure  11. — Hairy  Crab,  Actoea  setigera,  nat.  size.     Phot.  A.  H.  V 


Measurements  of  Bermuda  specimens. 


No. 

Sex 

Carapace 
length           breadth 

Front 
width 

812a 

$ 

19 

30 

6 

8126 

S 

12 

18 

4 

29a 

?i 

20 

29 

5 

Ob 

s 

21 

31 

5.7 

length 

16 
16 

r.  10 


r 
jl.  17 
jr.  15 


15 
16 


Chelae 

height 

9 
9 
5 
9.5 

8 
8 


It  occurs  in  shallow  water  bays  and  on  the  reefs.  Taken  by  nearly 
all  Bermuda  collectors.  Good  specimens  were  in  the  collection  of 
J.  M.  Jones  (812,  a,  b).  We  found  it  common  on  rocky  shores, 
usually  under  stones  or  in  crevices.     A  small  specimen  was  taken  on 


A.  E.  Verrill — Decapod  Crustacea  of  Bermuda.  339 

the  Challenger  Bank   in   28   fathoms,  by  the  party  from  the  Field 
Museum  Nat,  Hist.,  Oct.  1905. 

It  ranges  from  Florida  to  the  Lesser  Antilles.  It  is  common  in 
the  West  Indies,     Colon  (Yale  Mus.), 

Cycloxanthops  denticulatus  (White)  Eathbun. 

Xantho  denticulata  White,  Ann.  Mag.  Nat.  Hist.,  2d  s.,  ii,  p.  285,  1848 
(iron  Stimpson).  Smith,  Proc.  Boston  Soc.  Nat.  Hist.,  vol.  xii,  p.  274,  1869 
(descr.);  these  Trans.,  ii,  pp.  3  and  33,  1869  (Bermuda,  Colon,  and  Brazil). 
A.  M.-Ed\v.,  Miss.  Sci.  Mexico,  Crust.,  p.  252,  pi.  xlv,  figs.  2-26,  1879. 
Rankin,  op.  cit.,  p.  529,  1900. 

Cycloxanthops  denticulatus  M.  J.  Eathbun,  Ann.  Inst.  Jamaica,  i,  p.  14,  1897; 
Proc.  U.  S.  Nat.  Mus.,  xxi,  p.  590,  1898  ;  Proc.  Wash.  Acad.  Sci.,  ii,  p.  138, 
1900  ;  Brach.  and  Macr.  Porto  Eico,  p.  27,  1901. 

Plate  XIV,  Figure  8.     Plate   XXVII,  Figure  7. 

In  life  this  species  is  generally  some  shade  of  red,  purplish  red 
or  salmon,  "  Our  specimens  are  usually  reddish  salmon,  or  pink; 
on  the  front  part  of  the  carapace  there  is  often  a  red  spot.  Under 
surfaces  whitish,  with  some  pale  brown  spots  on  the  abdomen.  Chelae 
pinkish  broAvn,  their  tips  dark  brown  or  nearly  black."     (C.  S.  V.) 

The  carapace  of  an  unusually  large  specimen  from  Brazil,  was 
16.6'^""  long,  by  26. S-"-"  broad  ;  ratio,  1  :  1.6.     (Smith.) 

Measurements  of  Bermu